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CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

UniKL MICET

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Chapter 4

Health

Universiti Kuala Lumpur


Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Topic Outcomes

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It is expected that students will be able to:

List the importance of health at work


Define the hazardous substances
List the effects of hazardous substances
Define the toxicology
List the danger of physical hazards
Define the environmental health
Understand the rules and regulations related to
safety and health

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Content

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4.0 Health
4.1 Introduction to health aspects at work
4.2 Effects on hazardous substances
4.3 Introduction to toxicology
4.4 Introduction to physical hazard noise,
vibration
4.5 Introduction to environmental health
4.6 Awareness of regulation relating to safety
and health
3

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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4.1 Introduction to health aspects at


work

Importance:
i.
Productivity
ii.
Contribute to sustainable
development
iii. Employability
iv. Public health

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Hazardous Substances

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Chemicals and other


substances that can
affect health, causing
illness or disease

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Industrial Hazardous Substances


Acids
ii. Caustic substances
*Disinfectants are substances that
iii. Disinfectants
are applied to non-living objects
to destroy microorganisms that
iv. Glues
are living on the objects eg. Dettol,
detergents
v. Heavy metals
vi. Paint
vii. Pesticides
viii.Petroleum products
ix. Solvents
i.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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4.2 Effect of Hazardous Substances


Poisoning
ii. Nausea (feeling sick) and vomiting
iii. Headache
iv. Skin rashes, such as dermatitis*
*itchy skin disorder
v. Chemical burns
vi. Birth defects
vii. Disorders of the lung, kidney or liver
viii.Nervous system disorders.
i.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

4.3 Introduction to Toxicology

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Traditional definition of toxicology


is "the science of poisons."
A more descriptive definition of
toxicology is "the study of the
adverse effects of chemicals or
physical agents on living
organisms".

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Adverse effects may occur:


i.

ii.
iii.

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in many forms, from immediate


death to subtle* changes not
realized until months or years
*hard to notice
later.
at various levels within the body,
an organ, a type of cell, or a
specific biochemical.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Toxicology Terminology & Definitions

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Toxicology Agent

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Anything that can produce an


adverse biological effect. It may be
chemical, physical, or biological in
form.
For example:
chemical (such as cyanide)
physical (such as radiation)
biological (such as snake venom).

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Toxicology Entry Routes


Entry Route

Entry Organ

Ingestion

Mouth or
stomach

Inhalation

Mouth or
nose

Injection

Cuts in skin

Dermal
Absorption

Skin

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Method of Control
Enforcement of rules on
eating, drinking and
smoking
Ventilation, respirators,
hoods and other personal
protective equipment
Proper protective
clothing
Proper protective
clothing

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Factors Influencing Toxicity

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1. Form
~ Cr3+ is relatively non-toxic whereas
Cr6+ causes skin or nasal corrosion
and lung cancer. *Chromium (oxidation states +3 and +6)
is described with complex ions
with water, ammonia and chloride ion

2. Innate** chemical activity


~ Some can quickly damage cells
causing immediate cell death. Others
slowly interfere only with a cell's
function.
**existing from the time a person or animal is born

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Toxicology Dosage,

(something that relieves pain)


(pain killer)

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dose-time relationship

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Factors Influencing Toxicity...cont

3. Exposure route
~ ingested chemicals, when absorbed
from the intestine*, distribute first to
the liver and may be immediately
detoxified
~ inhaled toxicants immediately enter the
general blood circulation and can
distribute throughout the body prior to
being detoxified by the liver
*usus

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Factors Influencing Toxicity...cont

4. Selective toxicity/Species
~ an insecticide* is lethal (cause
death) to insects but relatively
non-toxic to animals
~ antibiotics are selectively toxic
to microorganisms while virtually
non-toxic to humans
*An insecticide is a chemical used against insects

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Factors Influencing Toxicity...cont


5. Age
~ parathion* is more toxic to young animals
~ nitrosamines** are more carcinogenic to
newborn or young animals
*methyl parathion is a chemical pesticide
** carcinogenic chemical compounds

