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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

Worked solutions Unit 3A


Content

Fairground physics.....................................................................2
Power distribution and generation...............................................3
Chapter 1 Analysing motion........................................................3
1.1 Projectile motion............................................................................................. 3
1.2 Circular motion in a horizontal plane..............................................................3
1.3 Circular motion in a vertical plane..................................................................3
1.4 Vectors and free-body diagrams.....................................................................3
1.5 Motion in a straight line..................................................................................3
1.6 Energy and momentum.................................................................................. 3
Chapter 1 Review.................................................................................................. 3

Chapter 2 Applying forces...........................................................3


2.1 Gravitational fields.......................................................................................... 3
2.2 Satellite motion............................................................................................... 3
2.3 Torque............................................................................................................. 3
2.4 Equilibrium...................................................................................................... 3
Chapter 2 Review.................................................................................................. 3

Chapter 3 Understanding electromagnetism.................................3


3.1 Magnetic fields................................................................................................ 3
3.2 Force on current-carrying conductors.............................................................3
3.3 Electric motors................................................................................................ 3
3.4 Electric fields in circuits..................................................................................3
3.5 Electric circuits............................................................................................... 3
Chapter 3 Review.................................................................................................. 3

Chapter 4 Generating electricity..................................................3

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


4.1 Magnetic flux and induced currents................................................................3
4.2 Induced EMF: Faradays law............................................................................3
4.3 Electric power generation............................................................................... 3
4.4 Transformers................................................................................................... 3
4.5 Distributing electricity.................................................................................... 3
Chapter 4 Review.................................................................................................. 3

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

Fairground physics
E1

v2
r
v [(0.0200 9.80)(3.00)]

r (6.00 2) m

ac

g 9.80 m s 2

v 7.67 101 m s 1

ac 0.0200 g
E2
E3

A. Inside column, as a smaller distance is covered in the same time period, which means that the
centripetal force is less on the small child
Outside column, as a greater distance is covered in the same time period, which means that the
centripetal force will be greater on the older child.

E4

ac 0.0500 9.80 m s -2

Fc mac

m (20.0 50.0) kg

Fc (70.0)(4.90 101 )
Fc 3.43 101 N
Fattachment (3.43 101 ) 12
Fattachment 4.12 10 2 N

E5

mv 2
r
(60.0)(4.00) 2

(5.00)

b -

Fc wall on rider

m 60.0 kg

Fc wall on rider

r 5.00 m

Fc wall on rider 1.92 10 2 N towards the centre

v 4.00 m s 1
E6

b awall on rider 2.00 g


r 10.0 m

v2
r
v ac wall on rider r

ac wall on rider

v (2 9.80)(10.0) 196
v 4.47 101 m s 1
v 14 m s 1
1.4 101 m s 1

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


E7

m 1.00 103 kg

Fdown track mg cos

g 9.80 m s 2

Fdown track (1.00 10 3 )(9.80) cos40o

50.0o

Fdown track 7.51 10 3 N down the slope

Fdown slope 500.0 N

Fdown slope mg cos

E8

g 9.80 m s 2

60.0o
E9

(500.0)
(9.80) (cos60o)

m 1.02 10 2 kg

hy 50.0 m

Ek, gain Ep, lost

g 9.80 m s 2

1
2

mv 2 mg hy
v 2 g hy
v 2(9.80)(50.0)
v 3.13 101 m s 1

E10

hy (75.0 62.0) m

Efriction Ep,start Ep,end mg hy

g 9.80 m s 2

Efriction mg hy

m 900.0 kg

Efriction (900.0)(9.80)(13.0)
Efriction 1.15 105 J

E11

v 100.0 km h 1
v 27.78 m s 1
g 9.80 m s 2

Ek,gain Ep,lost
1
2

mv 2 mg hy
hy
hy

v2
2g

(27.78)2
2(9.80)

hy 3.94 101 m
E12 Same maximum speed, as the mass of the car and riders cancels out of the equation.

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


E13

v 19.0 m s 1

Ep,gain Ek,lost

g 9.80 m s 2

mg h 12 mv 2
h

v2
2g

(19.0) 2
2(9.80)

h 1.84 101 m
E14

100.0%90.0%81.0%72.9%65.6%59.0%

E15

v 6.00 m s 1
g 9.80 m s 2

mv 2
2 mg
r
v 2 (6.00)2
r

2 g 2(9.80)
r 1.84 m

E16

r 10.0 m
g 9.80 m s 2

mv 2
1.5 mg
r
v 1.5rg (1.50)(10.0)(9.80)
v 1.21101 m s 1

E17

v 15.0 m s 1
m 1.00 103 kg
r 20.0 m

mv 2
r
(1.00 103 )(15.0) 2
Fc
(20.0)
Fc

Fc 1.13 104 N

E18 A 2.00g ride can be created if the accelerating force is vertical as opposed to horizontal, for
example a 2.00g force can be experienced at the bottom of a curve.
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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


E19

rsmall 2.00 m
vsmall 0.500 m s

Fc, total Fc, small Fc, large


1

Fc, total

2
mvsmall 2 mvlarge

rsmall
rlarge

(50.0)(0.500)2 (50.0)(2.00) 2

(2.00)
(10.0)

rlarge 10.0 m

Fc, total

vlarge 2.00 m s 1

Fc, total (6.25 (20.0)

m 50.0 kg

Fc, total 2.63 101 N

rsmall 2.00 m

ac, total ac, small ac, large

vsmall 1.00 m s 1

ac, total

E20

rlarge 10.0 m
vlarge 0.600 m s 1

ac, total

2
vsmall 2 vlarge

rsmall
rlarge

(1.00) 2 (0.600) 2

(2.00)
(10.0)

ac, total (0.500) (0.0036)


ac, total 5.36 10 1 m s 2

E21 a

suuuu
r

uyellow 13.0 km h 1 3.61 m s 1

momentum is conserved, so:

myellow 420.0 kg

myellow uyellow mpurple upurple myellow purple v yellow purple

upurple 7.00 km h 1 1.94 m s 1

v yellow purple

myellow u mpurple upurple


myellow purple

(420.0)(3.61) (500.0)(1.94)
(920.0)

mpurple 500.0 kg

v yellow purple

myellow purple 920.0 kg

v yellow purple 5.92 101 m s 1 or 2.13 km h 1

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

suuuuu
r

uyellow 6.00 km h 1 1.67 m s 1

E22

momentum is conserved, so:

myellow 420.0 kg

myellow uyellow mpurple upurple myelloow purplev yellow purple

upurple 6.00 km h 1 1.67 m s 1

v yellow purple

mpurple 500.0 kg

v yellow purple

myellow purple 920.0 kg

v yellow purple 1.45 10 1 m s 1 or 5.22 km h 1

myellow uyellow mpurple upurple


myellow purple
(420.0)(1.67) (500.0)(1.67)
(920.0)

suuuur

uorange 10.0 km h 1 2.78 m s 1


morange 410.0 kg

E23

momentum is conserved, so:


morange uorange msilver usilver m orange silver vorange silver
morange silver vorange silver morange uorange

msilver 350.0 kg

usilver

vorange silver 0.00 m s 1

usilver

morangesilver 760.0 kg

usilver 3.26 m s 1 or 1.17 101 km h 1

msilver
(760.0)(0.00) (410.0)(2.78)
(350.0)

suuur

ugold 15.0 km h 1 4.17 m s 1

momentum is conserved, so:

mgold 530.0 kg

mgold ugold mgreen ugreen mgreen gold v green gold

mgreen 800.0 kg

vgreen gold

ugreen 0.00 m s 1
mgreen gold 1330.0 kg

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mgold ugold mgreen ugreen

vgreen gold

mgreen gold
(530.0)(4.17) (800.0)(0.00)
(1330.0)

vgreen gold 1.66 m s 1 or 5.98 km h 1

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 7 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


E24

In the x direction:
suuuuu
r

uturquoise 6.00 km h 1 1.67 m s1

momentum in the x direction is conserved, so:

mturquoise 425.0 kg

x final mturquoise uturquoise


x final (425)(1.67)
x final 7.08 10 2 kg m s 1

As the final direction is south-east, then the momentum in the z direction


must be equal to that in the x direction.
suuuuu
r

white 7.08 102 kg m s 1

momentum in the z direction is conserved, so:

mwhite 675.0 kg

z final mwhite uwhite


uwhite

z final
(7.08 102 )

mwhite
(675.0)

uwhite 1.05 m s 1

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

Power distribution and generation


E1
Al 2.65 108 m

Rcable

2.00 10 2
m
2

Rcable

( 2.65 108 )( 2.00 )


( 1.00 10 2 )2

Rcable 1.69 10 4

L 2.00 m

E2

L L

A r 2

a
Vpeak 15.0 10 3 V

Vrms
Vrms

Vpeak
2
( 15.0 10 3 )
2

Vrms 1.06 10 4 V

Vs 9.00 103 V

turns ratio

(9.00 103 )
turns ratio
(15.0 103 )
turns ratio 0.600 :1 or 1:1.67

Vp 15.0 10 V
3

ii

N s Vs

N p Vp

The current in the secondary coil of a step-down transformer is always greater than
the current in the primary coil, as current and voltage are inversely proportional in a
transformation.

E3

Ptotal Pac Pr Pcb Pfs Psp Pdl


Ptotal (1.00 103 ) (10.0) (720.0) (50.0) (20.0) (30.0)
Ptotal 1.83 103 W
Substituting into P = VI:

Ptotal 1.83 103 W


Vhouse 240.0 V

I total

Ptotal
Vhouse

(1.83 103 )
I total
(240.0)
I total 7.63 A

This is too large to run all these appliances at once; the extension cord on the power pack could
heat up too much.

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


E4

Pgen 20.0 103 W

I TL

Vgen 250.0 V

I TL

Pgen
Vgen

(20.0 103 )

(250.0)

I TL 8.00 101 A
I TL 8.00 101 A

Ploss I TL 2 RTL

RTL 1.20

Ploss (8.00 101 ) 2 (1.20)


Ploss 7.68 103 W

Ploss 7.68 103 W

Vdrop

Ploss
I TL

I TL 8.00 101 A

Vdrop

(7.68 103 )
(8.00 101 )

Vdrop 9.60 101 V

Vstart TL 250.0 V

Vend TL Vstart TL Vdrop TL

Vdrop TL 9.60 101 V

Vend TL (250.0) (9.60 101 )


Vend TL 1.54 10 2 V

They should be able to use some appliances; however, lights would not be as bright,
motors would not go as fast. Electronic devices may not function at all.

Ps 20.0 103 W

I TL

Vs 6.00 103 V

I TL
I TL

Ps
Vs

(20.0 103 )
(6.00 103 )
3.33 A

I TL 3.33 A

Ploss I TL 2 RTL

RTL 1.20

Ploss (3.33) 2 (1.20)


Ploss 1.33 101 W

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


e

Ploss 1.33 101 W

Vdrop

I TL 3.33 A

Vdrop
Vdrop

Ploss
I TL

(1.33 101 )
(3.33)
4.00 V

Vstart TL 6.00 103 V

Vend TL Vstart TL Vdrop TL

Vdrop TL 4.00 V

Vend TL (6.00 103 ) (4.00)


Vend TL 5.996 103 V

Vs 240.0 V
Vp 5.996 103 V

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turns ratio

N s Vs

N p Vp

(240.0)
(5.996 103 )
turns ratio 0.0400 :1 or 1:25.0

turns ratio

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

Chapter 1 Analysing motion


1.1 Projectile motion
1

s y ut 12 at 2

s y 4.90 m
g 9.80 m s-2

( 4.90) (0) t 12 ( 9.80) t 2


t

2( 4.90)
(9.80)

t 1.00 s
b

s x vx t (20.0)(1.00)

v x 20.0 m s 1

s x 20.0 m

t 1.00 s
c

The only force acting on the ball is gravity, therefore the only acceleration is
g = 9.80 m s2.

v y u a t (0) (9.80)(0.800)

u y 0 m s 1

v y 7.84 m s 1

g 9.80 m s 2
t 0.800 s

v vx 2 v y 2 (20.0) 2 ( 7.84) 2
v 18.4 m s 1

v y u at (0) (9.80)(1.00)

uy 0 m s 1

v y 9.80 m s 1

g 9.80 m s 2
t 1.00 s

v vx 2 v y 2 (20.0) 2 ( 9.80)2
v 22.3 m s 1

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


2

Horizontal velocity remains constant, so vx = 10.0 m s1.

a
b

v y 2 uy 2 2as y (0) 2 2( 9.80)(1.00)

u y 0 m s 1

v y 4.43 m s 1

g 9.80 m s 2

v y 4.43 m s 1 down

s y 1.00 m
c

v v x 2 v y 2 (10.0) 2 ( 4.43) 2

v y 4.43 m s 1

v 10.9 m s 1

v x 10.0 m s 1
4.43
0.4048
10.9
23.9o

t 0.800 s

sin

v 10.9 m s 1 23.9 o down from horizontal


d

s y ut 12 a t 2

s y 1.00 m
g 9.80 m s 2

( 1.00) (0) t 12 ( 9.80) t 2


t

2(1.00)
(9.80)

t 0.452 s
e

t 0.452 s

s x v x t (10.0)(0.452)

v x 10.0 m

s x 4.52 m

Fgravity

vx
v
v x vcos30.0o (28.0)(0.8660)
cos30.0o

v x 24.2 m s 1
b

v x 24.2 m s 1

v x 24.2 m s 1

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


4

sin30.0o

vy

v
v y vsin30.0o (28.0)(0.5000)
v x 14.0 m s 1 up

v y u a t (14.0) (9.80)(1.00)

uy 14.0 m s 1

v y 4.20 m s 1 up

g 9.80 m s 2
t 1.00 s
c

v y u at (14.0) (9.80)(2.00)

uy 14.0 m s 1

v y 5.60 m s 1

g 9.80 m s 2

v y 5.60 m s 1 down

t 2.00 s
5

v y u y a t

u y 14.0 m s 1

g 9.80 m s 2

t 1.43 s

v y uy
a

(0 14.0)
(9.80)

v y 0 m s 1

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

s y u y t 12 at 2

u y 14.0 m s 1

s y (14.0)(1.43) 12 ( 9.80)(1.43) 2

g 9.80 m s 2

s y 10.0 m

t 1.43 s
6

The acceleration of the ball is constant, due to gravity = 9.80 m s 2.


