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MultiStageFlash / FluidisedBedEvaporator

Revisited:
A Very Promising Thermal Desalination Process
with Powerful Spin-Offs

KLAREN
INTERNATIONAL
BV BV

2013 KLAREN
INTERNATIONAL

Dick G. KLAREN and Eric F. de Boer


KLAREN INTERNATIONAL BV, Hillegom, the Netherlands

Presented by:
Dr.Ir.Ing. Dick G. Klaren M.Sc.
at
2nd Annual Power and Desalination Summit - 2013,
MENA Grand Khaldia Hotel, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
March 17-18, 2013

Inventors
self-cleaning
exchange
technology
Vinc. van Goghsingel
40,heat
NL-2182
LP Hillegom,
The Netherlands, T +31 104 299 666 W www.klarenbv.com E info@klarenbv.com1

Contents

Introduction.

The development of the MSF/FBE during the period 1970 - 1980.

Powerful spin-offs of the self-cleaning fluidised bed heat exchange


technology as applied in the MSF/FBE, for applications other than
desalination during the period 1980 - 2010.

Resurrection of the MSF/FBE in 2010 and its consequences.

Other applications for the MSF/FBE.

Powerful spin-offs of the self-cleaning fluidised bed heat exchange


technology in desalination.

Conclusions.

Acknowledgements.

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Inventors self-cleaning heat exchange technology

Introduction
MSF/FBE Revisited means:
Re-examination of the MSF/FBE after a time interval,
with a view to making a fresh appraisal.
As a consequence, we pay attention to development, market
introduction, etc. of a unique self-cleaning fluidised bed heat exchange
technology for thermal seawater desalination and other industrial
applications during the following three time periods:

1970 1980 : Development of the MSF/FBE.

1980 2010 : Spin-offs of the Self-Cleaning Fluidised Bed Heat


Exchange Technology, hereafter the technology, for
industrial
applications
other
than
seawater
desalination.

2010 ???? : The resurrection of the MSF/FBE and its


consequences.

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Inventors self-cleaning heat exchange technology

The development of the MSF/FBE (1970 1980)


Principle:
MSF/FBE characterised as follows:
Vertical configuration with a short stage-height and stacked compact
flash chambers.
Large number of parallel vertical condenser tubes.
Heat transfer in tubes enhanced by a fluidised bed in each tube at
very low liquid velocities.
Fluidised particles in these tubes made of glass balls of 2 or 3 mm
remove any fouling including scale from the tube wall.
Once-through design.

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Inventors self-cleaning heat exchange technology

The development of the MSF/FBE (1970 1980)


T o p v ie w

T o p v ie w

Two different
simplified designs:

S h a ll o w la y e r o f
f lu id i s e d p a r t i c le s

S h a llo w la y e r o f
f l u i d is e d p a r t i c l e s
O u tle t
channel
T u b e p la t e
B r in e h e a te r

O u t le t c h a n n e l

S te a m
F i n a l f lu i d iz e d
b e d (F B ) h e a te r

S te a m
C o n d e n s a te

D is t il la t e
( in te r s ta g e )

F la s h c h a m b e r

F la s h
c h a m b e rs
i n s e r ie s

C o n d e n s a te

F la s h
c h a m b e rs
in s e r i e s

R e c o v e r y s e c tio n
( f lu id iz e d b e d
(F B ) c o n d e n s e rs
in s e r ie s )

R e c o v e r y s e c t io n
( f l u i d iz e d b e d
(F B ) c o n d e n s e rs
in s e r ie s )

C o n d e n s e r,
w ith p a r a lle l
f l u i d is e d b e d s

D is t r i b u t i o n s y s t e m
T u b e p la te
D is t r ib u t io n s y s te m
I n le t c h a n n e l

In le t c h a n n e l

D is c h a r g e
(B r in e )
Feed
(N a tu ra l s e a w a te r)
D is tilla te

D is c h a r g e (B r in e )
F e e d (s e a w a te r)
D i s t i ll a t e

Cylindrical cross section.


