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been shown to reveal non-destructively incipient weaknesses in insulation

which could not otherwise be found, except possibly by partial discharge


detection at non-destructive AC test voltage levels.
The technique involves the application of two or more DC voltages, and
critically observing any reduction of insulation resistance at the higher
voltage. Any marked or unusual reduction in insulation resistance for a
prescribed increase in applied voltage is an indication of incipient weaknessThe technique involves the application
of two or more DC voltages, and
critically observing any reduction of insulation resistance at the higher
voltage. Any marked or unusual reduction in insulation resistance for a
prescribed increase in applied voltage is an indication of incipient weakness.
It is important to mention that the merits of this technique arise from more
recent investigations which indicate that rather high DC voltage can be used
to detect weaknesses without damaging the insulation. The maximum value
of voltage which should be used will depend largely on the cleanliness and
recent investigations which indicate that rather high DC voltage can be used
to detect
detection at non-destructive AC test voltage levels.
The technique involves the application of two or more DC voltages, and
critically observing any reduction of insulation resistance at the higher
voltage. Any marked or unusual reduction in insulation resistance for a
prescribed increase in applied voltage is an indication of incipient weakness.
recent investigations which indicate that rather high DC voltage can be used
to detect weaknesses without damaging the insulation. The maximum value
of voltage which should be used will depend largely on the cleanliness and
which could not otherwise be found, except possibly by partial discharge
detection at non-destructive AC test voltage levels.
The technique involves the application of two or more DC voltages, and
critically observing any reduction of insulation resistance at the higher
voltage. Any marked or unusual reduction in insulation resistance for a
prescribed increase in applied voltage is an indication of incipient weakness.
It is important to mention that the merits of this technique arise from more
recent investigations which indicate that rather high DC voltage can be used
to detect weaknesses without damaging the insulation. The maximum value
of voltage which should be used will depend largely on the cleanliness and
dryness of the insulation to be tested.
In making tests on insulation at such DC voltages, the ohmmeter method detection at non-destructive AC test
voltage levels.
The technique involves the application of two or more DC voltages, and
critically observing any reduction of insulation resistance at the higher
voltage. Any marked or unusual reduction in insulation resistance for a
prescribed increase in applied voltage is an indication of incipient weakness.
It is important to mention that the merits of this technique arise from more
recent investigations which indicate that rather high DC voltage can be used
to detect weaknesses without damaging the insulation. The maximum value
of voltage which should be used will depend largely on the cleanliness and
dryness of the insulation to be tested.
In making tests on insulation at such DC voltages, the ohmmeter method
has at least two advantages. First, prescribed fixed voltages are switched
detection at non-destructive AC test voltage levels.
The technique involves the application of two or more DC voltages, and
critically observing any reduction of insulation resistance at the higher
voltage. Any marked or unusual reduction in insulation resistance for a
prescribed increase in applied voltage is an indication of incipient weakness.
It is important to mention that the merits of this technique arise from more
recent investigations which indicate that rather high DC voltage can be used
to detect weaknesses without damaging the insulation. The maximum value
of voltage which should be used will depend largely on the cleanliness and
dryness of the insulation to be tested.
In making tests on insulation at such DC voltages, the ohmmeter method
has at least two advantages. First, prescribed fixed voltages are switched
has at least two advantages. First, prescribed fixed voltages are switched
into use, and one instrument measurement made with the direct reading
ohmmeter. This is a simple and reproducible method compared to one in
which many choices of voltage are available. Another important advantage
A STITCH IN TIME 43

of the ohmmeter can be explained by referring to Fig. 21. In this figure, the
change which may occur in leakage current after the absorption current has
disappeared is shown plotted in terms of insulation resistance against three
different voltages. Note that there is no change in resistance shown in the
figure between 500 and 1000 volts, indicating no change in the insulation
as a result of applying these two voltages. This is an assumption, but is a
condition which is not uncommon in practice. If the insulation continues to
be stable at 2500 volts, there will be no change in the insulation resistance
value obtained, which is shown by the dotted extension of the horizontal
line in the figure. When non-linear conditions appear at a higher voltage, the
voltage resistance curve reveals this very clearly by a lower resistance value,
indicated by the downward curve in the figure. The figure, therefore, reveals
the simplicity of determining the change in insulation stability by using three
fixed voltages which are easily reproducible when making three-voltage tests
on a routine basis.
Figure 21