At its maximum height, this is the point at which the ball has zero vertical velocity, while
maintaining itshorizontal
velocity.
1

c
a

v x 24.2 m s
t 1.43 m s -1

b
c
d

Fgravity

v y uy

u y 14.0 m s 1

v y 14.0 m s 1

g 9.80 m s 2

t 2.86 s

t
v y uy
g
( 14.0) (14.0)
( 9.80)

v v x 2 v y 2 (14.0) 2 (24.2) 2

v y 14.0 m s 1

v 19.8 m s 1

v x 24.2 m s 1
t 0.800 s

14.0
0.7071
19.8
45.0 o

sin

v 19.8 m s 1 45.0o down from horizontal

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


c

t 2.86 s

sx v x t (24.2)(2.86)

v x 24.2 m s
8

s x 69.3 m

At maximum height loss of Ek is due to gain in Ep


Ek final 16.0 J
m 0.2500 kg
u 16.0 m s

g 9.80 m s

Ep Ek initial Ek final
mgh 12 mu 2 Ek final
mu 2 Ek final 12 (0.2500)(16.0) 2 (16.0)
h

mg
(0.2500)(9.80)
h 6.53 m
1
2

v 2 u2 2as

s 6.53 m

u v 2 2as

v y 0 m s 1

u (0) 2 2(9.80)(6.53)

g 9.80 m s 2

u 11.3 m s 1

cos

v x (11.3)

0.7071
v (16.0)

45.0o
d

v y u a t (11.3) (9.80)(1.00)

uy 11.3 m s 1

v y 1.51 m s 1 up

g 9.80 m s 2
t 1.00 s

v (1.51)2 (11.3) 2
v 11.4 m s 1

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


e

s y u y t 12 a t 2

uy 11.3 m s 1

s y (11.3)(1.00) 12 ( 9.80)(1.00) 2

g 9.80 m s 2

s y 6.41 m

t 1.00 s
sx vx t (11.3)(1.00) 11.3 m
s s y 2 s x 2 (6.41) 2 (11.3) 2

tan

(6.41)
0.5669
(11.3)

s 13.1 m 29.5o up from horizontal


f

v y u y g t

u y 11.3 m s 1

g 9.80 m s 2

t 2.31 s

v y 11.3 m s

v y uy
g

(11.3) (11.3)
(9.80)

t 2.31 s
v x 11.3 m s
10

sx v x t (11.3)(2.31)
1

s x 26.1 m

v y u y g t

t 1.50 s

uy v y g t (0) (9.80)(1.50)

g 9.80 m s 2

u y 14.7 m s 1

v y 0 m s 1
v

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uy
sin

(14.7)
22.9 m s 1
o
sin40.0

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 17 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

s y u y t 12 a t 2

u y 14.7 m s 1

s y (14.7)(1.50) 12 ( 9.80)(1.50) 2

g 9.80 m s 2

s y 11.0 m

t 1.50 s
c

v y 2 u y 2 2as y

u y 14.7 m s 1

v y (14.7) 2 2( 9.80)(10.0)

g 9.80 m s 2

v y 20.3 m s 1

s y 10.0 m
v y uy

t
v y uy

a
t 3.57 s

( 20.3) (14.7)
(9.8)

1.2 Circular motion in a horizontal plane


1

a
b

a
b
c

A, D
She has continued to travel in a straight line, while the car has turned, so the right side of
the cabin is actually accelerating towards her.

v 8.00 m s 1
v 8.00 m s 1 south
v 2 (8.00)2

r
(9.20)

v 8.00 m s 1

ac

r 9.20 m

ac 6.96 m s 2 east

v 8.00 m s 1

Fc

r 9.20 m

Fc 8.35 103 N east

mv 2 (1.20 103 )(8.00)2

r
(9.20)

m 1.20 103 kg

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

4
5
6

The force that causes the centripetal force is the reaction of the sideways frictional force of
the cars tyres on the road, that is the sideways force of friction of the road on the cars
tyres.
1

v 8.00 m s north
a
b
west
The car would probably skid off the road as the centripetal force required would increase to a
value greater than the force of friction could provide.
a

v 2 (2.00)2

r
(1.50)

v 2.00 m s 1

ac

r 1.50 m

ac 2.67 m s 2 towards the centre

The forces are unbalanced as she is accelerating. According to Newtons first law an
unbalanced force will cause an object to change its motion, in this case the direction of the
motion is changing, not the magnitude.

v 2.00 m s

mv 2 (50.0)(2.00) 2
Fc

r
(1.50)

r 1.50 m

Fc 1.33 102 N towards the centre

m 50.0 kg
d
7

The sideways reaction force of the skate on the ice, which is the sideways force of the ice
on the skate.

f 2.00 rev s 1

1
1

5.00 101 s
f (2.00)

T 5.00 101 s

2r
2 (0.800)

T
(5.00 10 1 )

v 10.1 m s 1
c

v 2 (10.1) 2

r (0.800)

v 10.1 m s 1

ac

r 0.800 m

ac 1.26 10 2 m s 2 towards the centre

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


d

mv 2 (2.50)(10.1)2

r
(0.800)

v 10.1 m s 1

Fc

r 0.800 m

Fc 3.16 10 2 N towards the centre

m 2.50 kg
e
f

The force causing the centripetal acceleration of the ball is the tension force of the cable on
the ball.
The ball would continue in a straight line that is tangential to the circular path at the point
at which the wire breaks.

l 2.40 m

r
l
r lcos (2.40)(cos 60.0o)

cos

r 1.20 m
b
c
d

The forces acting on Ella are gravity and the tension force of the rope on her.
Ellas acceleration is towards the centre of rotation about the pole.

g 9.80 m s 2
m 30.0 kg

tan
Fc

Fg
Fc

mg
(30.0)(9.80)

tan (tan 60.0o)

Fc 1.70 10 2 N towards the centre


e

Fc 1.70 102 N

Fc

mv 2
r
Fc r
(1.70 102 )(1.20)

m
(30.0)

r 1.20 m

m 30.0 kg

v 2.61 m s 1

v 18.0 m s 1
r 80.0 m

mv 2 (1.20 103 )(18.0) 2

r
(80.0)
Fc 4.86 kN towards the centre
Fc

m 1.20 103 kg
b
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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


tan

Fg
Fc

(1.20 103 )(9.80)


2.42
(4.86 103 )
Fg

67.5o

Fc

(90.0o) (67.5o)
22.5o
10

The driver will have to turn the cars tyres down the track to enable the horizontal component of
the sideways frictional force to help turn the car. The combined centripetal force of the banked
track and the horizontal component of the sideways frictional force will enable the car to turn at
this higher speed while maintaining the same radius as before.

1.3 Circular motion in a vertical plane


1

a
b
c
d

The acceleration is towards the centre of the circular path of the yo-yo.
At the bottom of the circular path the tension in the string is greatest.
At the top of the circular path the tension in the string is lowest.
At the bottom of the circular path where the tension in the string is greatest.

g 9.80 m s 2
r 1.50 m

critical speed when ag ac


v2
r
v rg ( 1.50)(9.80)
g

v 3.83 m s 1

The force of gravity and the reaction force of the road on the car.

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

m 800.0 kg

Froad on car Fc ( Fg )

r 10.0 m

Froad on car

v 14.4 km h 1

Froad on car

v 4.00 m s 1

Froad on car ( 1.28 103 ) (7.84 103 )

g 9.80 m s 2

Froad on car 6.56 103 N upwards

mv 2
( mg )
r
(800.0)(4.00) 2

( (800.0)( 9.80))
(10.0)

Yes it is possible, however it is her apparent weight she was feeling not her mass, which
doesnt change. The force that the seat applies to her is less as she goes over the hump,
therefore she feels like she is lighter on the seat.

g 9.80 m s 2
r 10.0 m

critical speed when ag ac


v2
r
v rg ( 10.0)(9.80)
g

v 9.90 m s 1
v 35.6 km h 1

u 2.00 m s 1

Ek at Y Ek at X Ep gain

s y 50.0 m

1
2

mv 2 12 mu 2 mg s y

g 9.80 m s 2

v 2( 12 u 2 g s y ) 2( 12 (2.00) 2 (9.80)(50.0))

m 500.0 kg

v 31.4 m s 1

u 2.00 m s 1

Ek at Z Ek at X Ep gain

s y 20.0 m

1
2

mv 2 12 mu 2 mg s y

g 9.80 m s 2

v 2( 12 u 2 g s y ) 2( 12 (2.00) 2 (9.80)(20.0))

m 500.0 kg

v 19.9 m s 1

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


c

b
m 500.0 kg

Ftrack on cart Fc ( Fg )

r 15.0 m

Ftrack on cart

v 19.9 m s 1

Ftrack on cart

g 9.80 m s 2

Ftrack on cart ( 1.32 10 4 ) (4.90 103 )

mv 2
( mg)
r
(500.0)(19.9) 2

((500.0)(9.80))
(15.0)

Ftrack on cart 8.30 103 N


Ftrack on cart 8.30 103 N downwards
5

g 9.80 m s 2
r 15.0 m

critical speed when ag ac


v2
r
v rg ( 15.0)(9.80)
g

v 12.1 m s 1
6

b
m 80.0 kg

Fseat on pilot Fc ( Fg )

r 100.0 m

Fseat on pilot

v 35.0 m s -1

Fseat on pilot

g 9.80 m s -2

Fseat on pilot ( 9.80 10 2 ) (7.84 10 2 )

mv 2
( mg )
r
(80.0)(35.0) 2

( (80.0)( 9.80))
(100.0)

Fseat on pilot 1.96 10 2 N


Fseat on pilot 1.96 10 2 N downwards
7

g 9.80 m s 2
r 100.0 m

critical speed when ag ac


v2
r
v rg (100.0)(9.80)
g

v 31.3 m s 1

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


8

b
g 9.80 m s 2

aseat on pilot 9 ( g)
v2
( g)
r
v2
9 (( 9.80))
(( 9.80))
(100.0)

r 100.0 m

aseat on pilot

8 ((9.80))(100.0)

v 88.5 m s 1
9

m 4.00 kg
g 9.80 m s

T Fg mg (4.00)( 9.80)
2

T 39.2 N

m 4.00 kg
g 9.80 m s-2
s y 2.00 m

Ek Ep
1
2

mv 2 mg s y
v 2(9.80)(2.00)
v 6.26 m s -1

b
T Fc ( Fg )
mv 2
( mg )
r
(4.00)(6.26) 2
T
((4.00)(9.80))
(2.00)
T

T (7.84 101 ) (3.92 101 )


T 1.18 10 2 N
10

The wire is more likely to break when the ball is moving through position X as the tension in the
wire is three times the tension it had when it was stationary at point X.

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

1.4 Vectors and free-body diagrams


1

suuuuur

v u ( 15.0) ( 20.0)
1

ux 15.0 m s west 15.0 m s


1

v x 20.0 m s west 20.0 m s


b

v u 35.0

v u 35.0 m s 1 west

suuuuur

v u ( 15.0) ( 20.0)

ux 15.0 m s 1 west 15.0 m s 1

v u 5.0

v x 20.0 m s 1 east 20.0 m s 1

v u 5.0 m s 1 east

Fy1 Fy 2 ( 10.0) ( 12.0)

Fy1 10.0 N up 10.0 N

Fy1 Fy 2 2.0

Fy 2 12.0 N down 12.0 N

Fy1 Fy 2 2.0 N down

2
a

suuuur

v ( u) ( 20.0) ( 15.0)

ux 15.0 m s 1 west

v ( u) 5.0

ux 15.0 m s 1 east 15.0 m s 1

v ( u) 5.0 m s 1 west

v x 20.0 m s 1 west 20.0 m s 1


b

suuuur

v ( u) ( 20.0) ( 15.0)
1

ux 15.0 m s west
1

v ( u) 35.0

ux 15.0 m s east 15.0 m s

v ( u) 35.0 m s 1 east

v x 20.0 m s 1 east 20.0 m s 1

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

Fy 2 ( Fy1 ) ( 12.0) ( 10.0)

Fy1 10.0 N up 10.0 N

Fy 2 ( Fy1 ) 22.0

Fy1 10.0 N down 10.0 N

Fy 2 ( Fy1 ) 22.0 N down

Fy 2 12.0 N down 12.0 N


3

a x 17.5 m s 2 south
a z 70.0 m s 2 west

(a x a z ) 2 a x 2 a z 2
(a x az ) (17.5)2 (70.0) 2
(a x a z ) 7.22 101 m s 2
tan

a z (70.0)

a x (17.5)

tan(4.00)
76.0o
(a x a z ) 7.22 101 m s 2 south76.0 owest
b

v x 15.0 m s 1 west
v z 23.0 m s 1 north

(v x v z ) 2 v x 2 v z 2
(v x v z ) (15.0) 2 (23.0) 2
(v x v z ) 2.75 101 m s 1
tan

v z (23.0)

v x (15.0)

tan(1.53)
56.9o
(v x v z ) 2.75 101 m s 1 north 56.9 owest

c
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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


Fy 15.0 N up

(Fy Fx ) 2 Fy 2 Fx 2

Fx 20.0 N west

(Fy Fx ) (15.0)2 (20.0) 2


(Fy Fx ) 2.50 101 N

tan

Fy
Fx

(15.0)
(20.0)

tan(0.750)
36.9o
(Fy Fx ) 2.50 101 N 36.9oup from horizontal to the west
4

v x 19.0 m s 2 west

v z ( v x )

v z 2 ( v x ) 2

v x 19.0 m s 2 east

v z ( v x ) (20.0) 2 (19.0) 2

v z 20.0 m s 2 south

v z ( v x ) 2.76 101 m s 2
tan

( v x ) (19.0)

vz
(20.0)

tan(0.950)
43.5o
v z ( v x ) 2.76 101 m s 2 south 43.5oeast
b

px 11.0 kg m s 1 north

pz ( px )

pz 2 ( p x ) 2

px 11.0 kg m s 1 south

pz ( px ) (30.0) 2 (11.0) 2

pz 30.0 kg m s 1 east

pz ( px ) 3.20 101 kg m s 1
tan

pz
(30.0)

( px ) (11.0)

tan(2.73)
69.9o
pz ( px ) 3.20 101 kg m s 1 south 69.9oeast

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


c

Fx ( Fy )

Fy 10.0 N down

Fx 2 ( Fy ) 2

Fy 10.0 N up

Fx ( Fy ) (12.0) 2 (10.0) 2

Fx 12.0 N right

Fx ( Fy ) 1.56 101 N

tan

( Fy )
Fx

(10.0)
(12.0)

tan(0.833)
39.8o
Fx ( Fy ) 1.56 101 N 39.8oup from
horizontal to the right
5

v x west

v x v cos35.0o
v x (255)(0.819)
v x 2.09 102 m s 1 west

v z south

vz v sin35.0o
v z (255)(0.574)
v z 1.46 102 m s 1 south

px east

px p sin67.5o
px (0.250)(0.924)
px 2.3110 1 kg m s 1 east

pz north

pz p cos67.5o
pz (0.250)(0.383)
pz 9.57 10 2 kg m s 1 north

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


c

Fx left

Fx F cos27.5o
Fx (100.0)(0.8874)
Fx 8.87 101 N left

Fy down

Fy F sin27.5o
Fy (100.0)(0.462)
Fy 4.62 101 N down

vplane 100.0 m s 1 south

(v plane v wind ) 2 v plane 2 v wind 2

v wind 25.0 m s 1 west

(v plane v wind ) (100.0)2 (25.0) 2


(v plane v wind ) 1.03 10 2 m s 1
tan

v wind (25.0)

vplane (100.0)

tan(0.250)
14.0o
(vplane v wind ) 1.03 10 2 m s 1 south 14.0owest
b
c

The plane should steer south 14.0 east to maintain a southerly path.

