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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)

Volume 6, Issue 10, Oct 2015, pp. 55-59, Article ID: IJMET_06_10_007
Available online at
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=6&IType=10
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
IAEME Publication

A STUDY OF MARINE BIODIVERSITY:


MACROBENTHOS IN ARABIAN GULF
P. S. Sridhar
Professor, Marine Engineering, AMET University
Bhoopathy Bhaskaran
Professor-Marine Engineering, AMET University
ABSTRACT
Biological diversity examines to study the habitats of the earth and marine
environment which has a greater extent covers the oceans and soft sediment
habitats. It helps us to find the associated terrestrial systems, and knowledge
of marine biodiversity. Habitats are holding an assorted arrangement of
macrobenthic communities which plays important roles in ecosystem
processes like reprocess the nutrients, detoxifying pollutants and less
important construction. It is the most developing aspects to understand about
the biodiversity in marine and anthropogenic impacts which affects the
habitats in order to effectively integrate the preservation procedures. The
Arabian Gulf and Bahrain are normally higher since it has higher
temperatures related with more evaporation rate. Even though macrobenthos
in the Arabian Gulf and Bahrain are set apart the higher stages of biodiversity
in which they are prominent by low down species richness since the
environmental situation will be the high levels of salinity and heat. This survey
helps us to understand and performed using various sampling and processing
methods, a normal pattern of reduction in diversity and abundance of
macrobenthos could be detected.
Key words: Marine Biodiversity, Macrobenthos, Conservation.
Cite this Article: P. S. Sridhar and Bhoopathy Bhaskaran, A Study of Marine
Biodiversity: Macrobenthos In Arabian Gulf, International Journal of
Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 6(10), 2015, pp. 55-59.
http://www.iaeme.com/currentissue.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=6&IType=10

1. INTRODUCTION
In last few years the decades are connected to terrestrial systems, and understanding
of marine biodiversity cover behind land systems. 70% of the earth covered by the
oceans, on other side the soft sediment habitats covers the bottom of marine
surroundings. In addition, organisms supply food for human beings which is
considered as an important resource and food for fishes and birds in the world.

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A Study of Marine Biodiversity: Macrobenthos In Arabian Gulf

Human behavior is the most important and current changes to marine biological
diversity in coastal and subtidal regions. The Arabian Gulf is a partially sea situated in
the subtropical zone and set apart by the low rainfall. The normal depth of the Arabian
Gulf is 35 m, and whole of its substrate lies within the photic zone. Bahrain is an
archipelago composite of 37 islands situate in the Arabian Gulf and the whole region
of Bahrain is about 762 km2. in spite of the inadequate region of Bahrain, waters
about its islands maintain a assortment of coastal and mangrove swamps, and sand
flats are the marine inhabitats. The higher stages of salinity and surface temperature
are the most important nature in the Arabian Gulf. Salinities in the region of Bahrain
are normally higher because it has effects of more heat or warmth related with higher
evaporation rates. In addition, the anthropogenic effects could arguably be crucial for
biodiversity and abundance of macrobenthos which inhabits the nature strained
marine surroundings of the Arabian Gulf, which is the most anthropogenically
impression area in the world.

2. ARABIAN GULFS MACROBENTHOS BIODIVERSITY


Macrobenthos are for the most part collected of polychaetes, crustaceans, molluscs,
and many other taxonomic groups. Polychaetes takes place in every benthic marine
sediments in which they are the dominant part of macrobenthos in conditions of
number of. Likewise, crustaceans and molluscs comprise a diverse taxonomic cluster
which inhabits the important marine habitats. Biodiversity and circulation of marine
macrobenthos are subjective by the sediment type, heat, salinity, key output, deepness
and physical interruption. The Arabian Gulf is occupied by sand and mud,
macrobenthos form the greater and a good number in marine ecosystem where 97% is
the bottom substrate. Certainly, mudflats are the most important beneficial marine
habitats on the southern shore of the Arabian Gulf. Normally, the studies of softsediment macrobenthic grouping in tropical coastal and marine environment which
includes the Arabian Gulf. This study helps us to understand the need of the discovery
of organisms, which is embarrassed by time, costs and the shortages of trained
taxonomists. Although, much number of species were traced for comparison.
Lessening in both species number and abundance could be first and foremost qualified
to the environmental disgrace due to escalated anthropogenic activities in the Arabian
Gulf.

3. MACROBENTHOS EFFECTS
3.1 RECOVERY AND DREDGING
The main objective of the housing, recreational, and economic projects, which related
with intensive dredging and reclamation actions are takes place in the Bahraini coastal
and marine environments. At present, reclamation behavior have found and
representing a higher percentage of the whole land region. Coastal reclamation is
usually takes place in Bahrain to meet the require of fast coastal developments. In
Bahrain, dredging and reclamation are the most important actions which cause the
straight removal and burial of macrobenthic groupings in the coastal and marine
environments. Hence, biodiversity and profusion of macrobenthos are majorly affects
the mortality and suffocating connected with dredging and reclamation aspects.