We wish to emphasize that the curve in Fig. 21 indicates the resistance


change due to leakage current only, and not the absorption current which
may appear for a period of time with each change in voltage. It may be
necessary to wait an appreciable amount of time after each voltage change
for the absorption current to disappear before taking a reading.
44 A STITCH IN TIME

Values of Log10 been shown to reveal non-destructively incipient weaknesses in insulation


which could not otherwise be found, except possibly by partial discharge
detection at non-destructive AC test voltage levels.
The technique involves the application of two or more DC voltages, and
critically observing any reduction of insulation resistance at the higher
voltage. Any marked or unusual reduction in insulation resistance for a
prescribed increase in applied voltage is an indication of incipient weakness.
It is important to mention that the merits of this technique arise from more
recent investigations which indicate that rather high DC voltage can be used
to detect weaknesses without damaging the insulation. The maximum value
of voltage which should be used will depend largely on the cleanliness and
dryness of the insulation to be tested.
In making tests on insulation at such DC voltages, the ohmmeter method
has at least two advantages. First, prescribed fixed voltages are switched
into use, and one instrument measurement made with the direct reading
ohmmeter. This is a simple and reproducible method compared to one in
which many choices of voltage are available. Another important advantage
A STITCH IN TIME 43

of the ohmmeter can be explained by referring to Fig. 21. In this figure, the
change which may occur in leakage current after the absorption current has
disappeared is shown plotted in terms of insulation resistance against three
different voltages. Note that there is no change in resistance shown in the
figure between 500 and 1000 volts, indicating no change in the insulation
as a result of applying these two voltages. This is an assumption, but is a
condition which is not uncommon in practice. If the insulation continues to
be stable at 2500 volts, there will be no change in the insulation resistance
value obtained, which is shown by the dotted extension of the horizontal
line in the figure. When non-linear conditions appear at a higher voltage, the
voltage resistance curve reveals this very clearly by a lower resistance value,
indicated by the downward curve in the figure. The figure, therefore, reveals
the simplicity of determining the change in insulation stability by using three
fixed voltages which are easily reproducible when making three-voltage tests
been shown to reveal non-destructively incipient weaknesses in insulation
which could not otherwise be found, except possibly by partial discharge
detection at non-destructive AC test voltage levels.
The technique involves the application of two or more DC voltages, and
critically observing any reduction of insulation resistance at the higher
voltage. Any marked or unusual reduction in insulation resistance for a
prescribed increase in applied voltage is an indication of incipient weakness.
It is important to mention that the merits of this technique arise from more
recent investigations which indicate that rather high DC voltage can be used
to detect weaknesses without damaging the insulation. The maximum value
of voltage which should be used will depend largely on the cleanliness and
dryness of the insulation to be tested.
In making tests on insulation at such DC voltages, the ohmmeter method
has at least two advantages. First, prescribed fixed voltages are switched
into use, and one instrument measurement made with the direct reading

ohmmeter. This is a simple and reproducible method compared to one in


which many choices of voltage are available. Another important advantage
A STITCH IN TIME 43

of the ohmmeter can be explained by referring to Fig. 21. In this figure, the
change which may occur in leakage current after the absorption current has
disappeared is shown plotted in terms of insulation resistance against three
different voltages. Note that there is no change in resistance shown in the
figure between 500 and 1000 volts, indicating no change in the insulation
as a result of applying these two voltages. This is an assumption, but is a
condition which is not uncommon in practice. If the insulation continues to
be stable at 2500 volts, there will be no change in the insulation resistance
value obtained, which is shown by the dotted extension of the horizontal
line in the figure. When non-linear conditions appear at a higher voltage, the
voltage resistance curve reveals this very clearly by a lower resistance value,
indicated by the downward curve in the figure. The figure, therefore, reveals
the simplicity of determining the change in insulation stability by using three
fixed voltages which are easily reproducible when making three-voltage tests