v plane 100.0 m s 1 south 14.0oeast

(v plane ) 2 v plane south 2 v wind 2

v wind 25.0 m s 1 west

v plane south (100.0) 2 (25.0) 2


v plane south 9.68 101 m s 1 south

Fx right

Fx F cos60.0o
Fx (50.0)(0.500)
Fx 2.50 101 N right

Fground on trolley
Fpush on trolley

c
Fgravity on trolley
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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


F 50.0 N 60.0o below horizon to rt
suuuuu
r

Fx Fx , push Fx , friction

Fx ( 25.0) ( 10.0)

Fx , push 25.0 N right

Fx 1.50 101 N right

Fx , friction 10.0 N left


Fx , friction 10.0 N

Fy Fsin60.0o
Fy (50.0)(0.866)
Fy 4.33 101 N down
Fresultant 2 Fx 2 Fy 2
Fresultant (1.50 101 ) 2 (4.33 101 ) 2
Fresultant 4.58 101 N
tan

Fy
Fx

(4.33 101 )
(1.50 101 )

tan 1 (2.887)
70.8o
Fresultant 4.58 101 N 70.8odown from
horizontal to the right
8

ux 16.0 m s 1
v x 16.0 m s

speed v x v x -ux
v x (16.0 16.0)
v x 0.00 m s 1

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

u 16.0 m s 1 north

speed v v ( u)

u 16.0 m s 1 south

v 2 v 2 ( u ) 2

v 16.0 m s 1 east

v (16.0)2 (16.0)2
v 2.26 101 m s 1
u (16.0)

v
(16.0)
tan(1.00)

tan

45.0o
v 2.26 101 m s 1 south 45.0o east
9
Fclub on ball

Fgravity on ball

10
Ftee on ball
Fair resistance on ball

Fgravity on ball

1.5 Motion in a straight line


1

2
3

4
5

a
A to B: Displacement 40 cm to the right, Distance 40 cm
b
C to B: Displacement 10 cm to the left, Distance 10 cm
c
C to D: Displacement 20 cm to the right, Distance 20 cm
d
C to E and then to D: Displacement 20 cm to the right, Distance 80 cm
a
Distance 80.0 km
b
Displacement 20.0 km north
a
10 m down
b
60 m up
c
70 m
d
50 m up
displacement
a
D
b
D
c
C
d
A
a
39 steps
b
1 step west of the clothes line

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Page 31 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

c
a

1 step west

u 0 m s 1
v 120.0 33.3 m s 1
3.6

v u (33.3) (0)

2
2

vav

vav 16.7 m s 1

v u (120.0) (0)

t
(18.0)

u 0 km h 1

aav

v 120 km h 1

aav 6.67 km h 1 s 1 forwards

t 18.0 s
c

u 0 m s 1
v 120 33.3 m s 1
3.6
t 18.0 s

aav

v u (33.3) (0)

t
(18.0)

v 1.85 m s 2

v 33.3 m s 1

s vt (33.3)(0.600)

t 0.600 s

s 20.0 m

u 25.0 m s 1

v v u (15.0) (25.0)

v 15.0 m s 1

v 10.0 m s 1

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

v v u
1

u 25.0 m s east

v v ( u) ( 15.0) ( 25.0)

u 25.0 m s 1 west

v 10.0 m s 1

u 25.0 m s 1

v 10.0 m s 1 east

v 15.0 m s 1 west
v 15.0 m s 1
c

v u (15.0) (25.0)

t
(0.0500)

aav

u 25.0 m s 1

aav 2.00 102

v 15.0 m s 1

aav 2.00 102 m s 2 east

t 0.0500 s
9

v u (0) (60.0)

t
(5.00)

u 60.0 km h 1 north

aav

v 0 km h 1

aav 12.0 km h 1 s 1 north

t 5.00 s
b

v u (0) (16.7)

t
(5.00)

u 60.0 16.7 m s 1
3.6

aav

v 0 m s 1

aav 3.33 m s 2 north

t 5.00 s
10

l 50.0 m

s l laps (50.0)(30)

laps 30

s 1.50 103 m

s 1.50 103 m
t 14:38

vav

s (1.50 103 )

t
(878)

vav 1.71 m s 1

t 878 s
c
d

0m
0 m s1

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

1.6 Energy and momentum


1

m 8.00 102 kg

Wd Fs y mgs y

g 9.80 m s 2

Wd (8.00 10 2 )(9.80)(90.0)

s y 90.0 m

Wd 7.06 105 J

m 8.00 102 kg

Etotal Ek Ep 12 mv 2 mgs y

g 9.80 m s 2

Etotal 12 (8.00 10 2 )(2.00) 2 (8.00 10 2 )(9.80)(50.0)

s y 50.0 m

Etotal 3.94 105 J

v 2.00 m s 1
c

m 8.00 102 kg
g 9.80 m s

v 2.00 m s 1
2

P Fv mgv
P (8.00 10 2 )(9.80)(2.00)
P 1.596 10 4 W

Etotal Ek1 Ek2 12 m1u12 12 m2u2 2

m1 2.00 101 kg

Etotal 12 (2.00 10 1 )( 9.00) 2 12 (1.00 101 )(0) 2

u1 9.00 m s 1

Etotal 8.10 J

m2 1.00 10 kg
u2 0 m s 1
b

Etotal Ek1 Ek2 12 m1v12 12 m2v2 2

m1 2.00 101 kg

Etotal 12 (2.00 10 1 )( 3.00) 2 12 (1.00 101 )(12.0) 2

v1 3.00 m s 1

Etotal 8.10 J

m2 1.00 101 kg
v2 12.0 m s 1
c
d

This collision is elastic as no kinetic energy is lost in the collision.


This is an unrealistic situation as is all macroscopic collisions some kinetic energy is
always lost in the form of heat or sound.

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


3

m 8.00 101 kg
g 9.80 m s

E mg s y
p

E (8.00 101 )(9.80)(5.00)


p

s y 5.00 m

E 3.92 103 J

m 8.00 101 kg

v 2 u 2 2as y (0) 2 2(5.00)(5.00)

a 5.00 m s 2

v (5.00 101 )

s y 5.00 m

v 7.07 m s -1
Ek 12 mv 2 12 (8.00 101 )(7.07) 2
Ek 2.00 103 J

Some energy potential energy would have been lost to heat or sound energy as the
firefighter slid down the pole, therefore there would be less energy converted into kinetic
energy.
The work done is equal to the gain in energy of the firefighter, equal to 2.00 10 3 J.

d
e

Assume that all lost energy is transferred into heat.

4
5

E p 3.92 103 J

E heat E p E k (3.92 103 ) (2.00 103 )

E k 2.00 103 J

E heat 1.92 103 J

D
a

u 10.0 m s 1
v 8.00 m s

v v u (8.00) (10.0)

v 2.00 m s 1

v v u ( 8.00) ( 10.0)

u 10.0 m s 1
v 8.00 m s

v 18.0

v 18.0 m s 1 up

p mv (80.0 10 3 )( 18.0)

v 18.0 m s 1
3

m 80.0 10 m s
6

d
a

p 1.44
1

p 1.44 kg m s 1 up

Impulse is equal to change in momentum = 1.44 kg m s1 up.

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

Fav net

p (1.44)

t (0.0500)

p 1.44 kg m s 1

Fav net 28.8

t 0.0500 s

Fav net 28.8 N up

Fav Fav net ( Fwt )

Fav 28.8 N

Fav (28.8) ( 80 10 3 )( 9.80)

m 80.0 103 kg

Fav 29.6

g 9.80 m s 1
7

c
a

Fav 29.6 N up

According to Newtons third law, the force of the ball on the floor is 29.6 N down

psc mv (1.00 103 )(10.0)

v 36.0 km h 1

psc 1.00 10 4

10.0 m s 1

psc 1.00 104 kg m s 1 east

m 1.00 103 kg
b

pwag mv (2.00 103 )(5.0)

v 18.0 km h 1

pwag 1.00 10 4

5.0 m s 1

pwag 1.00 10 4 kg m s 1 west

m 2.00 103 kg
c

ptotal psc pwag (1.00 10 4 ) (1.00 10 4 )

psc 1.00 104 kg m s 1

ptotal 0 kg m s -1

pwag 1.00 104 kg m s 1


8

pbefore 0 kg m s

pbefore pafter
1

pafter 0
vcombined 0 m s 1

The initial momentum has gone into changing the momentum of the other vehicle.

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


c

psc m(v u) (1.00 103 )[(0) (10.0)]

u 10.0 m s 1

psc 1.00 10 4

v 0 m s 1

psc 1.00 104 kg m s 1 west

m 1.00 103 kg
d

pwag m( v u ) ( 2.00 10 3 )[( 0 ) ( 5.00 )]

u 5.00 m s -1

pwag 1.00 10 4

v 0 m s -1

pwag 1.00 10 4 kg m s -1 east

m 2.00 10 3 kg

10

Mary was correct, as the momentum before is equal to the momentum after, so the momentum of
the railway tanker and water (combined) will be equal to the sum of the momentum of the tanker
and water (separated). The sum of the masses of the water and tanker will be the same after as it
was before therefore the speed of the tanker and water will be the same after as it was before.
a

pgirl before mu (48.0)(4.00)

ugirl 4.00 m s 1

pgirl before 1.92 10 2

m 48.0 kg

pgirl before 1.92 10 2 kg m s 1 to the right

pbefore pafter msb usb mgirl ugirl mgirl sb vgirl sb

ugirl 4.00 m s 1

(2.00 )(0) (48.0 )( 4.00) (50.0)vgirl sb

mgirl 48.0 kg

vgirl sb 3.84 m s 1 to the right

usb 0 m s 1
msb 2.00 kg
c

ugirl sb 3.84 m s 1
mgirl sb 50.0 kg

pbefore pafter mgirl sb ugirl sb msb vsb mgirl vgirl


mgirl sb ugirl sb msb vsb mgirl vgirl
vsb

(50.0 )(3.84) (48.0 )(3.84)


(2.00)

vgirl 3.84 m s 1

vsb 3.84 m s 1

mgirl 48.0 kg

vsb 3.84 m s 1 to the right

msb 2.00 kg

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

Chapter 1 Review
1

u 3.50 m s 1

v v u (3.00) (3.50)

v 3.00 m s 1

v 0.50 m s 1

v v u (3.00) (3.50)

u 3.50 m s

v 6.50 m s 1 upwards

v 3.00 m s 1
2

b
3

The force increases as the bounce continues to the point where the springs are stretched to
their maximum, then decreases as the bounce continues to the point where Hannah leaves
the trampoline. The force is usually named the reaction force.
D

u 16.7 m s 1

v 2 u2 2as

v 0 m s 1

aav

s 15.0 m

aav 9.26 m s 2

v 2 u 2 (0)2 (16.7)2

2s
2(15.0)

u 16.7 m s 1

v u a t

aav 9.26 m s 2

v (16.7) ( 9.26)(1.50)

t 1.50 s

v 2.78 m s 1

m 120.0 kg

Fav ma (120.0)( 9.26)

aav 9.26 m s 2

Fav 1.11 kN

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Page 38 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


4

b for ball X
u 0 m s 1

s y ut 12 a t 2
( 2.00) (0) t 12 ( 9.80)t 2
2(-2.00)
(9.80)

g 9.80 m s 2

s y 2.00 m

t 0.639 s

for ball Y
u 0 m s -1

s y ut 12 at 2
( -2.00) ( 0 )t 12 ( 9.80 )t 2
2( -2.00)
( 9.80 )

g 9.80 m s - 2

s y 2.00 m

t 0.639 s

b for ball X
uy 0 m s

v y u y a t (0) (9.80)(0.639)
v y 6.26 m s 1

g 9.80 m s 2
t 0.639 s

v v y 2 v x 2 ( 6.26)2 (5.00) 2

v x 5.00 m s 1

v 8.01 m s 1

b for ball Y

v y u y a t (0) (9.80)(0.639)

u y 0 m s 1

v y 6.26 m s 1

g 9.80 m s 2
t 0.639 s

v v y 2 v x 2 ( 6.26)2 (7.50) 2

v x 7.50 m s 1

v 9.77 m s 1

- for ball X

sx v x t (5.00)(0.639)

v x 5.00 m s 1

s x 3.19 m for ball X

t 0.639 s
for ball Y

sx v x t (7.50)(0.639)

v x 7.50 m s 1

s x 4.79 m for ball Y


sx (4.79) (3.19) 1.60 m

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Page 39 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


5

b -

v y 2 uy 2 2 gs y

v y 0 m s 1

u y v y 2 2 gs y (0) 2 2( 9.80)(4.00)

s y 4.00 m

uy 8.85 m s 1

g 9.80 m s 2
uy

sin

(8.85)
0.885
(10.0)

62.3o
6

vx
v
v x vcos (10.0)(cos 62.3o)

v 10.0 m s 1

cos

62.3o

v x 4.65 m s 1
7

v y uy

u y 8.85 m s 1

v y 8.85 m s

t
v y uy
a

(8.85) (8.85)
(9.80)

t 1.81 s

v x 4.65 m s 1
s x v x t (4.65)(1.81)
s x 8.40 m
9

vx
v
v x vcos (8.00)(cos 60.0o)
cos

v x 4.00 m s 1
b

sin

vy

v
v y vsin (8.00)(sin 60.0o)
v x 6.92 m s 1

c
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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Page 40 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

uy 6.92 m s 1
vy 0 m s

v y uy
t
v y uy
a

(0) (6.92)
(9.80)

t 0.707 s

g 9.80 m s 2
d

s y u y t 12 at 2

uy 6.92 m s 1

s y (6.92)(0.707) 12 ( 9.80)(0.707) 2

t 0.707 s

s y 2.457 m

g 9.80 m s 2

stotal y (1.50) (2.457)


stotal y 3.95 m

v y 2 uy 2 2as y

u y 6.92 m s 1

v y uy 2 2as y (6.92) 2 2( 9.80)(1.50)


v y 8.80 m s 1

s y 1.50 m
g 9.80 m s 2

a
t

v y uy
t
v y uy

a
t 1.60 s

(8.80) (6.92)
( 9.80)

v x 4.00 m s 1
10

t 1.60 s
v x 4.00 m s 1

s x v x t (4.00)(1.60)
s x 6.42 m

11

v x 4.00 m s 1

Ek 12 mv 2 12 (2.00)(4.00) 2

m 2.00 kg
12
13
14

a g 9.80 m s

Ek 16.0 J
2

v 7.50 m s 1

Fa 3.78 10 5 v 2 (3.78 10 5 )(7.50) 2


Fa 2.13 10 3 N in the opposite direction of the motion

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


15

Fg

Fa 2.13 103 N

Fa max
Fg

m 2.00 kg
g 9.80 m s

16

Fa max

(2.00)(9.80)
(2.13 10 3 )