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H. Aravinth and Dr. J. Rengamani

3.2 INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS


Bahrain is the most important industrial growth region which focuses the segment of
oil refining, aluminum and petrochemical industries. Numerous organization and
industrial companies generating the effluents which contain the hydrocarbons, and
profound metals. The companies effluents cause the issuses on macrobenthic
groupings which involves changing the composition of the community structure,
greater the numbers of species, decreasing the normal biodiversity.

3.3 SEWAGE SET FREE


The main sources of coastal pollution in Bahrain are Sewage effluents. Numerous
plants differing the size and degree of treatment which discharge the effluents to the
coastal and subtidal regions in Bahrain. Tubli Water Pollution Control Centre is the
noted one which discharges around 160,000 m3 day-1 of treated effluents into the
shallow water of Tubli Bay. And those effluents are differentiating the highsuspended solid reaching up to 290 FTU. The Tubli Water Pollution Control Centre is
the most important sewage treatment plant in Bahrain which changes in macrobenthic
community structure related with temperate organic improvement. And they represent
the species prosperity, abundance and biomass.

3.4 OIL POLLUTION


Arabian Gulf is measured to be the largest preserve of oil in the world. Therefore,
Bahrain is beneath an enduring the threat from oil associated pollution. Main sources
of oil fall are offshore oil wells, submarine pipelines, oil tanker incidents, oil
terminals, loading and handling functions. Generally, Bahraini ports and oil terminals
are at high risk of major oil spill incidents. Normally the oil pollution occurs during
the proportion of hydrocarbon-sensitive species, specifically crustaceans, in the
affected community. In this paper we can signify the macrobenthic invertebrate
groupings which respond to stern oil pollution with early massive mortality and
lowered community diversity followed by fluctuations in population of opportunistic
species.

4. IMPORTANT CONSERVATION METHODS OF


MACROBENTHOS
4.1 MARINE PREVENTED REGIONS
Marine prevented regions could be distributed efficiently for both preservation and
conservation of genetic features, species, habitats and cultural biodiversity in marine
atmosphere. Marine prevented locations in Bahrain consider being the protection and
prevention in macrobenthos diversity. Numerous nations use mudflats in Ras-Sand as
to give food and roosting grounds which indicates the prevented mudflat and its a
productive ecosystem, and macrobenthic groupins inhabiting the regions supplies
food resources for bird. Therefore, the lack of management projections for the
Bahraini prevented regions may replicate the goal of the conservation. The Biological
Diversity convention needs the contracting groups creates a Strategy and Action Plan
to conserve the macrobenthos.

4.2 CONSERVATION OF CONNECTED ECOSYSTEMS


The conversation of associated ecosystem helps us to study about the other
ecosystems like seagrass, mangroves and coral reefs are the fundamental components

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A Study of Marine Biodiversity: Macrobenthos In Arabian Gulf

to preserve macrobenthos in Bahrain. Finally, the shallowness of the Arabian Gulf is


broad series of its bottom is covered with seagrass beds. They are the greatly
productive ecosystems which could provide the important ecological and economical
functions and they supply a productivity of fisheries and give food sources.
Environmental legislations associated to biodiversity in Bahrain are the bottom stage
of national commandment as well as regional and international contract. On a national
scale, there are numerous regulations with esteem to surroundings, laws of fishing and
utilization and development of marine resources, prevention of wildlife, atmosphere
quality standards for wastewater effluents. This method helps the nation to prevent the
biodiversity and support the sustainable utilization of environmental resources which
can be straightly or indirectly supplied to the prevention of macrobenthos habitats and
related ecosystems.

5. CONCLUSION
Worldwide, coastal and marine surroundings maintain and sustain a diverse
arrangement of macrobenthic communities which plays the most important tasks in
ecosystem processes and supply various ecological and economic services.
Macrobenthic group form the biggest and important diverse marine ecosystem in the
Arabian Gulf. Therefore, groupings inhabit the harshest marine environments because
it has clear variations in sea temperatures and salinity higher. In addition, the
anthropogenic effects can be crucial for biodiversity and abundance of macrobenthos
which inhabits the nature and marine surroundings. In this paper, we can study about
the macrobenthos in the Arabian Gulf indicates the anthropogenic pollution and
habitat degradation and destruction reduced biodiversity. Protecting and safeguarding
the genetic, species, and habitat biodiversity in the marine surroundings are most
important thing. Various safety steps to prevent from the biodiversity of
macrobenthos in Bahrain. Dredging and reclamation on macrobenthos are the most
preferable effects in EIA studies and recommending the safety steps to omit or
decrease the adverse impacts which preserve the sensitive and productive mudflat
habitats in Bahrain.

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