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Rectangular cross section.

Inventors self-cleaning heat exchange technology

The development of the MSF/FBE (1970 1980)


Some theory, process design features and design consequences:

Di

Lt = Do
Do

l cl U l

4 k

Tlog

(1)

Where:
Lt = Condenser tube length per stage
[m]
Do = Outer diameter of the condenser tube
[m]
Di = Inner diameter of the condenser tube
[m]
l = Mean density of the liquid in the condenser tubes
[kg/m]
cl = Mean specific heat of the liquid in the condenser tube [J/(kgK)]
Ul = Mean superficial liquid velocity in the condenser tubes
[m/s]
k = Mean overall heat transfer coefficient for the condenser tubes[W/
(mK)]
T = Temperature drop of the flashing brine in each stage
[C]
Tlog
= Mean logarithmic
U l temperature difference
Or simplified:
Lt = Constant
(2)
[C]
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Inventors self-cleaning heat exchange technology

The development of the MSF/FBE (1970 1980)


Typical design features and consequences for the MSF/FBE:
Condenser tube diameter
=
19 mm
Diameter glass beads
=
2 mm
Fluidised bed porosity in tubes

75 %

Liquid velocity in condenser tubes

= 0.12 m/s

Heat transfer coefficient or k-value

= 2500 W/(mK)

Condenser tube length per stage acc. to Eq.(1)

0.4 m

Typical design consequences for the conventional MSF:


Condenser tube diameter
=

19 mm

Liquid velocity in condenser tubes

1.8 m/s

Heat transfer coefficient of k-value

= 2500 W/(mK)

Condenser tube length per stage acc. to Eq.(1)

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Inventors self-cleaning heat exchange technology

6m
7

The development of the MSF/FBE (1970 1980)


More consequences:
Long-tube MSF/FBE with 30 stages including final heater and a gainratio of 10 would fit in one (1) vessel with total length or height of 12 to
14 m and requires only 2 water boxes. Installation of 60 stages
requires a vessel with a height of 26 m and still only 2 water boxes and
a gain-ratio of 20 (!!) comes within reach.
Long-tube MSF with 30 stages and a gain-ratio of 10 requires 180 m
condenser tube length distributed over 9 vessels with a length per
vessel of 20 m and a total of 18 water boxes.
Cross-tube MSF with 30 stages requires 180 m condenser tube
length in one or two vessels and a total of 60 water boxes.

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Inventors self-cleaning heat exchange technology

The development of the MSF/FBE (1970 1980)


And even more consequences:
For the MSF/FBE with a gain-ratio of 10, mechanical energy (pumping
power) requirements are approx. 1.0 kW/(m distillate/h), .and for a
gain-ratio of 20 these requirements increase to approx. 1.4 kW/(m
distillate/h).
For the MSF with a gain-ratio of 10, mechanical energy (pumping
power) requirements are approx. 3.5 kW/(m distillate/h), .and a
gain-ratio of 20 is not possible!!
For the MED with again-ratio of 10, mechanical energy (pumping
power) requirements are approx. 1.0 kW/(m distillate/h), .and a gainratio of 20 is not possible!!

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Inventors self-cleaning heat exchange technology

The development of the MSF/FBE (1970 1980)


H o t s e a w a te r

Summary of the advantages and


operating characteristics of the
MSF/FBE:
Once-through single-vessel design.
Non-fouling fluidised bed
condensers and final heater.

O u tle t w a te r b o x
F lu id is e d g la s s b e a d s
S te a m

D r o p le t s e p a r a t o r

1B
C o n d e n s a te

F ix e d o r ific e f o r
b r in e t r a n s p o r t

E v a p o ra to r
c h a m b e rs

C o n d e n s e rs

D is tilla te
fla s h c o lu m n

Only two water boxes.


De-aeration in first stage.