9.22 10 3

This answer tells us that the force of air resistance is insignificant when compared to the force
due to gravity on the ball.
a
.

v y 2 uy 2 2 gs y

g 9.80 m s 2

v y (0) 2 2( 9.80)( 10.0)

s y 10.0 m

v y 14.0 m s 1

m 0.200 kg
pbefore mu (0.200)(14.0)
pbefore 2.80 kg m s 1
pbefore 2.80 kg m s 1 downwards
b

pafter mu (0.200)(10.0)

v 10.0 m s

m 0.200 kg
c

pafter 2.00 kg m s 1
pafter 2.00 kg m s 1 upwards

I p pafter pbefore

pafter 2.00 kg m s 1

I (2.00) ( 2.80)

pbefore 2.80 kg m s 1

I 4.80 kg m s 1 upwards

I
(4.80)

t (1.00 103 )

Fav

I 4.80 kg m s 1 upwards

Fav 4.80 103 N upwards

t 1.00 103 s
17

b
c

u 0 m s 1

Ek 12 mv 2 12 mu 2 12 (50.0)(3.00) 2 12 (50.0)(0) 2

v 3.00 m s 1

Ek 2.25 10 2 J

Work done Ek 2.25 10 2 J

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


F 200.0 N

Fx Fcos (200.0)(cos 60.0o) 100.0 N

m 50.0 kg
t 10.0 s

F (100.0)

2.00 m s 2
m (50.0)

u 0 m s 1
v u at (0) (2.00)(10.0)
v 20.0 m s 1
Ek ideal 12 mv 2 12 (50.0)(20.0)2
Ek ideal 1.00 10 4 J
Elost to heat Ek ideal Ek (1.00 104 ) (2.25 102 )
Elost to heat 9.78 103 J lost
18

Etotal 1.00 104 J


t 10.0 s

E (1.00 104 )

t
(10.0)

P 1.00 103 W

Elost 9.78 103 J


t 10.0 s

E (9.78 103 )

t
(10.0)

P 9.78 10 2 W

Ek 2.25 102 J
t 10.0 s
19

E (2.25 10 2 )

t
(10.0)

P 2.25 101 W

ptotal before 0 kg m s 1

vboy 4.00 m s 1

pboy after mvboy (50.0)(4.00)

mboy 50.0 kg

pboy after 2.00 10 2 kg m s 1

psled after 2.00 10 2 kg m s 1

20

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Page 43 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

psled after 2.00 102 kg m s 1

psled after mv
(2.00 102 )
v
(200.0)

msled 200.0 kg

v 1.00 m s 1
21

22

usled 1.00 m s 1

pbefore pafter

msled 200.0 kg

msled usled mboyuboy mboy sled vboy sled

mboy 50.0 kg

vboy sled

uboy 4.40 m s 1

vboy sled 1.68 m s 1

msled usled mboyuboy


mboy sled

(200.0)( 1.00) (50.0)( 4.40)


(200.0 50.0)

msled 50.0 kg

p pafter pbefore msled vsled msled usled

usled 4.40 m s 1

p (200.0)( 1.68) (200.0)(1.00)

vsled 1.68 m s 1

p 1.36 10 2 kg m s 1

mboy 50.0 kg

p pafter pbefore mboy vboy mboy uboy

uboy 4.40 m s 1

p (50.0)( 1.68) (50.0)( 4.40)

vboy 1.68 m s -1

p 1.36 10 2 kg m s 1

23

pbefore pafter

m1 0.3000 kg

m1u1 m2u2 m1 2v1 2

u1 2.00 m s 1

v1 2

m2 0.1000 kg

v1 2 1.00 m s 1 east

m1u1 m2u2 (0.3000)(2.00) (0.1000)(2.00)

m1 2
(0.3000 0.1000)

u2 2.00 m s 1
24

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 44 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

Ek before 12 m1u12 12 m2u2 2

m1 0.3000 kg

Ek before 12 (0.3000)(2.00) 2 12 (0.1000)( 2.00) 2

u1 2.00 m s 1

Ek before 0.800 J

m2 0.1000 kg
u2 2.00 m s 1

Ek after 12 m1 2 v1 2 2

v1 2 1.00 m s 1

Ek after 12 (0.4000)(1.00)2
Ek after 0.200 J
%Eff

25
26

B
a
b
c

(0.200) 100
25.0%
(0.800)

A
D
C

27

v 10.0 m s 1
r 20.0 m
28

distance 2 r 2 (20.0)

v
v
(10.0)
T 12.6 s
T

v 2 (10.0) 2

r
(20.0)

v 10.0 m s 1

ac

r 20.0 m

ac 5.00 m s 2 west

29
30

ac 5.00 m s 2 west

Fc mac (1510)(5.00)

m 1510 kg

Fc 7.55 103 N west

Fc 7.55 10 3 N east

c
C
a

Fseat on boy Fc ( Fg )
mv 2
(50.0)(5.00) 2

( mg )
( (50.0)( 9.80))
r
(10.0)

m 50.0 kg

Fseat on boy

r 10.0 m

Fseat on boy ( 1.25 10 2 ) (4.90 10 2 )

g 9.80 m s 2

Fseat on boy 3.65 10 2 N upwards

ii

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 45 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

Fseat on boy Fc ( Fg )

m 50.0 kg

Fseat on boy

r 10.0 m

Fseat on boy (1.25 10 2 ) (4.90 10 2 )

g 9.80 m s 2

Fseat on boy 6.15 10 2 N upwards

mv 2
(50.0)(5.00) 2
( mg )
( (50.0)( 9.80))
r
(10.0)

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 46 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

Chapter 2 Applying forces


2.1 Gravitational fields
1

Gma mo (6.67 1011 )(0.1000)(0.2000)

r2
(0.500) 2

ma 0.1000 kg

Fg

mo 0.2000 kg

Fg 5.34 10 12 N attraction

r 0.500 m
b

GmE ms (6.67 10 11 )(5.98 10 24 )(2.00 10 4 )

r2
(600.0 103 6.37 106 ) 2

mE 5.98 1024 kg

Fg

ms 2.00 104 kg

Fg 1.64 105 N attraction

alt 600.0 103 m


rE 6.37 106 m
c

mE 5.98 1024 kg
mm 7.35 1022 kg

Fg

GmE ms (6.67 1011 )(5.98 10 24 )(7.35 10 22 )

r2
(3.84 108 ) 2

Fg 1.99 10 20 N attraction

rE m 3.84 108 m
d

mp 1.67 10

27

kg

me 9.111031 kg

Fg

Gmp me
r2

(6.67 10 11 )(1.67 10 27 )(9.1110 31 )

(5.30 1011 )2

Fg 3.6110 47 N attraction

rpe 5.30 1011 m

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


2

Gma mm
r12

Fg1 160 N

Fg1

Fg2 40 N

Gma mm Fg1r12

r1 rmoon

Fg2

Gma mm
r2 2

Gma mm Fg2r2 2

Fg1r12 Fg2 r2 2
r2 2
r2 2

Fg1
Fg2

r12

(160) 2
r1
(40)

r2 2 4 r12
r2 2 rmoon
b

Fg1 160 N

Fg1r12 Fg2 r2 2
Fg1r12

Fg2 40 N

Fg2

r1 rmoon

Fg2

r2 4 rmoon

(160)rmoon 2
Fg2
(16) rmoon 2

r2 2
(160)rmoon 2
(4 rmoon ) 2

Fg2 10 N attraction
3

GmP mM (6.67 1011 )(1.08 1016 )(6.42 10 23 )

r2
(9.40 106 ) 2

mP 1.08 1016 kg

FM-P

mD 1.80 1015 kg

FM-P 5.23 1015 N attraction

mM 6.42 1023 kg
GmD mM (6.67 1011 )(1.80 1015 )(6.42 10 23 )

r2
(2.35 107 ) 2

rM P 9.40 106 m

FM-D

rM D 2.35 107 m

FM-D 1.40 1014 N attraction


FM-P (5.23 1015 )

37.5
FM-D (1.40 1014 )

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


4

Fg2 0.01 Fg1

Fg1

GmE ms
r12

Fg2

GmE ms
r2 2

Fg1r12 Fg2 r2 2
r2 2
r2 2

Fg1
Fg2

r12
Fg1

0.01 Fg1

r12

r2 100 r12
2

r2 10 rE
5

ma M kg

Fa-x

Gma mx (6.67 10 11 )( M )mx

r2
(0.5R ) 2

mb 0.01M kg
ra x 0.5 R m

Fb-x

Gma mx (6.67 10 11 )(0.01M ) mx

r2
(0.5R ) 2

rb x 0.5 R m
Fa-x (6.67 10 11 )( M ) mx
(0.5R) 2

Fb-x
(0.5R) 2
(6.67 10 11 )(0.01M ) mx
Fa-x
1

100
Fb-x 0.01

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

ma M kg

Fa-x
8100
Fb-x

mb 0.01M kg

8100

(6.67 10 11 )( M ) mx
[(1 x ) R ]2

( xR ) 2
(6.67 10 11 )(0.01M ) mx

ra x xR m

8100

[(1 x ) R ]2
( xR) 2 (0.01)

rb x (1 x ) R m

[(1 x ) R]2
( xR ) 2
[(1 x ) R ]
9.00
( xR)
9.00xR R xR
81.0

10.0xR R
R
10.0 R
x 0.100
x

distance 0.100R
6

ma M kg
mb 0.01M kg
ra x xR m
rb x (1 x) R m

Fa-x
1
Fb-x
(6.67 10 11 )( M ) mx
[(1 x ) R]2
1

( xR) 2
(6.67 10 11 )(0.01M ) mx
1

[(1 x) R]2
( xR) 2 (0.01)

[(1 x) R]2
0.01
( xR) 2
[(1 x ) R]
0.01
( xR )
0.01xR R xR
1.01xR R
R
1.01R
x 0.990
x

distance 0.990R

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


7

G 6.67 1011 N kg 2 m 2

gM

Gm (6.67 10 11 )(3.30 10 23 )

r2
(2.44 106 ) 2

gM 3.70 N kg 1

mM 3.30 1023 kg
rM 2.44 106 m

Gm (6.67 1011 )(5.69 1026 )

r2
(6.03 107 ) 2

mS 5.69 1026 kg

gS

rS 6.03 107 m

gS 10.4 N kg -1

mJ 1.90 1027 kg
Gm (6.67 1011 )(1.90 10 27 )
gJ 2
r
(7.15 107 )2

rJ 7.15 10 m
7

gJ 24.8 N kg 1
8

ma 80.0 kg

Fwt M mg (80.0)(3.70)

gM 3.70 N kg 1

Fwt M 296 N

ma 80.0 kg

Fwt S mg (80.0)(10.4)

gS 10.4 N kg 1

Fwt S 835 N

ma 80.0 kg

Fwt J mg (80.0)(24.8)

gJ 24.8 N kg
9

-1

Fwt J 1980 N

Saturns mass is approximately 100 times that of Earth, while the radius of Saturn is only 10
times that of earth. When the radius of the planet is squared the factor of 10 becomes 10 2, which
is enough to cancel out the factor of 100 by which the mass of Saturn is greater.

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Page 51 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


10

mE 5.98 1024 kg

FE FM
GmE ms GmM ms

x2
(r x ) 2
mE
mM

2
x
(r x ) 2

mM 7.35 1022 kg
r 3.84 108 m

(r x) 2 mM

x2
mE
(3.84 108 x)
(7.35 1022 )

x
(5.98 1024 )
3.84 108 x 0.110 x
1.110 x 3.84 108
3.84 108
1.110
x 3.46 108 m
x

2.2 Satellite motion


1

As the satellite does not change its energy while orbiting around the Earth, it doesnt change its
height above the surface of the Earth so its gravitational potential energy does not change, and its
speed doesnt change so its kinetic energy doesnt change.

ms 2.30 103 kg

Fnet mg (2.30 103 )(0.220)

g 0.220 N kg 1

Fnet 5.06 10 2 N

The source of this force is the gravitational attraction of the Earth on the satellite.

mN 1.02 10

26

kg

rT 3.55 108 m

GmN (6.67 1011 )(1.02 10 26 )


g 2
rT
(3.55 108 ) 2
g 0.0540 m s 2

G 6.67 1011 N m 2 kg 2

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

v2
r

g 0.0540 m s 2

rT 3.55 108 m

v gr (0.0540)(3.55 108 )
v 4.38 103 m s 1

v 4.38 103 m s 1
rT 3.55 108 m

distance
T
distance (2(3.55 108 ))
T

v
(4.38 103 )
v

(5.10 108 )
( 24 60 60)
T 5.90 days
T

distance (2 (1.22 10 6 ))

T
(1.38 106 )

T 1.38 106 s

rT 1.22 109 m

v 5.55 km s 1

rT 1.22 106 km
b

v 5.55 103 m s 1
rT 1.22 109 m

ac

v 2 (5.55 103 ) 2

r
(1.22 109 )

ac 2.53 m s 2

ac 2.53 102 m s 2
G 6.67 1011 N m 2 kg 2
r 1.22 109 m

ac g
GmS
r2
ac r 2 (2.53 10 2 )(1.22 109 ) 2
mS

G
(6.67 1011 )
ac

mS 5.65 1026 kg

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 53 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


8

T 2.10 107 s

vc Fg
ms v 2 GmV ms

r
r2

mV 4.87 1024 kg

G 6.67 10

11

-2

N kg m

GmV
(2r )


r
T

(42 r 2 ) GmV

T2
r
GmVT 2
r

42
3

(6.67 10 11 )(4.87 1024 )(2.10 10 7 ) 2


4 2

r 3 3.63 10 27
r 1.54 109 m
b

T 2.10 10 s

distance (2(1.54 109 ))


v

T
(2.10 107 )

r 1.54 109 m

v 4.60 10 2 m s 1

v 4.60 102 m s 1

ac

r 1.54 109 m

ac 1.37 104 m s 2

v 2 (4.60 102 ) 2

r
(1.54 109 )

rA 1.37 108 m

vA

2rA
2(1.37 108 )

1.65 10 4 m s 1
TA
(0.602)(24 60 60)

vH

2rH
2(3.77 108 )

9.97 103 m s 1
TH
(2.75)(24 60 60)

TA 0.602 day
rH 3.77 108 m
TH 2.75 days
vA 1.65 104

1.66
vH 9.97 103

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ii

aA

vA 2 (1.65 104 ) 2

1.99 m s 2
rA
(1.37 108 )

aH

vH 2 (9.97 103 ) 2

0.264 m s 2
rH
(3.77 108 )

rA 1.37 108 m
vA 1.65 104 m s 1
rH 3.77 108 m
vH 9.97 103 m s 1

aA 1.99

7.58
aH 0.264
b

rA 1.37 108 m

rA 3 rT 3

TA 2 TT 2

TA 5.20 104 s

TT 2

rT 1.20 109 m

TT

rT 3TA 2
rA 3
(1.20 109 )3 (5.20 10 4 ) 2
(1.37 108 )3

TT 1.82 1012
(1.35 106 )
TT
s
(24 60 60)
TT 15.6 days
10

rE 6.37 106 m

gA
1.2
gB
gA 1.2 gB
GmE
Gm
1.2 2 E
2
rE
ro
ro 2 1.2 rE 2
ro 1.2 rE
ro 1.2 (6.37 106 )
ro 6.98 106 m