D
d
Values continued on next page.
A.W.G.
or C.M.
INSULATION THICKNESS INCHES
.047 .063 .078 .094 .109 .125 .141 .156 .172 .188 .203 .219 .234
14
12
10
86
Sol.
Str.
.392
.334
.283
.239
.470
.405
.348
.296
.225
.537
.467
.404
.347
.267
.594
.520
.453
.392
.305
.645
.568
.498
.432
.340
.691
.611
.538
.470
.373
.732
.651
.575
.505
.403
.770
.686
.609
.537
.431
.804
.720
.641
.566
.453
.836
.751
.670
.594
.483
.866
.779
.698
.621
.506
.894

.806
.723
.645
.529
.921
.832
.748
.669
.550
54321
1/0
.206
.187
.171
.155
.139
.126
.245
.224
.204
.186
.168
.152
.281
.257
.236
.215
.195
.177
.314
.289
.265
.243
.220
.201
.346
.318
.293
.269
.244
.223
.373
.345
.318
.293
.267
.244
.401
.371
.343
.316
.288
.264
.426
.395
.366
.338
.309
.284
.450
.418
.388
.359
.328
.302
.463
.440
.409
.379
.347
.320
.495
.460
.429
.398
.365
.337
.515
.480
.448
.416
.382
.354
2/0
3/0
4/0
250,000
300,000
.114
.102
.0923
.0854

.0787
.138
.125
.113
.104
.0963
.161
.146
.132
.123
.113
.183
.166
.151
.140
.130
.204
.185
.168
.157
.145
.223
.204
.187
.173
.160
.242
.221
.202
.189
.175
.261
.238
.218
.204
.189
.278
.255
.233
.218
.203
.295
.271
.248
.232
.216
.311
.286
.262
.246
.229
.327
.301
.276
.259
.250
350,000
400,000
500,000
600,000
700,000
.0731
.0688
.0620
.0897
.0845
.0763
.0700
.0686
.106
.0995
.0901
.0853
.0769
.121
.114
.103
.0952
.0888
.136
.128
.116
.107
.100
.150
.142
.129
.119
.111
.164
.155
.141

.130
.122
.177
.168
.153
.141
.133
.190
.181
.165
.152
.143
.203
.193
.176
.163
.153
.215
.204
.187
.173
.163
.227
.216
.198
.183
.172
750,000
800,000
900,000
1,000,000
1,250,000
.0665
.0644
.0580
.0551
.0500
.0749
.0727
.0687
.0656
.0590
.0861
.0836
.0793
.0755
.0681
.0971
.0943
.0895
.0851
.0770
.108
.105
.0994
.0948
.0856
.118
.115
.108
.104
.0943
.129
.125
.120
.113
.103
.139
.135
.128
.122
.111
.148
.144
.137
.131
.119
.157
.154
.146
.140
.127
.167
.163
.155
.148
.134
1,500,000
1,750,000
2,000,000
2,500,000
.0456

.0423
.0397
.0357
.0541
.0502
.0472
.0425
.0625
.0581
.0546
.0492
.0708
.0658
.0619
.0558
.0789
.0734
.0691
.0623
.0870
.0810
.0761
.0687
.0946
.0899
.0830
.0750
.102
.0954
.0898
.0812
.110
.103
.0965
.0874
.116
.110
.103
.0934
.125
.117
.108
.0993
A STITCH IN TIME 45

Values of Log10
D
d
A.W.G.
or C.M.
INSULATION THICKNESS INCHES
.250 .266 .281 .297 .313 .328 .344 .359 .375 .391 .407 .422 .438
14
12
10
86
Sol.
Str.
.945
.856
.771
.691
.570
.793
.712
.590
814
.731
.608
.834
.751
.626
.853
.770
.643
.871
.787
.660
.889
.804
.676
.906
.821
.699
.922
.836
.706
.851
.720
.866
.734
.880