F in a l
h e a te r

In te r s ta g e
v a lv e s

1A
H e a t re c o v e ry
s e c tio n

Low corrosion in flash chambers,


pH > 8.4
Thin-walled titanium tubes.
Constant seawater feed flow.

F lu id is e d g la s s b e a d s
F lo w d is tr ib u t io n s y s te m

D is tilla te

In le t w a t e r b o x


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S e a w a te r

B lo w d o w n

Inventors self-cleaning heat exchange technology

10

The development of the MSF/FBE (1970 1980)


H o t s e a w a te r

Interstage valves.

O u tle t w a te r b o x
F lu id is e d g la s s b e a d s

Variation distillate production,


0% 100% 0%.
No wire mesh demisters.
Complete flash-off.

S te a m

D r o p le t s e p a r a t o r

F in a l
h e a te r

1B
C o n d e n s a te

F ix e d o r ific e f o r
b r in e t r a n s p o r t

E v a p o ra to r
c h a m b e rs

No anti scaling chemicals required.

C o n d e n s e rs

D is tilla te
fla s h c o lu m n
1

Suitable for high TBTs > 120C.


Gain-ratios > 30 possible in
combination with high TBTs.

In te r s ta g e
v a lv e s

1A
H e a t re c o v e ry
s e c tio n

Suitable for low TBTs. ~70C.


Gain ratios ~ 10 are still possible in
combination with low TBTs.

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F lu id is e d g la s s b e a d s
F lo w d is tr ib u t io n s y s te m

D is tilla te

In le t w a t e r b o x
S e a w a te r

B lo w d o w n

Inventors self-cleaning heat exchange technology

11

The development of the MSF/FBE (1970 1980)

Example of evenly distributed fluidised beds in outlet water box.


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12

The development of the MSF/FBE (1970 1980)


once through design,
26 stages,
average stage height 0.4 m,
maximum operating temperature
115C at gain-ratio ~10,
no dosing of anti-scale chemicals,
no wire mesh demisters,
complete flash-off of the brine,
distillate production could
be varied between
0 and 100% in a
hour maintaining
excellent distillate
quality using
interstage valves.
500 m/d Demonstration of the MSF/FBE technology, Isle of Texel, The Netherlands.
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The development of the MSF/FBE (1970 1980)

Demonstration of the MSF/FBE technology for the production of boiler feed water
from polluted Amsterdam harbour water (100 m/d).
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The development of the MSF/FBE (1970 1980)


Failure of the market introduction of the MSF/FBE:

ESMIL International which owned the technology ran into financial


problems and lacked funds to continue the development of the
MSF/FBE for productions of 20 000 to 30 000 m/d. required by the
market.

In the late 70s and early 80s, reverse osmosis represented the new,
fast rising and promising technology and ESMIL had to face the
dilemma to spend large amounts of money for the continued
development of the MSF/FBE in, what they believed, could be a
seriously shrinking market for seawater evaporators.

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Powerful spin-offs of the technology (1980 2010)


Powerful spin-offs of the self-cleaning fluidised bed heat
exchange technology as applied for the MSF/FBE, for applications
other than desalination:
After our farewell from seawater desalination with the MSF/FBE, we
realised the potential for the self-cleaning performance of our heat
exchange technology used in the MSF/FBE in other industries, where
many processes suffer from very severe fouling heat exchangers.
Applications other than seawater desalination often require more
aggressive cleaning particles for the fluidised bed consisting of
chopped metal wire with a diameter of 1.6, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 mm and
l/d = 1.0

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Powerful spin-offs of the technology (1980 2010)


Commercial operating experiences: The self-cleaning fluidised bed
heat exchanger, which can remain clean indefinitely, is a cost-effective
alternative to the conventional heat exchanger which suffers from
severe fouling in a couple of hours, days or weeks and even months.
Any type of fouling deposit:
whether hard or soft;
biological or chemical;
fibrous, protein, or other organic types;
or a combination of the above
can be handled by the self-cleaning fluidised bed heat exchanger.