2.3 Torque
1

a
b

.The axis of rotation is the tap spindle; the lever arm is approximately 0.04 m
The axis of rotation is the axle of the wheel; the lever arm is approximately 1 m

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Page 55 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


c
d
2

The axis of rotation is the end of the tweezers; the lever arms are approximately 0.07 m
The axis of rotation is the place in which the screwdriver contacts the edge of the tin; the
lever arm is approximately 0.2 m
The line of application of the force is a larger perpendicular distance from the hinges (pivot
point) when the force is applied to the handle than when it is applied to the centre of the
door.
Using a long crowbar with a small rock as a pivot a large force can be applied to the large
rock if a small effort arm is used with a long effort arm, a ratio of load arm to effort arm of
1:10 will multiply the force you apply by ten times.

mH 40.0 kg
g 9.80 m s

r 2.25 m

Fr
(40.0)(9.80)(2.25)
8.82 10 2 N m

cw 400.0 N m
r 1.60 m

cw acw
F

acw (400.0)

r
(1.60)

F 2.50 102 N upwards


5

mw 2.50 103 kg
g 9.80 m s
r 2.00 m
b
6

Fr

(2.50 103 )(9.80)(2.00)


4.90 10 4 N m

Cranes use counter-weights on the other side of the pivot point to the load to provide an
opposing torque to balance the torque due to the load.

mw 1.00 kg

Fr

g 9.80 m s 2
r 0.500 m

(1.00)(9.80)(0.500)
4.90 N m

mw 1.00 kg

Fr

g 9.80 m s 2
r 1.00 m

(1.00)(9.80)(1.00)
9.80 N m

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 56 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


c

mw 1.00 kg

r r cos (1.00)(cos 60.0o)

g 9.80 m s 2

r 0.500 m
Fr

F
r

60.0

(1.00)(9.80)(0.500)
4.90 N m
7
8
9

10

The weights provide a large counter torque should the performer overbalance. Only a small
movement of the pole is enough to balance the torque provided by the performer overbalancing.
The bench will not work successfully. The supports should be moved so that the centre of gravity
is between the supports or bolts could be used to attach the left hand support to the bench-top.
a
The weight of the bag will produce a torque about a pivot point around the base of the
spine, which will tend to rotate the torso to the right. To compensate for this the person
must lean to the left, or by holding the left arm out from the body to move it farther from
the pivot point.
b

mw 14.0 kg

Fr

g 9.80 m s 2
assume r 0.3 m

(14.0)(9.80)(0.3)
40 N m

mw 3.50 103 kg

Fwt mg (3.50 10 3 )(9.80)

g 9.80 m s 2

Fwt 3.43 10 4 N

As the perpendicular distance from the line of action of the load to the pivot point does not
change, then the torque does not change.

Fwt 3.43 104 N


assume r 15.0 m

Fr
(3.43 104 )(15.0)
5.15 105 N m

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 57 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

2.4 Equilibrium
1
2

A, B, D

Fy 0

mp 50.0 kg

4FT cable Fw1 Fw2 ( mg ) 0

g 9.80 m s 2

4FT cable ( 600) (850) [(50.0)( 9.80)] 0

Fw1 600 N

4FT cable 1940 0

Fw2 850 N

(1940)
4.85 102 N
4

FT cable

Fy 0

g 9.80 m s 2

2Fpillar 8 (mload g ) (mgirder g ) 0


2Fpillar 8 (20 000)( 9.80) (5000)(9.80) 0

mload 20 000 kg

2Fpillar 1.96 106 0

mgirder 5000 kg

Fpillar

(1.96 106 )
9.80 105 N
2

Fy 0

mgirl 60.0 kg

2FT vert (mgirl g ) ( mbeam g ) 0

g 9.80 m s 2
mbeam 30.0 kg

2FT vert (60.0)( 9.80) (30.0)(9.80) 0

2FT vert 8.82 102 0


FT vert

(8.82 102 )
4.41 10 2 N
2

sin

FT vert
FT

FT

FT vert

FT

(4.41 102 )
5.06 102 N
sin 5o

5
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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 58 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


Fw1 200 N

cw acw

r1 1.2 m

Fw1r1 Fw2 r2

r2 1.5 m

Fw2

Fw1r1 (200)(1.2)

r2
(1.5)

Fw2 160 N

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 59 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


6

mbeam 2.0 kg
r1 0.25 m
mlight 5.0 kg

mbeam r1 mlight r2
(2.0)(9.80)(0.25) (5.0)(9.80)(0.5)
2.94 101 N m

r2 0.5 m
9.80 m s 2
7

r2 10 sin 30o m

cw Fwt r1
cw mbridge g r1
acw 2 FT r2

r2

acw 2 FT 10 sin 30o

FT
30

r1

Fwt

FT vert FT sin 30o


FT horiz FT cos 30o
c

r2 10 sin 30o m
r1 5.0 m
mbridge 700 kg

cw acw
Fwt r1 2FT r2
mbridge g r1 2FT 10 sin 30o

g 9.80 m s 2

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FT

mbridge g r1

2 10 sin 30
FT 3.43 103 N

(700)(9.80)(5.0)
2 10 sin 30o

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 60 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


8

r3
r2

r2 10 m

cw acw

r3 20 m

Fwt train r1 Fwt beam r2 FY r3

mbeam 5000 kg

mtrain g r1 mbeamg r2 FY r3

mtrain 5000 kg
FY 30.6 103 N

r1

r1

Fwt train

Y
Fwt beam

FY r3 mbeam g r2 (30.6 103 )(20) (5000)(9.80)(10)

mtrain g
(5000)(9.80)

r1 2.49 m

g 9.80 m s 2
9

mladder 16 kg
r1 2.4 cos 65o

wt ladder Fwt ladder r1


wt ladder mladder gr1 (16)(9.80)(2.4 cos 65o)

65

r1

wt ladder 159 N m
b

mperson 50 kg
r1 1.2 cos 65o

wt person Fwt person r1


wt person mwt person gr1 (50)(9.80)(1.2 cos 65o)

65

r1

wt person 248 N m
c

mperson 50 kg
r1 3.6 cos 65o

wt person Fwt person r1


wt person mwt person gr1 (50)(9.80)(3.6 cos 65o)
wt person 745 N m

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65

r1

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 61 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


10

r1 1.50 m

Take moments about left-hand side:

r2 2.50 m

cw acw

r3 5.00 m

mpainter gr1 mplatform gr2 FR T r3

mplatform 20 kg

FR T

mpainter 70 kg

FR T 304 N up

mpainter gr1 mplatform gr2


r3

(70)(9.80)(1.50) (20)(9.80)(2.50)
(5.00)

g 9.80 m s 2
r1 3.50 m

Take moments about right-hand side:

r2 2.50 m

cw acw

r3 5.00 m

mpainter gr1 mplatform gr2 FL T r3


FL T

mpainter gr1 mplatform gr2


r3

(70)(9.80)(3.50) (20)(9.80)(2.50)
(5.00)

FL T 578 N up
b

r2 2.50 m

Take moments about left-hand side:

r3 5.00 m

cw acw

FL T 557 N up

mpainter gr1 mplatform gr2 FR T r3

FR T 325 N up

r1

mpainter 70 kg

r1 1.65 m from left-hand side

FR T r3 mplatform gr2
mpainter g

(325)(5.00) (20)(9.80)(2.50)
(70)(9.80)

mplatform 20 kg
g 9.80 m s 2
11

FT horiz FT cos 60o (800) cos 60o


FT horiz 400 N
FT vert FT sin 60o (800) sin 60o
FT vert 693 N

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 62 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

r1 0.85 m

Take moments about base of pole:

r2 1.0 m

cw acw

FT horiz 400 N

FT r2 FT horiz r1
FT horiz

FT r2 (400)(1.0)

r1
(0.85)

FT horiz 471 N

Chapter 2 Review
1

Gm1m2
r2

F 2.79 1020 N

G 6.67 1011 N m 2 kg 2

mD 1.05 1021 kg

r 3.78 108 m from Saturn's centre of mass

Gm1m2
(6.67 10 11 )(1.05 10 21 )(5.69 10 26 )

F
(2.79 1020 )

mS 5.69 1026 kg
2

a
b
c
d
e

D
B
C
A
A

FM X Fm X
Gmm mX
GmM mX

2
rM X
rm X 2
m
mM
m2
2
rM X
rm X
mM
r 2 (0.8 R) 2
M X2
mm
rm X
(0.2 R) 2
mM
(0.64)

16
mm
(0.04)

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 63 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


5

GmN (6.67 10 11 )(1.02 10 26 )

r2
(2.48 107 ) 2

G 6.67 10 11 N m 2 kg 2

mN 1.02 1026 kg

g 1.11 101 N kg 1

G 6.67 1011 N m 2 kg 2
mE 5.98 1024 kg
mM 5.98 1024 kg

Fc Fg
mM v 2 GmE mM

r
r2
(2r ) 2 GmE

T2
r
4 2 r 3
42 (3.84 108 )3
T

GmE
(6.67 10 11 )(5.98 10 24 )

r 3.84 10 m
8

(2.37 108 )
s
(24 60 60)
T 27.4 days
T

G 6.67 10 11 N m 2 kg - 2
mJ 1.90 10 27 kg
r 1.10 1010 m

Fc Fg
mL v 2 GmJ mL

r
r2
GmJ
v
r
v

GmJ
(6.67 10 11 )(1.90 10 27 )

r
(1.10 1010 )

v 3.39 10 3 m s 1

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 64 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

G 6.67 1011 N m 2 kg 2

GmJ (6.67 1011 )(1.90 1027 )

r2
(1.10 1010 ) 2

g 1.05 103 m s 2 towards Jupiter

mJ 1.90 1027 kg
r 1.10 1010 m
c

v 3.39 103 m s 1
r 1.10 1010 m

2r
T
2r 2(1.10 1010 )
T

v
(3.39 103 )
v

a
b

(2.04 10 7 )
236 days
(24 60 60)

C
The satellite will always be positioned above the same location on Earth therefore radio
and TV signals can be exchanged with the satellite from any location on Earth that has a
line of sight view of the satellite

G 6.67 1011 N m 2 kg 2
mE 5.98 1024 kg
T 24 60 60 s

Fc Fg
ms v 2 GmE ms

r
r2
(2r ) 2 GmE

T2
r
GmET 2 3 (6.67 1011 )(5.98 1024 )(24 60 60)2
r

4 2
4 2
r 4.23 107 m
3

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 65 of 114

ms v
GmM ms

r
r2
(2r ) 2 GmM
6
T 5.07 10 s

T2
r
Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B
2
GmMT
(6.67 1011 )(3.30 1023 )(5.07 106 ) 2
3
r3

4 2
42
a
r 2.43 108 m
b
mM 3.30 1023 kg

T 5.07 106 s

2r 2(2.43 108 )

T
(5.07 106 )

v 3.0110 2 m s 1

r 2.43 108 m
c

10

v 2 (3.01102 ) 2

r
(2.43 108 )

v 3.0110 2 m s 1

r 2.43 108 m

a 3.73 10 4 m s 2

The work done to increase the kinetic energy if the rock is equal to the area under the curve
from
3.00 106 m to 2.50 106 m

Area Wd approximate number of squares area of 1 square


Wd (5.5) (10)(0.5 106 )
Wd 2.75 107 J
b

u 1000 m s 1

Ek Ek1 Wd

m 20.0 kg

Ek 12 mv 2 Wd 12 (20.0)(1000)2 (2.75 107 )

Wd 2.75 107 J

Ek 3.75 107 J

Ek 3.75 107 J

Ek 12 mv 2

m 20.0 kg

2 Ek

2(3.75 10)
(20.0)

v 1.94 103 m s 1
d

From the graph, at 2.50 106 m, F = 70 N

F 70 N
m 20.0 kg

F mg
F
(70)
g
3.50 N kg 1
m (20.0)

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 66 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


11

Fc Fg
mv 2 GmE m

r
r2
2

2r
m

T GmE m
r
r2
42 r 3
T2
GmE
Ts12 42 rs13 GmE

Ts 2 2
GmE 42 rs 2 3
Ts12 rs13
( R )3
R3

Ts 2 2 rs 23 (2 R)3 8 R 3
Ts1
1
1

C
Ts 2
8
8
b

Fc Fg
mv 2 GmE m

r
r2
GmE
v2
r
2
vs1
GmE rs 2

2
vs 2
rs1 GmE
vs12 rs 2 (2 R )

vs 2 2 rs1 ( R )
vs1
2B
vs 2
c
ac g
a

GmE
r2

a s1 GmE rs 2 2

as2
rs12 GmE
a s1 rs 2 2 ( 2 R )2

a s 2 rs12
( R )2
a s1
4D
as2
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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 67 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


12

Fc Fg
mv 2 GmS m

r
r2
2

2r
m

GmS m
T

r
r2
4 2 r 3
42 (1.50 1011 )3
mS

GT 2
(6.67 10 11 )(365.25 24 60 60) 2
mS 2.011030 kg
13
14

rN 3 rC 3

TN 2 TC 2

TC 6.40 days

TC 2 rN 3
(6.40) 2 (49 000)3

rC 3
(19 600)3

rC 19 600 km

TN

rN 49 000 km

TN 25.3 days

15

Fc Fg
mv 2 GmP m

r
r2
2

2r

GmP m
T

r
r2
4 2 r 3
42 (19 600 103 )3
mP

GT 2
(6.67 10 11 )(6.40 24 60 60) 2
m

mP 1.46 1022 kg

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 68 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


16

rISS (3.80 105 ) rE m

Fc Fg
mv 2 GmE m

r
r2
GmE
v2
r
2
vISS
GmE rO2D

2
vO2D
rISS GmE

rISS 6.75 106 m


rO2D (3.60 107 ) rE m
rO2D 4.24 107 m

vISS2 rO2D (4.24 107 )

vO2D 2 rISS (6.75 106 )


vISS
6.28 2.51
vO2D
17

rISS 6.75 106 m


rO2D 4.24 107 m

Fc Fg
mv 2 GmE m

r
r2
42 r 3
2
T
GmE
TISS2 42 rISS3
Gm

2 E 3
2
TO2D
GmE
4 rO2D
TISS2
rISS3 (6.75 106 )3

TO2D 2 rO2D 3 (4.24 107 )3


TISS
4.04 10 3 6.36 10 2
TO2D

18

rISS 6.75 106 m

ac g

rO2D 4.24 107 m

a
aISS
aO2D

GmE
r2
GmE rO2D 2

rISS 2 GmE

aISS rO2D 2 (4.24 107 ) 2

aO2D rISS 2 (6.75 106 ) 2


aISS
39.4
aO2D

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 69 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


19

Fgravity on ball
Fground on ball
20

a
b

C
The forces must be on different objects and be equal in magnitude.