.746
.894
.760
54321
.535
.500
.466
.433
.399
.554
.517
.483
.450
.415
.572
.535
.500
.466
.431
.589
.551
.516
.482
.445
.606
.568
.532
.497
.461
.622
.583
.547
.512
.474
.637
.598
.562
.526
.487
.652
.613
.576
.540
.501
.667
.625
.589
.553
.513
.680
.640
.603
.565
.525
.694
.653
.615
.578
.538
.707
.666
.628
.590
.549
.720
.678
.640
.602
.561
1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
250,000
.369
.342
.315
.289
.272
.385
.356
.329
.302
.284
.399
.370
.342
.315
.296
.414
.384
.355

.327
.309
.428
.397
.367
.339
.320
.441
.410
.380
.351
.331
.454
.422
.392
.362
.342
.466
.435
.403
.373
.352
.479
.446
.414
.384
.363
.491
.458
.425
.395
.373
.502
.469
.436
.405
.383
.514
.480
.447
.415
.392
.525
.490
.457
.425
.402
300,000
350,000
400,000
500,000
600,000
.254
.239
.227
.208
.193
.266
.250
.236
.218
.203
.278
.262
.249
.228
.212
.289
.272
.259
.238
.221
.300
.283
.269
.248
.230
.310
.293
.279
.257
.239
.321
.303
.289
.266
.248
.331
.313
.298
.275
.256

.341
.323
.308
.284
.265
.351
.332
.317
.292
.273
.360
.341
.326
.301
.281
.369
.350
.334
.309
.289
.379
.359
.343
.317
.297
700,000
750,000
800,000
900,000
1,000,000
.181
.176
.172
.164
.157
.191
.185
.180
.172
.165
.199
.194
.189
.180
.173
.209
.203
.198
.189
.181
.217
.211
.206
.196
.189
.225
.220
.214
.204
.196
.234
.228
.222
.212
.203
.242
.236
.230
.219
.211
.250
.243
.237
.227
.218
.258
.251
.245
.234
.225
.266
.259
.252
.242
.232
.273
.266
.260
.249
.239
.281
.273

.267
.255
.245
1,250,000
1,500,000
1,750,000
2,000,000
2,500,000
.142
.132
.123
.116
.105
.150
.139
.130
.122
.111
.157
.146
.136
.128
.117
.165
.153
.143
.135
.122
.172
.159
.149
.141
.128
.179
.166
.155
.145
.134
.186
.172
.162
.153
.139
.192
.179
.168
.159
.144
.199
.185
.174
.164
.150
.206
.190
.180
.170
.156
.212
.197
.185
.176
.160
.219
.204
.191
.181
.165
.225
.210
.197
.187
.170
46 A STITCH IN TIME

To better understand the technique of making insulation resistance tests at


two or more voltages, the following steps are suggested, using an industrial
or traction motor classed in the 300- to 1000-volt range as an example:
1. Make a one-minute Megger instrument test at 500 volts to serve as a basis
of comparison for subsequent steps.
2. After a careful cleaning operation make a second 500-volt test to
determine the effectiveness of the cleaning.
3. If the one-minute insulation resistance value is subnormal, or if the 60
second/30 second insulation resistance ratio is no greater than one at this
point then a drying operation may be desirable before using a higher
test voltage. However, making another test at 1000 volts and comparing
these readings with those from the 500-volt test will help in determining
the need for drying. If the 1000-volt test value is appreciably less than

that at 500 volts, then a drying operation should be performed. On the


other hand, if the 1000-volt and 500-volt test values are approximately
the same, it is reasonable to assume that the decision to perform a drying
operation can be deferred until after the next step.
4. Make a Megger instrument test at 2500 volts. If there is no appreciable
difference in the 500- and 2500-volt test values, good evidence exists that
the motor in question is in reliable condition as far as its insulation is
concerned. On the other hand, if there is an appreciable difference in the
two, there is good evidence that more thorough reconditioning is called
for. If the insulation fails under the 2500-volt test, after following steps 1,
2 and 3, we believe there is a likelihood that the motor in question would
fail in service even though an attempt were made to recondition it on the
basis of low-voltage tests only.
The multi-voltage method can also be helpful in determining the presence
of excessive moisture in the insulation of equipment rated at voltages
equivalent to or greater than the highest voltage available from the multivoltage
Megger instrument being used. In other words, even though the
highest Megger instrument voltage available does not stress the insulation
beyond its rating, a two-voltage test can, nevertheless, often reveal the