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Powerful spin-offs of the technology (1980 2010)


Hoechst-Celanese, Houston, TX, USA.
A forced circulation reboiler for the production of a
proprietary chemical replaced a conventional heat
exchanger that required cleanings every 4 to 5 days.
A self-cleaning fluidised bed heat exchanger was put
into operation in this service in Houston, Texas in
1991. At this moment, more than 22 (!!) years later,
this exchanger, is still in operation to the full
satisfaction of the operators, using all the original
tubes and only opened once a year for inspection
showing clean and shiny tubes.

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Powerful spin-offs of the technology (1980 2010)


Borden Chemicals & Plastics (BCP), Geismar, LA, USA.
A large chemical plant in the US asked us to solve their very severe
fouling problems in one of their plants.

Unit
Heat transfer surface
Pumping power
Number of cleanings
per year

m
kW
-

Conventional
heat
exchanger

Self-cleaning
heat
exchanger
(1998)

Self-cleaning
heat
exchanger
(2005)

24 000
2 100

4 600
840

3 300
450

12

Comparison conventional vs. self-cleaning fluidised bed heat exchangers in 1998


and 2005.
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Powerful spin-offs of the technology (1980 2010)


Borden Chemicals & Plastics (BCP), Geismar, LA, USA.

4 600 m self-cleaning fluidised bed heat exchangers replacing 24 000 m conventional heat exchangers.
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Powerful spin-offs of the technology (1980 2010)


All major oil companies and amongst them Conoco Phillips.
Appreciation for our innovative approach to produce high pressure
steam from chemically untreated produced
fory Steam
Assisted
Conventionawater
l technolog
New te
chnology
Option 1 Oil Recovery
Option 2 (EOR).
RFSG
Gravity Discharge (SAGD) and Enhanced
Steam production (100 bar)
Produced water feed
Blow down

kg/h
kg/h
kg/h

Blow down to atmosphere

kg/h

Heat transfer surface


(recovery and preheater not included)
Mechanical energy for separation
Mechanical energy for pressurisation
and circulation through TOF and OTSG
Total mechanical energy requirements
Chemical treatment produced water
feed

70 000
72 164
2 164

2 164
(3 %of feed)

721
(~1 %of feed)

975

1950

234

kW

2 333 +10

1 167 +10

25

kW
kW

350
2 693

1527
Yes

375
Nil

Comparison conventional technology (MVC/FFE) vs. new innovative technology


(RFSG).
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Powerful spin-offs of the technology (1980 2010)


Caspi Meruerty Operating Company (CMOC, Kazakhstan), Shell, BP,
etc.
All major oil companies and / or major players in this business have
expressed their interest in our direct seawater cooling technology
using self-cleaning fluidised bed exchangers for offshore platforms.
Air coolers
Heat duty
Gas temperature (In-, Outlet)
Gas pressure
Seawater temperature
Plot area
Weight
Power

46
120 43
150
26 50

MW
C
bar
C
m
tonne
kW

Indirect seawater
coolers

Direct
seawater coolers
(self-cleaning
bed)

530
350
850

90
300
2 000

40
1901)
80

1)

When cooler is submerged, but supported by the structure of the platform, the weight reduces to approx.
75 tonne

Comparison gas cooling systems on offshore platforms


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Powerful spin-offs of the technology (1980 2010)


Caspi Meruerty Operating Company (CMOC, Kazakhstan), Shell, BP,
etc.

Offshore platform with heavy, voluminous and energy consuming air-coolers on


top deck indicated by arrow.
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2010 Resurrection of the MSF/FBE & Consequences


Production

:
:

40 000 m/d
10 -

Seawater temperature
Maximum seawater temperature in final heater

:
:

35 C
115 C

Number of evaporator stages


:
Average stage height or condenser tube length per stage :
Total condenser tube length including final heater across
the tube plates
:

30 0.4 m
14.0 m

Specifications:
Gain-ratio

Number of parallel condenser tubes


Outer diameter condenser tubes
Wall thickness condenser tubes
Material condenser tubes

:
:
:
:

Diameter glass beads


Total weight glass beads

:
:

Material in contact with seawater


Material in contact with distillate
Material outside reinforcements

:
:
:

120 000
19
0.4
Titanium

mm
mm
-

2.0 mm
350 t
Duplex Stainless steel Carbon steel -

Specification of the 40 000 m/d MSF/FBE considered.