21

cw 445 N m

Fr

rcontents 1.60 m

(445)

r (1.60)

F 278 N up
22

F 5.00 103 N

Fr (5.00 103 )(3.00)

rcontact 3.00 m
23

1.50 10 4 N m

The wrecker could hit the wall higher up to increase the radius.
E

r (3.00)(cos 65.0o)

Fr mgr

r 1.27 m
g 9.80 m s

(7.50)(9.80)(1.27)
2

93.2 N m

m 7.50 kg

24

r (2.0)(cos 65.0o)
r 0.85 m

Fr mgr
(60)(9.80)(0.85)

g 9.80 m s 2

4.99 N m

m 60 kg
25

mload 4.50 103 kg


g 9.80 m s 2
26

F mg (4.50 103 )(9.80)


F 4.41 104 N

27

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 70 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


FT1vert mg (1.5)(9.80)

FT1horiz FT1vert tan 50 o (14.7)(1.19)

FT1vert 14.7 N

FT1horiz 17.5 N

FT12 FT1vert 2 FT1horiz 2


FT1 (14.7) 2 (17.5) 2
FT1 22.9 N
FT2 FT1horiz 17.4 N
28

F1 (6.00 9.80) N

taking moments about LHS

F2 (10.0 9.80) N

cw acw

F3 (13.0 9.80) N

F1r1 F2 r2 F3 r3 Fbeam r 4 FRHS r5

Fbeam (2.00 9.80) N

FRHS

F1r1 F2 r 2 F3 r3 Fbeam r 4
r5

FRHS

(58.8)(2.0) (98.0)(5.0) (124.4)(7.0) (19.6)(5.0)


(10.0)

FRHS 1.60 10 2 N upwards


taking moments about RHS
cw acw
F1r1 F2 r2 F3 r3 Fbeam r 4 FLHS r5
FLHS

F1r1 F2 r 2 F3r3 Fbeam r 4


r5

FLHS

(58.8)(8.0) (98.0)(5.0) (124.4)(3.0) (19.6)(5.0)


(10.0)

FLHS 1.44 10 2 N upwards

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 71 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


29

a
pivot

mload 1.50 103 kg


r1 25.0 m

Fc-w

cw acw
r1r2

mload 20.0 103 kg

Fload r1 Fc-w r2

Fload

F r (1.50 103 )(25.0)


r2 load 1
Fc-w
(20.0 103 )
r2 1.88 m

b
30

This reduces the torque acting on the crane making it less likely that the crane will topple
over.

F 250 N

Fr (250)(1.0)

r1 1.0 m

250 N m

This torque would cause the barrier to bend slightly to the left causing tension at Y and
compression at X, as concrete can withstand more compression than tension it is more
likely to crack at position Y.

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 72 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

Chapter 3 Understanding electromagnetism


3.1 Magnetic fields
1
2
3

5
6

8
9
10

B
C
a
b
c
a
b
c

North
North-east
East
South
North
Zero due to the two wires, but the Earths magnetic field still exists and will be directed
north.
At point R, but only if the combined field from m and n are balanced by the Earths field.
a
South
b
South
c
South, but only if it greater than the Earths field at that point.
a
B, into the page
b
3B, into the page
c
Zero
A
South
South

3.2 Force on current-carrying conductors


1

l 100.0 m

F IlB

I 80.0 A W E

F (80.0)(100.0)(5.34 10 5 )

B 5.34 105 T

F 4.27 10 1 N upwards

l 100.0 m

F IlB

I 50.0 A E W

F (50.0)(100.0)(5.34 10 5 )

B 5.34 10 5 T

F 2.67 10 1 N downwards

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 73 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


2

l 100.0 m

Fwt
mg
(50.0)(9.80)

FB IlB (100.0)(100.0)(5.34 105 )

I 100.0 A

Fwt
918
FB

B 5.34 105 T
m 50.0 kg
3
4

B
a

l 0.0500 m

F IlB

I 2.00 A into page

F (2.00)(0.0500)(2.00 103 )

B 2.00 103 T

F 2.00 10 4 N north

l 0.0500 m

F IlB

I 1.00 A out of page

F (1.00)(0.0500)(2.00 10 3 )

B 2.00 103 T

F 1.00 10 4 N south

l 1.00 10 3 m

F IlB

I 3.00 A into page

F (3.00)(1.00 10 3 )(0.500)

B 0.500 T

F 1.50 10 3 N west

l 1.00 10 3 m

F IlB

I 3.00 A out of page


B 1.00 T
6

F (3.00)(1.00 10 3 )(1.00)
F 3.00 10 3 N east

F
(8.00 10 3 )

lB (2.00 10 3 )(0.100)

l 2.00 103 m

F 8.00 103 N south

I 40.0 A into the page

B 0.100 T

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 74 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

l 2.00 103 m
F 2.00 10 2 N north

F
(2.00 10 2 )

lB (2.00 10 3 )(0.500)

I 20.0 A out of the page

B 0.500 T
7

F
IB
l
F
(5.00)(4.00 103 )
l
F
2.00 102 N m 1 west
l

l 5.00 A
B 4.00 103 T south

F
IB
l
F
(5.00)(4.00 103 )
l
F
2.00 10 2 N m 1 east
l

l 5.00 A
B 4.00 103 T north

F
IB
l

l 2.0 A
B 1.0 103 T north-west

F
(2.0)(1.0 10 3 )
l
F
2.0 103 N m 1 north-east
l

l 1.0 A
B 1.0 103 T north-west

F
IB
l
F
(1.0)(1.0 10 3 )
l
F
1.0 103 N m 1 south-west
l

Magnetic flux due to wire N at point M is south.

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 75 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


10

90.0o

B B sin (1.00 10 3 )(sin 90.0) 1.00 10 3 T

l 2.00 10 3 m

F IlB

I 1.00 103 A

F (1.00 103 )(2.00 103 )(1.00 103 )

B 1.00 10 3 T

F 2.00 10 9 N

0o

B B sin (1.00)(sin 0) 0 T

l 5.00 102 m

F 0N

I 1.00 A
B 1.00 T
c

30.0o

B B sin (1.00 10 1 )(sin 30.0) 5.00 102 T

l 1.00 10 3 m

F IlB

I 5.00 A
B 1.00 10 1 T

F (5.00)(1.00 103 )(5.00 10 2 )


F 2.50 104 N

3.3 Electric motors


1

B 0.100 T

F IlB (2.00)(0.05)(0.100)

lPS 0.0500 m

F 1.00 10 2 N into the page

I 2.00 A
2

B 0.100 T

F IlB (2.00)(0.05)(0.100)

lQR 0.0500 m

F 1.00 102 N out of the page

I 2.00 A
3
4
5
6
7
8

9
10

0 N as the field and current are parallel.


Anticlockwise
D
a
Down
b
Up
Anticlockwise
a
Down
b
Up
c
0Nm
C
The commutator reverses the direction of the current through the coil of the motor at a particular

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


point. This enables the resultant torque on the coil at that point keep the motor rotating in a
constant direction.

3.4 Electric fields in circuits


1

a
b
c
d

F doubles
F quadruples
F becomes attractive
F quadruples

kq1q2
r2
(9.00 109 )(1.00)(1.00)
F
(100.0)2

q1 1.00 C

q1 1.00 C
k 9.00 109 N m 2 C 2

F 9.00 105 N repulsion

r 100 m
3

q1 5.00 10 6 C
q1 5.00 10 6 C

kq1q2
r2
(9.00 109 )(5.00 10 6 )(5.00 10 6 )
F
(0.800)2
F

k 9.00 109 N m 2 C 2

F 3.52 10 1 N repulsion

r 0.800 m
b

As the charges on the Van de Graaff machine are mobile, and are of the same sign, they
will repel each other so that they move to opposite sides of the dome, this will increase the
distance between the centre of the charges.

E 5.00 103 N C 1
q1 2.00 10 6 C

F1 Eq1 (5.00 10 3 )( 2.00 106 )


F1 1.00 10 8 N downwards

q2 5.00 106 C
F2 Eq2 (5.00 10 3 )(5.00 10 6 )
F2 2.50 10 8
F2 2.50 10 8 N upwards
b

E 5.00 103 N C 1
F 1.00 103 N
5

F1
(1.00 103 )

E
(5.00 10 3 )

q 2.00 10 1 C

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Page 77 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


I 5 103 A

q I t (5.00 103 )(10.0 60)

t (10.0 60)

q 3 C

I 200 A

q I t (200)(5.00)

t 5.00 s

q 1103 C

I 400 103 A

q I t (400 103 )(60 60)

t (60 60) s

q 1.4 103 C

N e 50 1012

qe 1.60 1019 C
t 3 s
7

Nq
q
e e
t
t
(50 1012 )( 1.60 10 19 )
I
(3)
I 3 106 A

The potential difference of a car battery to your hand is 12 V, which causes an insufficient electric
field to cause a current to flow through the air to your skin. The spark in a spark plug results from
a potential difference of thousands of volts, which will cause current to flow through air to your
hand.

Assume 100% efficiency


q 5.00 C
Wd qV
Wd 100.0 J

Wd (100.0)

q
(5.00)
V 20.0 V
V

Assume 100% efficiency


q 1.00 C
Wd qV (9.00)(1.00)
V 9.00 V

Wd 9.00 J

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 78 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


10

Assume 100% efficiency


Wd 2.00 103 J

Wd qV

V 12.0 V

Wd ( 2.00 103 )

V
(12.0)

q 1.67 10 2 C

3.5 Electric circuits


1

Either there is some internal resistance in the battery or there is some form of resistance in the
circuit, which may be due to corroded connections.

Current in current out 0


( 2.50) ( 1.00) ( 4.20) I 0
I 0.70
I 0.70 A out of the point
3
4
5

a
b
a
b
a

0.25 A
2.40 V
Yes
If one bulb breaks the other will go out too.

V 5.00 V

V IR

R1 400.0

R2 100.0

I 1.00 102 A

I 1.00 10 2 A

V1 IR1 (1.00 10 2 )(400.0) 4.00 V

R1 400.0

V2 IR2 (1.00 10 2 )(100.0) 1.00 V

V
(5.00)

R (400.0 100.0)

R2 100.0
6

a
b
c
d
e
f
a
b
c

Lamp A gets brighter


Lamp C turns off
Current increases
Potential difference across lamp B increases
Potential difference across lamp C decreases
Total power increases
R1, R4 and R5
R2 and R3
R1, R4 and R5

8
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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 79 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

10

a
b
c
d
a

R1 ()
1000
3000
400
900
2.0
D
F
D
A

R2 ()
1000
1000
100
100
3.0

Vout (V)
10
5.0
4.0
2.0
12

1
1
1

1.33 10 4
3
3
RA (10 10 ) (30 10 )
RA 7.5 103
R B (7.5 103 ) (5 103 ) 1.25 10 4
1
1
1

1.13 104
4
RC (1.25 10 ) (30 103 )
RC 8.8 103
RTotal (8.8 103 ) (40 103 ) 4.9 10 4
b

V I T RT
IT

V
(10.0)

2.05 10 4 A
4
RT (4.9 10 )

V I T R40 (2.05 104 )(40 103 )


V 8.2 V
c

V (10) (8.2) 1.8 V


I 30

V
(1.8)

6.02 10 5 A
3
R30 (30 10 )

I 5 I T I 30 (2.05 10 4 ) (6.02 105 )


I 5 1.4 104 A

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 80 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


d

V5 I 5 R5 (1.4 104 )(5 103 )


V5 7.2 101 V
V10 V V5 (1.8) (7.2 10 1 )
V10 1.1 V

Chapter 3 Review
1
2
3
4

B, C
B
A
a
b
c
d
a
b
c
d
a

R4
R2 and R3
R4
E2
All four in series.
Two in series that are connected to two in parallel.
All four in parallel.
One resistor that is connected to three in parallel.

Circuit a:
V 12.0 V

IT

V (12.0)

7.50 10 1 A
RT (16.0)

Circuit b:
IT

V (12.0)

1.20 A
RT (10.0)

IT

V (12.0)

12.0 A
RT (1.00)

IT

V (12.0)

2.25 A
RT (5.33)

Circuit c:

Circuit d:

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 81 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

Circuit a:
I T I1 I 2 I 3 I 4 7.50 10 1 A
Circuit b:
I T I1 I 2 1.20 A, I 3 I 4 0.60 A
Circuit c:
I1 I 2 I 3 I 4

I T 12.0

3.00 A
4
4

Circuit d:
I T I1 2.25 A, I 2 I 3 I 4

I T 2.25

7.50 101 A
3
3

RT RA RB R 3R
RT 4 R
IT

V V

RT 4 R
V
V
( R)

4 R

V1 I T RA
V1 14 V
8

RT

V
(12.0)

IT
(200.0 103 )

RT 60.0
RT (60.0)

4
4
R 15.0
R

RA R 15.0
RB 3R 45.0
b

PB I 2 RB (200.0 103 ) 2 (45.0)


PB 1.80 W

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 82 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


9

VTherm VT Vout (6) (1)


VTherm 5 V
IT

Vout
(1)

R
(1103 )

I T 1103 A
RTherm

VTherm
(5)

IT
(1103 )

RTherm 5 103
from graph at 5 103 temperature is 20oC
10

VX 2
R
VX Pmax R (25)(100)
Pmax

VX 50 V
IT

VX (50)

0.50 A
RX
(100)

IY

I T (0.50)

0.25 A
2
2

VY I T RY (0.25)(100)
VY 25 V
VAB VX VY (50) (25 )
VAB 75 V

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 83 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

1
1
1
1
1

0.02
RP RY RZ (100) (100)
RP 50
RT RX RP (100) (50 )
RT 150
VAB 2 (75) 2
PT

RT
(150)
PT 37.5 W
11

12

R1 ()
R2 ()
1000
2000
2000
4000
4000
2000
8000
5000
a
1
1 1
1

0.34
RP 10 5 ( 20 5 )

Switch
Open
Open
Open
Closed

Vout (V)
60
60
50
0

RP 2.94
RT 10 RP ( 10 ) ( 2.94 )
RT 12 .946
IT

V
( 25 )

RT ( 12.94 )

I T 1.93 A
V10 I T R10 ( 1.94 )( 10 )
V10 19.3 V
VP V V10 ( 25 ) ( 19.3 )
VP 5.68 V
I 20

VP ( 5.55 )

R20 5
( 25 )

I 20 0.23 A

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 84 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

VP V V10 (25) (19.3)


VP 5.7 V
13

a
b

slope

(y2 y1 ) (39 103 0)

(x2 x1 )
(75 0)

slope 5.2 104 A V 1


R

V
1
1

I slope (5.2 104 )