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2010 Resurrection of the MSF/FBE & Consequences


Design:

H o t s e a w a te r
O u tle t w a te r b o x
F lu id is e d g la s s b e a d s
S te a m

D ro p le t s e p a r a to r

F in a l
h e a te r

1B
C o n d e n s a te

F ix e d o r if ic e fo r
b r in e tr a n s p o r t

E v a p o ra to r
c h a m b e rs

C o n d e n s e rs

D is tilla te
f la s h c o lu m n
1

In te r s ta g e
v a lv e s

1A
H e a t re c o v e ry
s e c tio n

F lu id is e d g la s s b e a d s
F lo w d is t r ib u tio n s y s te m

D is tilla te

In le t w a te r b o x
S e a w a te r

Principle MSF/FBE.
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B lo w d o w n

25

2010 Resurrection of the MSF/FBE & Consequences


Design:

5 m
2 .5 m

1 .2 5 m

B u n d le

1 .2 5 m

C ondenser
C o ld s e c tio n

B u n d le
C ondenser

Vapour
E v a p o ra to r
cham ber

C o ld s e c tio n

Vapour

Vapour

D is tilla te fla s h
c o lu m n s
Vapour

40 m

D is tilla t e f la s h
c o lu m n s

Vapour
Long beam s

Nonc o n d e n s a b le s

Vapour
C ro s s b e a m s
Vapour

D r ille d c o n d e n s e r
p a r t itio n w a lls

E v a p o ra to r
cham ber

F la s h c h a m b e r
flo o r

Cross section of our preferred rectangular vessel-type of 40 000 m/d evaporator.


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2010 Resurrection of the MSF/FBE & Consequences


V e r t i c a l d r a in
V e r tic a l d e fle c to r
E v a p o rra to r
cham ber

E v a p o ra to r
cham ber

T h r o t t l in g g a p

C ondenser

1 .2 5 m

W ir e m e s h
d e m is t e r

F la s h in g c h u te s

D e fle c to r

2 .5 m

2 .0 m

2 .0 m

Design:

V a p o u r la n e s

C ondenser
B a ffle p la te

1 .2 5 m

C r o s s s e c tio n A -A

Flash chambers, condensers & path of the vapour flow units way to the condensers.
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2010 Resurrection of the MSF/FBE & Consequences


Construction & erection:
A

40 m

A ccess
d o o rs (2 )

C r o s s s e c tio n C - C

2 .0 m

2 .0 m

2 .0 m

2 .0 m

2 .0 m

2 .0 m

S u p p o rt

M u ltip le p a r r a le l
n o z z le s
2 .5 m

O u tle t w a te r b o x (2 )

A ccess
d o o r s (2 )

F in a l
h e a te r (2 )

S ta g e 1

T u b e p la te
2 m

S ta g e 1

S ta g e 3 0

V e r tic a l
s u p p o rts
s ta g e 3 0

T u b e p la te
In le t w a te r b o x (2 )

D is tilla te fla s h
c o lu m n s (2 3 )

Sum p

D i s t r i b u t io n
s y s te m

F e e d (2 )
B lo w d o w n

H eavy
c ro s s b e a m s
1 .2 5 m

2 .5 m

B lo w d o w n
+ F e e d (2 )

29

D is tilla te fla s h
c o lu m n s (2 3 )

S t a g e 3 0 , in c l. s u m p

C ro s s
beam s

0 .4 m

V e r tic a l
s u p p o rts
s ta g e 2 9

S ta g e 2 9

0 .6 m

C o n d e n s e rs

12 m

19 m

V e r tic a l
s u p p o rts
s ta g e 1

F o u n d a tio n

1 .2 5 m

V ie w A - A

H a tc h fo r
d is tr ib u tio n s y s te m

Explanation construction and erection of the evaporator at plant site.


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2010 Resurrection of the MSF/FBE & Consequences


Standardisation
& mass fabrication
of components:

S te a m

C o n d e n s a te

5 .0 m
A

V a r ia t io n o f c a p a c it y

2 .0 m

S ta g e 2 5

40 m

14 m

V a r ia t io n o f g a in - r a t io

S ta g e 1

S ta g e 3 0

B lo w d o w n
S e a w a te r fe e d

D is tilla te

C r o s s - s e c t io n A - A
( S ta g e 2 5 in r e d )

Explanation of the arguments: standardisation & mass production of components.


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2010 Resurrection of the MSF/FBE & Consequences


MSF/FBE 1)
Comparison
operating
cost
MED, SWRO
MSF/FBE:
Cost in $/(m
/d)
MSF MSF,MED
SWRO and
MSF/F
BE1)
(waste heat
driven)
Amortised capital cost
Electrical energy
Thermal energy
Membranes
Labour
Chemicals
Parts

0.42
0.20
0.31
0.08
0.05
0.01

0.29
0.06
0.31
0.08
0.08
0.01

0.29
0.24
0.03
0.10
0.07
0.03

0.21
0.06
0.31
0.08
0.01

Total costs
(oil price $ 60/bbl;
electricity $ 0.05/kWh)

1.07

0.83

0.76

0.67

Total costs
(oil price $ 100/bbl;
electricity $ 0.075/kWh)

1.38

1.07

0.88

0.91

?
?
?

1) Chemical cost for demineralisation of the distillate and algae control of the seawater feed not taken
into account.

Data for MSF, MED and SWRO obtained from article by Global Water Intelligence
(GWI), October 2012, titled: Technology choice still open at Yanbu 3.
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2010 Resurrection of the MSF/FBE & Consequences


Comparison operating cost MSF, MED, SWRO and MSF/FBE :
Major reasons for much lower amortised capital cost of the MSF/FBE
($ 0.21 m distillate) vs. MSF ($ 0.42 m distillate) vs. MED ($ 0.29 m
distillate):
Design based on standard modules which reduces engineering costs.
Once-through process with deaeration and removal noncondensables in the first stage.
Compact single vessel design, only two water boxes, no connecting
piping between stages and final heater.
Sophisticated design internals results in dramatic reduction in weight.
Compare numbers for MSF, MED and MSF/FBE: 37 vs. 27 vs. 18 kg
steel /(m3 distillate/d).
..

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2010 Resurrection of the MSF/FBE & Consequences


Mass production of internals lowers fabrication cost per kg material.
Elegant condenser design, using thin-walled titanium tubes, includes
new procedures for tubing and sealing condenser tubes in tube plates
and preventing interstage leakage through condenser partitions walls.
Erection at plant site and installation of all internal components such
as supports, flash chamber floors, condenser partition walls in a
climate controlled shell of the evaporator vessel.

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Other applications for the MSF/FBE


F H E X -0 2

High-temperature
front-end
MSF/FBE:

S te a m
M

C o n d e n s a te

H ig h - te m p . fr o n t- e n d
M S F /F B E

D is t illa t e
C o n v e n tio n a l M S F
P -0 1
L IC

F IC

S e a w a te r
fe e d
D is tilla te

P -0 2

B lo w d o w n
F H E X -0 1

Expansion of existing MSF with high-temperature front-end MSF/FBE.