R 1.9 103
c
d

When V 60 V then from the graph I Y I T 40 10 3 A

RP

1
1
1
1

1.04 103
3
3
RX RX (1.9 10 ) (1.9 10 )

RP 9.6 102
VP IRP (40 103 )(9.6 10 2 )
VP 38 V
VBattery VY VP (60) (38)
VBattery 98 V
e

PT VT I T (98)(40 103 )
PT 3.9 W
14

15
16

a
Into the page
b
Out of the page
c
Out of the page
d
Out of the page
5.00 105 T south
Into the page

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 85 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


17

b
BT BE BC (5.00 105 ) (50 10 6 )
BT 1.00 104 T north
18

BT BE 2 BC 2 (5.00 105 ) 2 (50 106 ) 2


BT 7.07 105 T
19
20
21

North-west
C
a

F IlB (1.00 103 )(5.00 103 )(1.00 10 3 )


F 5.00 10 9 N into the page
b

F IlB (2.00)(1.00 102 )(0.100)


F 2.00 10 3 N into the page
c

F IlB (5.00)(10.0 103 )(1.00)


F 5.00 102 N into the page
22
23
24

25
26

a
b
Zero
a
b
c
Zero

Out of the page


Into the page
Attraction
Attraction
Repulsion

Fc
IB (1.00)(2.00) 2.00 N m 1
l

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 86 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


27

I 1.0 A
l 0.50 m
B 0.20 T
28
29

F IlB (1.0)(0.50)(0.20)
F 0.10 N

Anticlockwise
D

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 87 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

Chapter 4 Generating electricity


4.1 Magnetic flux and induced currents
1

0.00 BAcos (2.00 103 )(0.0400 0.0400)(cos0.00o)


0.00 3.20 106 Wb
45.0 BAcos (2.00 103 )(0.0400 0.0400)(cos45.0o)
45.0 2.26 106 Wb
60.0 BAcos (2.00 103 )(0.0400 0.0400)(cos60.0o)
60.0 1.60 106 Wb
90.0 BAcos (2.00 103 )(0.0400 0.0400)(cos90.0o)
90.0 0 Wb
2

0 to 45 45.0 0.00 (2.26 10 6 ) (3.20 106 )


0 to 45 9.37 107 Wb
0 to 60 60.0 0.00 (1.60 10 6 ) (3.20 106 )
0 to 60 1.60 106 Wb
45 to 90 90.0 45.0 (0) (2.26 10 6 )
45 to 90 2.26 106 Wb
0 to 90 90.0 0.00 (0) (3.20 10 6 )
0 to 90 3.20 106 Wb
3

f i BAcosf BAcosi
(0)(0.0400 0.0400)(cos0.00o) (3.20 10 6 )
3.20 106 Wb

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Page 88 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

f i BAcosf BAcosi
(3.20 106 ) (3.20 10 6 )
6.40 106 Wb
c

f i BAcosf BAcosi
(4.00 10 3 )(0.0400 0.0400)(cos0.00o) (3.20 10 6 )
(6.40 106 ) (3.20 10 6 )
3.20 106 Wb
d

f i BAcosf BAcosi
(1.00 10 3 )(0.0400 0.0400)(cos0.00o) (3.20 10 6 )
(1.60 10 6 ) (3.20 10 6 )
1.60 106 Wb
4

a
b
c
d

There must be a changing magnetic flux in the conductor that makes the coil, and the coil must
be part of a complete circuit.

As S is closed a current in Y grows, which deflects the galvanometer needle to the right, and then
drops to zero.
While S is closed, no current flows.
As S is opened a larger current in Y grows, which deflects the galvanometer needle to the left,
and then drops to zero.

As the current in X steadily decreases the current in Y is constant and deflects the galvanometer
needle to the left.
As the current in X steadily increases the current in Y is constant and deflects the galvanometer
needle to the right.

b
9

Zero
Negative
Positive
Negative

r 4.00 102 m

BA Br 2 (2.00 10 3 )(4.00 102 ) 2

B 2.00 10 3 T

1.01 105 Wb

Zero

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Page 89 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


f i (0) (1.01 10 5 )
1.01105 Wb
b

(1.0110 5 )

t
(1.00 103 )

1.0110 2 Wb s 1
t
10

c
a

4.00 mA flowing from Y to X through the milliammeter.

f i (1.01 10 5 ) (1.01105 )
2.02 105 Wb
(2.02 10 5 )

t
(1.00 103 )

2.02 102 Wb s 1
t
This is double the change of flux
induced current is 8.00 mA from X to Y
b

r 2.00 102 m

BA Br 2 (2.00 103 )(2.00 10 2 ) 2

B 2.00 10 3 T

2.51 10 6 Wb

f i (0) (2.51 106 )


2.51106 Wb
(2.51106 )

t
(1.00 103 )

2.51103 Wb s 1
t
This is one-quarter the change of flux
induced current is 1.00 mA from X to Y

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 90 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


c

f i (0) (1.01 105 )


1.01105 Wb
(1.01105 )

t
(2.00 103 )

5.03 103 Wb s 1
t
This is half the change of flux
induced current is 2.00 mA from X to Y

4.2 Induced EMF: Faradays law


1

B 2.00 103 T

B A (2.00 10 3 )(0.02 0.03)


1.2 10 6 Wb

b
c

Zero

(0) (1.2 10 6 )

t
(40 103 )

i 1.2 106 Wb

EMF

f 0 Wb

EMF 3.0 105 V

t 40 103 s
d

EMF 3.0 10 5 V
R 1.50
2

V (3.0 105 )

R
(1.50)

I 2.0 105 A

Bi 80.0 10 3 T

f i Bf A Bi A

B f 0 T

(0)(10.0 104 ) (80.0 10 3 )(10.0 10 4 )

A 10.0 cm 2

8.00 10 5 Wb

A 10.0 10 4 m 2

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 91 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

(8.00 105 )

t
(20 103 )

8.00 105 Wb

EMF

t 20 103 s

EMF 4.00 10 3 V

8.00 105 Wb

EMF N

t 20 103 s
N 500

EMF 2.00 V

(8.00 105 )
(500)
t
(20 103 )

B 5.00 103 T

f i B Af B Ai

Ai 50.0 cm 2

(5.00 10 3 )(250.0 10 4 ) (5.00 103 )(50.0 10 4 )

Ai 50.0 104 m 2

(1.25 10 4 ) (2.50 10 5 )

Af 250.0 cm 2

1.00 10 4 Wb

Af 250.0 10 4 m 2
b

1.00 10

Wb

t 0.500 s
N 30
4

(1.00 104 )
EMF N
(30)
t
(0.500)
EMF 6.00 103 V

B 4.42 105 T

B A (4.42 10 5 )(4.00) 2

r 4.00 m

2.22 10 3 Wb

5
6

(2.22 103 )
(1)
t
(0.125)

2.22 10 3 Wb

EMF N

f 8.00 Hz
t 0.125 s

EMF 1.78 10 2 V

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 92 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


A 1.60 103 m 2

l A (1.60 10 3 ) 4.00 102 m

v 2.5 m s 1
EMF 5.0 10

s (4.00 102 )
t
1.60 10 2 s
v
(2.5)

t
EMF t (5.0 103 )(1.60 102 )

N
1
5
8.00 10 Wb

EMF N

f (8.00 105 )

A (1.60 103 )

B 5.00 10 2 T
7
8

C
a
b
c
a
b
c

Out of the page


Into the page
Out of the page
Positive
Positive
Negative

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 93 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

4.3 Electric power generation


1

B 5.00 103 T

0.00 BAcos (5.00 10 3 )(20.0 10 -4 )(cos0.00o)

A 20.0 10-4 m 2

0.00 1.00 105 Wb


15.0 BAcos (5.00 103 )(20.0 10-4 )(cos15.0o)
15.0 9.66 10 6 Wb
30.0 BAcos (5.00 103 )(20.0 10-4 )(cos30.0o)
30.0 8.66 106 Wb
45.0 BAcos (5.00 10 3 )(20.0 10 -4 )(cos45.0o)
45.0 7.07 106 Wb
60.0 BAcos (5.00 10 3 )(20.0 10-4 )(cos60.0o)
60.0 5.00 106 Wb
75.0 BAcos (5.00 10 3 )(20.0 10-4 )(cos75.0o)
75.0 2.590 106 Wb
90.0 BAcos (5.00 103 )(20.0 10-4 )(cos90.0o)
90.0 0 Wb

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8
Page 94 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


2

B 5.00 103 T
A 20.0 10-4 m 2

015 15.0 0.00 (9.66 106 ) (1.00 105 )

t
t
(1.00 103 )
015
3.41104 Wb s 1
t

t 1.00 103 s
1530 30.0 15.0 (8.66 106 ) (9.66 106 )

t
t
(1.00 103 )
1530
9.99 104 Wb s 1
t
3045 45.0 30.0 (7.07 106 ) (8.66 106 )

t
t
(1.00 103 )
3045
1.59 103 Wb s 1
t
4560 60.0 45.0 (5.00 106 ) (7.07 106 )

t
t
(1.00 10 3 )
4560
2.07 103 Wb s 1
t
6075 75.0 60.0 (2.59 10 6 ) (5.00 106 )

t
t
(1.00 10 3 )
6075
2.41 103 Wb s 1
t
7590 90.0 75.0 (0) (2.59 106 )

t
t
(1.00 103 )
7590
2.59 103 Wb s 1
t
3

The rate of change of flux increases as the angle increases.

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Page 95 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


4

EMF N

015
(100)(3.41 104 ) 3.41 10 2 V
t

N 100
EMF

1530
(100)(9.99 10 4 ) 9.99 10 2 V
t

EMF

30 45
(100)(1.59 103 ) 1.59 101 V
t

EMF

4560
(100) (2.07 103 ) 2.07 10 1 V
t

EMF

6075
(100)(2.41 103 ) 2.41 10 1 V
t

EMF

7590
(100)( 2.59 10 3 ) 2.59 10 1 V
t

At 90 as the rate of change of flux is maximum at this point, the wire is moving
perpendicular to the lines of flux at this point.

A 20.0 104 m 2
B 5.00 103 T
T 24.0 103 s

l 20.0 104 4.47 10 2 m


l
r 2.236 10 2 m
2
2 r 2(2.236 10 2 )
v

5.85 101 m s 1
3
T
(24.0 10 )

N 100
EMF 2 NvBl 2(100)(5.85 101 )(5.00 10 3 )(4.47 10 2 )
EMF 2.62 V
6
7

B
a
b
c
d

C
D
C
B

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Page 96 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


e

1
1

0.0200 s
f (50.0)
T (0.0200)
t
5.00 10 3 s
4
4

N 1000

f 50.0 Hz
r 10.0 10 2 m
VP 8.00 103 V

VRMS

VP
2

(8000)
2

5.66 103 V

t
EMFt (5.66 103 )(5.00 10 3 )
f i

N
(1000)
EMF N

(0) BAi 2.83 10 2


2.83 102
B
(10.0 102 ) 2
B 0.900 T
9

VP 2 VRMS 2 (240)
VP 339 V
b

VP-P 2 VP 2 (339)
VP-P 679 V
c

VRMS 240 V

I RMS

VRMS (240)

2.40 A
R
(100)

R 100
I P 2 I RMS 2 (2.40)
I P 3.39 A

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


d

VRMS 240 V

I RMS

VRMS (240)

2.40 A
R
(100)

R 100
10

VRMS2
R
V 2 (240) 2
R RMS
P
(600)
R 96.0

VRMS 240 V

P 600 W

VP 2 VRMS 2 ( 240 )
VP 339 V
c

VP 339 V

P 12 VP I P

P 600 W

IP

2 P 2(600)

VP
(339)

I P 3.54 A

4.4 Transformers
1

Vp N1

a
b

2
3
4
5

B
t

Vs N 2
Vp
Vs

B
t

N1
N2

a
A, B, D
b
A, B, D
a
A
b
B, D
Power losses occur when electrical energy is converted into heat energy in the copper windings
and in the iron core. Energy losses in the core are due to eddy currents.
a
B
b
D
c
A
a

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B

Vp

Vp 8.00 V

Np

Vs

Ns
Vp N s

N p 20 turns

Vs

N s 200 turns

Vs 80.0 V

Np

(8.00)(200)
(20)

Assume 100% efficient


Vp 8.00 V

Vp I p Vs I s
Vp I p

Is

Vs 80.0 V

I s 0.200 A

Vs

(8.00)(2.00)
(80.0)

I p 2.00 A

Assume 100% efficient


Vs 80.0 V
Ps Vs I s (80.0)(0.200)
I s 0.200 A
7

Ps 16.0 W

Vp 240 V

Vp

Vs

Np
Ns
N pVs

Ns

Vs 12.0 V

Vs 40.0 turns

Vp

(800)(12.0)
(240)

N p 800 turns

Vp 240 V

Vp I p Vs I s

I s 2.00 A

Ip

Vs 12.0 V

I p 0.100 A

Vs I s (12.0)(2.00)

Vp
(240)

Vp 240 V

Pp Vp I p (240)(0.100)

I p 0.100 A

Pp 24.0 W

The security light would not operate. In order for an EMF to be generated in the secondary coil a
changing magnetic flux is required, a constant DC supply will create a constant field, therefore
no EMF is induced in the secondary coil.
There is no power consumed in the primary coil during this time. This is because the change in
flux in the transformer core is not causing any current in the secondary coil, so no energy is lost
from the magnetic field. The change in flux in the primary coil will induce a back EMF, which is
equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the applied EMF if it is a perfect transformer. In

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Page 99 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


reality there is some energy loss in the eddy currents in the core so some energy is used from the
field and less energy is available to create the back EMF in the primary coil. This slight
imbalance in the applied EMF and the back EMF results in a small current flowing in the primary
coil and therefore some small power consumption occurs. This is why transformers should be
unplugged when they are not being used.

Assume 2 W consumed by primary coil:


E
P
t
E Pt
E (2)(10 60)
E 1200 J

4.5 Distributing electricity


1

a
b

By transforming to higher voltages the current decreases, this allows thinner


cables to be
2
used. Also the power lost by the cables is reduced significantly as Ploss I R
The corona effect limits the voltage for power transmission. Differences in potential of
1000 V per centimetre will cause current to flow through air, At 500 kV this means that
any ground source must be at least 500 cm away from the active wire. This becomes
problematic for the design of the transmission towers and insulators used.