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Other applications for the MSF/FBE


MSF/FBE in combination
with renewable energy:

W in d
tu r b in e
O u tle t w a te r b o x

P a r a b o lic
m ir r o r

F in a l h e a t e r

C o n d e n s e rs

F la s h
s ta g e s
C o n d e n s a te
In te rs ta g e
v a lv e s

D is tilla t e s u m p

B r in e s u m p

S te e l s u p p o rt
c o n s t r u c t io n

S te a m

C o ld
(w a te r)

I n le t
w a te rb o x

FI

B r in e d is c h a r g e

E le c t r i c b o i l e r &
W a te r / s te a m
s e p a ra to r +
h o ld - u p v e s s e l

J e tp u m p
B r a n c h e d o ff c o ld
s e a w a te r fe e d

Wind and/or solar powered MSF/FBE.


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Hot
(w a te r +
s te a m )

C ir c .
pum p

~
D is c h a r g e d is t illa te

34

Other applications for the MSF/FBE

Package

Variation heat input / wind velocity in combination with interaction of interstage


valves for brine level controlbox.
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Other applications for the MSF/FBE


MSF/FBE in combination with renewable energy:
Summary of the advantages of the wind and/or solar powered
MSF/FBE:
Compact single vessel design.
High gain-ratio.
Operation on varying external heat input conditions resulting in
varying distillate production (0% to 100%) of excellent quality.
No chemicals required to prevent scaling in spite of operating
temperatures exceeding 120C.
High pH value minimises corrosion.
Only one rotating pump required.
Easy start-up and shutdown procedures.
Suitable for remote controlled operations.
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Powerful spin-offs of the technology in desalination


Self-cleaning fluidised bed brine heaters in existing MSF plants:
Steam-heated brine heaters.
S te a m

O u tle t c h a n n e l

1 2 7 C

S e p a ra to r

D e m is t e r
H o r iz o n t a l B r in e H e a t e r
(2 -p a s s )

1 2 5 C
11 9 C

119 C

D e m is t e r

S te a m

1 0 7 C

1 2 7 C

11 5 C

V e r tic a l
B r in e H e a t e r
(1 -p a s s )

11 7 C
P a r t ic le s
Downcom m er

C o n d e n s a te

R em oval
sponge
b a l ls

R em oval
s p o n g e b a lls

S ta g e 1

C o n d e n s a te

S ta g e 1

C o n tro l
channel

In le t c h a n n e l w it h
d is tr ib u tio n s y s te m
S p o n g e b a ll r e c y c le

S p o n g e b a ll r e c y c le

Comparison operation horizontal 2-pass conventional brine heater with vertical


single-pass self-cleaning fluidised bed brine heater.
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Powerful spin-offs of the technology in desalination


Self-cleaning fluidised bed brine heaters in existing MSF plants:
Self-cleaning fluidised bed brine heater operating on the exhaust
gases of open-cycle gas turbines:
In the period 1960 to 1980 much attention has been paid to operate
MSF plants on the exhaust gases of open-cycle gas turbines.
All attempts failed due to heavy scaling of the tubes in such brine
heaters caused by unpredictable hot spots caused by uneven flow
distribution of flows and local film coefficients.
However, in 1979 it has already been demonstrated that a selfcleaning fluidised bed brine heater could indeed operate on the hot
gases of a burner with a temperature of 600C. The scouring action
of the fluidised glass beads did indeed remove the scale formed on
such hot spots.

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Powerful spin-offs of the technology in desalination


Self-cleaning fluidised bed brine heater operating on the exhaust
gases of open-cycle gas turbines and installed in existing MSF plant:
Interested Client in the Gulf Region wants to increase its generated
power and has available:
465 MW and 645 MW open-cycle gas turbines.
4 MSF plants each having a production of 14 MIGD and using
250 t/h extraction steam of approx. 2 bar and 235C in their brine
heaters.
Attempts to increase the power output by revamping a number of the
existing open-cycle gas turbines in dual-cycle co-generation units is
impossible.

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Powerful spin-offs of the technology in desalination


Remains the very interesting option:
Use the exhaust gases of the open-cycle gas turbines for the heating
of the self-cleaning fluidised bed brine heaters, and use the extraction
steam supplied to the brine heaters for the generation of 430 =
120 MW extra power in the steam turbines.