Pps

I tl

Vps 250 103 V

I tl 2.00 103 A

Pps 500 106 W

I tl

Vps 500 10 V

I tl 1.00 103 A

Vps

(500 106 )
(250 103 )

Pps 500 106 W

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Pps
Vps

(500 106 )
(500 103 )

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Page 100 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


3

Rtl 10.0

Ploss I tl 2 Rtl (2.00 103 )2 (10.0)

I tl 2.00 103 A

Ploss 4.00 10 7 W

%Ploss

Ploss
(4.00 107 )

100
100
Pps
(500 106 )

%Ploss 8.00%
b

Rtl 10.0

Ploss I tl 2 Rtl (1.00 103 )2 (10.0)

I tl 1.00 103 A

Ploss 1.00 10 7 W
%Ploss

Ploss
(1.00 107 )
100
100
Pps
(500 106 )

%Ploss 2.00%
4

I tl 1.00 103 A

R1

l l 1

A r12

R2

l 2
2l 1
2 l 1

0.5 R1
2
2
r2
(2r1 )
4 r12

Ploss I tl 2 Rtl (1.00 103 ) 2 (5.0)


Ploss 5.00 106 W
% Ploss

Ploss
(5.00 106 )
100
100
Pps
(500 106 )

% Ploss 1.00%
5

Pspg

I tl

Vspg 500 V

I tl 10.0 A

Vspg

(5.00 103 )
(500)

Pspg 5.00 103 W

Rtl 4.00
I tl 10.0 A

Ploss I tl 2 Rtl (10.0) 2 (4.00)


Ploss 4.00 10 2 W

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


%Ploss

Ploss
(4.00 102 )
100
100
Pspg
(5.00 103 )

%Ploss 8.00%
d

I tl 10.0 A

Vtl IR (10.0)(4.00)

R 4.00

Vtl 40.0 V
Vhouse Vspg Vtl
Vhouse (5.00 102 ) (40.0)
Vhouse 4.60 102 V

Pspg

Pspg 5.00 103 W

I tl

Vspg 5.00 103 V

I tl 1.00 A

Vspg

(5.00 103 )
(5.00 103 )

Rtl 4.00

Ploss I tl 2 Rtl (1.00) 2 (4.00)

I tl 1.00 A

Ploss 4.00 W
%Ploss

Ploss
(4.00)
100
100
Pspg
(5.00 103 )

%Ploss 0.0800%
c

I tl 1.00 A

Vtl IR (1.00)(4.00)

R 4.00

Vtl 4.0 V
Vhouse Vspg Vtl
Vhouse (5.00 103 ) (4.0)
Vhouse 4.996 103 V

P 1.00 kW
t 2.00 h

E Pt (1.00)(2.00) 2.00 kW h
cost E rate (2.00)( 0.14 ) $0.28

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


b

P 80.0 103 kW

E Pt (80.0 10 3 )(0.500) 4.00 10 2 kW h

t 0.500 h

cost E rate (4.00 10 2 )(0.14) $0.0056

P 250.0 103 kW
t 12.0 h

E Pt (250.0 10 3 )(12.0) 3.00 kW h


cost E rate (3.00)(0.14) $0.42

P 6.00 103 kW
t 7 24 h

E Pt (6.00 10 3 )(7 24) 1.01 kW h


cost E rate (1.01)(0.14) $0.14

P 3.00 10 3 kW
t 365.25 24 h

E Pt (3.00 103 )(365.25 24) 26.3 kW h


cost E rate (26.3)(0.14) $3.68

Ptown (500.0 106 )

Vtown
(250.0)

Ptown 500.0 106 W

I tl

Vtown 250.0 V

I tl 2.00 10 6 A
V I tl Rtl (2.00 10 6 )(2.00)
V 4.00 10 6 V

This would be impossible.


b

Ptown (500.0 106 )

Vtown (100.0 103 )

Ptown 500.0 106 W

I tl

Vtown 100.0 103 V

I tl 5.00 103 A
V I tl Rtl (5.00 103 )(2.00)
V 1.00 104 V
VV
ps V

town

(1.00 104 ) (100.0 103 )

Vps 1.10 105 V

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


c

I tl 5.00 103 A

Ploss I tl 2 Rtl (5.00 103 ) 2 (1.00)

Rtl 1.00

Ploss 2.50 10 7 W

Pspg

I tl

Vtl 10 000 V

I tl 15.0 A

Vtl

(150.0 103 )
(10 000)

Pwt 150.0 103 W

V I tl Rtl (15.0)(2.00)
V 30.0 V
t2 V(10
V
V (30.0)
t1 000)
Vt2 9.97 103 V
c

I tl 15.0 A

Ploss I tl 2 Rtl (15.0) 2 (2.00)

Rtl 2.00

Ploss 4.50 10 2 W

This would not be a great problem.


10

Pspg

I tl

Vtl 1000 V

I tl 150.0 A

Vtl

(150.0 103 )
(1000)

Pwt 150.0 103 W

V I tl Rtl (150.0)(2.00)
V 300.0 V
Vt2 Vt1 V (1000) (300.0)
Vt2 7.00 102 V

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


c

I tl 150.0 A

Ploss I tl 2 Rtl (150.0) 2 (2.00)

Rtl 2.00

Ploss 4.50 104 W


Ptown Pwt Ploss
Ptown (150.0 103 ) (4.50 104 )
Ptown 1.05 105 W

No, as this results in a significant loss of power over the length of the transmission line
(30%).

Chapter 4 Review
1

A 40.0 104 m 2
B1 8.00 104 T
B 2 16.0 104 T

t
(16.0 104 )(40.0 104 ) (8.00 104 )(40.0 104 )
EMF
(1.00 103 )
EMF

EMF 3.20 103 V

t 1.00 103 s
R 1.00

V (3.20 10 3 )

3.20 10 3 A clockwise
R
1.00

A 40.0 104 m 2
B1 8.00 104 T
B 2 8.00 104 T

t
(8.00 10 4 )(40.0 10 4 ) (8.00 10 4 )(40.0 10 4 )
EMF
(2.00 103 )
EMF

EMF 3.20 10 3 V

t 2.00 103 s
R 1.00

V (3.20 10 3 )
I

3.20 10 3 A
R
1.00

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counterclockwise

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8

Page 105 of 114

Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


c

t
(4.00 10 4 )(40.0 10 4 ) (8.00 10 4 )(40.0 10 4 )
EMF
(1.00 103 )

A 40.0 104 m 2

EMF

B1 8.00 104 T
B2 4.00 10 4 T

EMF 1.60 10 3 V

t 1.00 103 s
R 1.00
2

V (1.60 10 3 )

1.60 10 3 A
R
1.00

clockwise

A 40.0 104 m 2

l A 40.0 104 6.32 102 m

B 8.00 104 T

C 2r

2l
(6.32 10 2 ) 1.99 10 1 m
2
1
1
T
1.00 10 2 s
f (100)

f 100 Hz

C (1.99 10 1 )
v
1.99 101 m s 1
2
T (1.00 10 )
EMF 2 Blv 2(8.00 104 )(6.32 10 2 )(1.99 101 )
EMF 2.01103 V
b

EMF 2.0110
R 1.00

I peak

V (2.01 103 )

R
(1.00)

I peak 2.01 10 3 A

a
b
c

current halved to 1.00 mA, period doubled to 20 ms = A


current same as 2.01 mA, period halved to 5 ms = C
current halved to 1.00 mA, period same as 10 ms = B

To the left, as the soft iron core is induced to become a temporary magnet by the
permanent magnets field.
To the left, attraction.
To the right, repulsion.

b
c

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


5

r 4.00 102 m
B 20.0 103 T
N 40 turns

t
(0) (20.0 10 3 ) (4.00 10 2 ) 2
EMF (40)
(0.100)

EMF N

EMF 4.02 10 2 V

t 0.100 s
R 2.00

V (4.02 10 2 )

2.0110 2 A
R
(2.00)

from Y to X

A, C

The direction would be from X to Y as according to Lenzs law the EMF will be induced in a
direction that causes a current that creates a magnetic field that opposes the change that is causing
the current. Current from X to Y will cause a north pole at the top and a south at the bottom of the
coil, which will oppose the north at the top of and the south at the bottom of the permanent
magnet.
a

B 10.0 103 T

EMF Blv (10.0 10 3 )(20.0 10 2 )(2.00)

l 20.0 102 m

EMF 4.00 103 V

v 2.00 m s 1
R 1.00

V (4.00 10 3 )

4.00 103 A
R
(1.00)

from X to Y

B 10.0 103 T

F IlB (4.00 10 3 )(20.0 10 2 )(10.0 103 )

l 20.0 102 m

F 8.00 106 N to the left

I 4.00 103 A
9
10

11

There is no induced current as there isnt a complete circuit, as the switch is open.

B 1.00 T

F IlB (1.00)(5.00 10 2 )(1.00)

l 5.00 102 m
I 1.00 A

F 5.00 10 2 N

To the right

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


12

B 1.00 T

F IlB (1.00)(1.00 10 2 )(1.00)

l 1.00 10 2 m

F 1.00 10 2 N

I 1.00 A
13
14

To the left
a

B 5.00 105 T

EMF Blv (5.00 10 5 )(8.00)(4.00)

l 8.00 m

EMF 1.60 103 V

v 4.00 m s 1 W
b

Zero current is induced in the loop, as both vertical sides of the loop have an EMF induced
in the same direction (downwards). This means that each side produces equal and opposing
EMFs so no current flows in the loop.

15

A 40.0 m 2
B 1.00 105 T s 1
N 1 turn
R 8.00

t
(1.00 105 ) 40.0
EMF (1)
(1.00)

EMF N

EMF 4.00 104 V


I

16

V (4.00 10 4 )

5.00 10 5 A
R
(8.00)

l 100.0 103 m

i B A (1.00 10 3 )(100.0 10 3 )(50.0 103 )

w 50.0 103 m

i 5.00 106 Wb

B 1.00 103 T
b

l 100.0 10 3 m

f B A (1.00 10 3 )(0)

w 50.0 103 m

f 0 Wb

B 1.00 103 T

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


c

i 5.00 10 6 Wb
f 0 Wb
N 1

t
(0) 5.00 106
EMF (1)
(2.00 103 )

EMF N

EMF 2.50 103 V

t 2.00 10 3 s
d

17

V (2.50 103 )

R
(2.00)

V 2.50 103 V

R 2.00

I 1.25 103 A

No the current will stop. For an EMF to be induced, the flux must be changing in the loop,
if it is not changing then no EMF is induced and therefore no current will flow.

This is a quarter of the time so the EMF and therefore the current will increase by a factor
of four = 2.00 104 A.

Rmeter 595

V IRtotal (50.0 106 )(595 5.00)

Rcoil 5.00

V 3.00 102 V

I 50.0 106 A
N 100

(0) ( B r 2 )
N
t
t
EMFt
B
N r 2
(3.00 102 )(2.00)
B
(100) (3.00 102 ) 2

EMF N

r 3.00 10 2 m
t 2.00 s

B 2.12 10 1 T

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


18

Vpeak 0.900 V

VRMS
19

c
a

Vpeak

(0.900)
2
2
0.636 V

VRMS

Period halved to 5 ms, Vpeak doubles to 1.8 V, VRMS becomes 1.3 V.

VRMS p 14.0 V

VRMS p I RMS p VRMS s I RMS s

I RMS p 3.00 A

I RMS s

VRMS s 42.0 V

I RMS s 1.00 A

VRMS p I RMS p
VRMS s

(14.0)(3.00)
(42.0)

VRMS p 14.0 V
N s 30

VRMS p
VRMS s
Np

Np
Ns

VRMS p N s
VRMS s

(14.0)(30)
(42.0)

VRMS s 42.0 V

N p 10 turns

VRMS p 14.0 V

Ps Pp VRMS p I RMS p (14.0)(3.00)

I RMS p 3.00 A

Ps 42.0 W

20

21
22

a
b
c
C
C

C
A
B

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


23

T 2.0 10 3 s

1
1

5.0 10 2 Hz
3
T (2.0 10 )

Vpeak 25 V

VRMS

Vpeak

VRMS

(25)
2
2
17.7 V

Vpeak 25 V

Vp-p 2 Vpeak 2(25)


Vp-p 50 V

24

I peak 15 A

I RMS

VRMS 17.7 V

I RMS

I peak

2
10.6 A

(15)
2

PRMS VRMS I RMS (17.7)(10.6)


PRMS 188 W
b

I peak 15 A

Ppeak Vpeak I peak (15)(25)

Vpeak 25 V

Ppeak 375 W

25
26

VRMS (17.7)

I RMS (10.6)

I RMS 10.6 A

VRMS 17.7 V

R 1.67

R 15
V 30 V

V 2 (30)2

R
(15)
P 60 W
P

Set C is equivalent to 60 W.

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


27

Vpeak 12.6 V

Vp-p 2 Vpeak 2(12.6)


Vp-p 25.2 V

VRMS
VRMS

Vpeak

2
8.91 V

(12.6)
2

Vpeak 25.2 V

VRMS

Vpeak

(25.2)
2
2
17.8 V

VRMS

VRMS 16.0 V

Vpeak 2 VRMS 2 (16.0)


Vpeak 22.6 V
Vpeak 2

Vpeak 1

f2

f2
f1
f1 Vpeak 2
Vpeak 1

(50.0)(22.6)
(12.6)

f 2 89.8 Hz
d

Vpeak 12.6 V

Vpeak 2
Vpeak 1

Vpeak 2

B2
B1
B2 Vpeak 1
B1

(60.0 10 3 )(12.6)
(80.0 103 )

Vpeak 2 9.45 V

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


28

P 480.0 W

P VI

V 240.0 V

P
(480.0)

2.00 A
V (240.0)

V IR (2.00)(2.00) 4.00 V
Vtr (240.0) (4.00) 236.0 V
b

The machine should work satisfactorily.


By dropping the voltage by a factor of 10 the current is increased by a factor of 10. This
would result in a significant power loss over the cable.

I 20.0 A
R 2.00

V IR (20.0)(2.00) 40.0 V
Vtrans out Vmachine Vcable (24.0) (40.0) 64.0 V
N s Vs
(64.0)

0.267
N p Vp (240.0)

I 20.0 A

Ploss VI (40.0)(20.0) 800.0 W

V 40.0 V
29

Appliances with built-in transformers or motors that require AC will not function correctly and
could burn out. At full load there would be a power loss of about 555 W, or about 66 V
difference in potential which would only leave about 173 V potential at the farmhouse.

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


30

He needs a step-down transformer with a turns ratio of 5 : 1.

Plow 500 W

P (500)

0.417 A
V (1200)
Vcable IR (0.417)(8.00) 3.33 V
I

V
p Vgen (1200
Vcable

) (3.33) 1197 V

1
1
Vs Vp (1197) 239 V
5
5
Phalf 1000 W

P (1000)

0.917 A
V (1200)
Vcable IR (0.917)(8.00) 7.33 V
I

V
p Vgen (1200
Vcable

) (7.33) 1193 V

1
1
Vs Vp (1193) 239 V
5
5
Pfull 2000 W

P (2000)

1.67 A
V (1200)
Vcable IR (1.67)(8.00) 13.3 V
I

p Vgen (1200
V
Vcable

) (13.3) 1187 V

1
1
Vs Vp (1187) 237 V
5
5
This set-up would suit his purposes well.

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Heinemann Physics Content and Contexts Units 3A and 3B


ISBN 978 1 4425 1140 8

Page 114 of 114