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Powerful spin-offs of the technology in desalination


Self-cleaning fluidised bed brine heater operating on the exhaust gases
of open-cycle gas turbines and installed in existing MSF plant:
E x h a u s t g a s h e a te d
s e l f - c l e a n in g f l u i d i s e d b e d
b r in e h e a te r

C o m b u s tio n
cham ber

Fuel

A ir

G e n e ra to r
65 M W

C h im n e y

1 8 0 C
C o m b in e d e x h a u s t
o f g a s tu r b in e

C o m p re s s o r
A ir

T u r b in e

E xhaust gasses
~ 5 6 0 C

R em oval
s p o n g e b a lls

11 0 C

S te a m

14 M G D M SF

65 M W
Fuel

S te a m h e a te d
b r in e h e a t e r
C o n d e n s a te

S p o n g e b a ll r e c y c le
2 2 0 0 m /h ;
1 0 3 .5 C

Simplified flow diagram for many potential applications in the Gulf Region.
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Powerful spin-offs of the technology in desalination


MSF/FBE 1)
MSF/FBE
operating
on MS
theF exhaust
ofO open-cycle
turbines:
Cost in $/(m
/d)
MED gases
SWR
MSF/FBE1) gas
(waste
heat
driven)
Amortised capital cost
Electrical energy
Thermal energy
Membranes
Labour
Chemicals
Parts

0.42
0.20
0.31
0.08
0.05
0.01

0.29
0.06
0.31
0.08
0.08
0.01

0.29
0.24
0.03
0.10
0.07
0.03

0.21
0.06
0.31
0.08
0.01

0.21 +0.03 = 0.24


0.06
0.00 +0.01 = 0.01
0.08
0.01

Total costs
(oil price $ 60/bbl;
electricity $ 0.05/kWh)

1.07

0.83

0.76

0.67

0.40

Total costs
(oil price $ 100/bbl;
electricity $ 0.075/kWh)

1.38

1.07

0.88

0.91

0.44

1) Chemical cost for demineralisation of the distillate and algae control of the seawater feed not taken
into account.

Data for MSF, MED and SWRO obtained from article by Global Water Intelligence
(GWI), October 2012, titled: Technology choice still open at Yanbu 3.
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Conclusions
Sometimes a new road brings you to exiting places with great views,
where existing roads cannot bring you, and very often, it is a matter of
luck to discover such a new road.
Or in words of the same tenor with respect to the contents of this
presentation:
MSF and MED (the existing roads) do not bring the thermal
desalination community the improvements in technology and
operating cost they need.
More attention should be paid to the self-cleaning fluidised bed heat
exchange technology (the technology) in combination with the many
ideas introduced in this presentation (the new roads),
and, hopefully, in the near future, the thermal desalination community
will enjoy the benefits of the MSF/FBE and the great variety of
fascinating spin-offs (the exiting places with great views).
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Conclusions
The MSF/FBE can take over all applications now divided between MSF
and MED and then we refer to large capacity plants, small capacity
plants, higher temperature distillation and low temperature (waste heat)
distillation whether or not in combination with renewable energy. With
the MSF/FBE you can serve everybodys need, using the same
technology at the lowest cost for the produced distillate.

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Acknowledgements
Dr. Aleksandar Vlaski (Arcadis), who made me decide to return to my
roots and pay attention again to the MSF/FBE for reason that this old
forgotten thermal desalination technology still showed the potential of
being the very best.
Dr. Roberto Borsani (Fisia Italimpianti), Dr. Adil Bushnak (Moya
Bushnak), Joost Vermey (Tebodin), Clemens Wolters and Mohsen
Moussaoui (Deutsche Babcock Middle East) for their encouragement
and keeping us motivated.

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For more information


can For
alwaysYour
contactAttention
us.
Thankyou
You

KLAREN INTERNATIONAL BV
Address :

Vincent van Goghsingel 40


NL-2182 LP Hillegom
the Netherlands

Tel.

+31 2525 30606

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+31 2525 30605

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