6. Sex
~ male rats are 10 times more sensitive
than females to liver damage from DDT*
~ female rats are twice as sensitive to
parathion as male rats
*DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is an organochlorine insecticide

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Factors Influencing Toxicity...cont

7. Ability to be absorbed
~ ethanol is readily absorbed from
the gastrointestinal tract* but
poorly absorbed through the skin
~ organic mercury is readily absorbed
from the gastrointestinal tract;
inorganic lead sulfate is not
*The human gastrointestinal tract is the stomach and intestine,
sometimes including all the structures from the mouth to the anus

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Factors Influencing Toxicity...cont

8. Metabolism
~ Detoxification is the process by
which a xenobiotic* is converted to
a less toxic form
~ Bioactivities is the process by
which a xenobiotic may be converted
to more reactive or toxic forms.
*a chemical compound as a drug, pesticide, or carcinogen

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Factors Influencing Toxicity...cont

9. Distribution
~ Fat tissue, liver, kidney, and
bone are the most common
storage depots.
~ Blood serves as the main avenue
for distribution. Lymph* also
distributes some materials.
*Lymph is clear or white fluid that travels through vessels, moves
within tissues and work to keep all the parts of the body clean

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Factors Influencing Toxicity...cont

10. Site and rate of excretion*


~ The kidney is the primary
excretory organ, followed by the
gastrointestinal tract, and the
lungs (for gases).
~ Impaired kidney function causes
slower elimination of toxicants and
increases their toxic potential.
*Excretion is the process by which waste products of metabolism and
other non-useful materials are eliminated from an organism

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Factors Influencing Toxicity...cont

11. Presence of other chemicals


~ may decrease toxicity , add to toxicity
(additivity), or increase toxicity
(synergism or potentiation) of some
xenobiotics
~ alcohol may enhance the effect of many
antihistamines and sedatives
~ antidotes function by antagonizing the
toxicity of a poison (atropine
counteracts poisoning by
organophosphate insecticides)

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Toxicology Effects

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CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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4.4 Introduction to Physical Hazards

NOISE

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Sound or Noise?

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

What is Noise?

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Unwanted, bothersome or painful sound

is more than just a pain in


the ear... it is harmful to your
health.
Measuring unit Decibel (dB)

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Permissible Exposure Limit

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Action level 85 dB
Continuous sound should not
more than 90dB
Impulse Noise should not more
than 140 dB

1. A decibel (dB) is a unit of measurement of voltage or other intensity.


2. Abbreviation for DeciBels Adjusted, dBA is the noise power calculated in dB.
The A refers to what is known as the A weighting

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Noise Measuring Equipment

Sound Level Meters (SLM)


Continuous on-mobile sources

Noise Dosimeters
Mobile/variable noise
sources

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CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Effect of Noise

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The most common effect of noise: Temporary Threshold Shift (TTS)

TTS is defined as the hearing loss


suffered as result of noise exposure.

Permanent Threshold Shift (PTS).


Tinnitus*
Communication Problems.

*Tinnitus is a term that describes any sound that a person can hear that comes
from inside the body rather than from an outside source

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

NOISE CONTROL
Common City Sounds Decibels (dBA)
quiet home
20
normal talking
40
ringing telephone
60
air conditioner
75
*Sustained exposure to noise over 90
decibels can cause permanent hearing
loss.
shouting
subway train
honking horns
jack hammers
loud music
jet take-off

100
120

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CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Effect of Noisecont
Time-weighted average noise (TWAN) ~
determine if exposures are exceeded:

TWAN = C1/T1 + C2/T2 +..Cn/Tn


Noise dose exposure:

D = 100 [C1/T1 + C2/T2 +..Cn/Tn ]


Note :
C x is the total time of exposure at a specified noise level
Tx is the total time permitted at the specified noise level
If TWAN is greater than 1.0, the exposure exceeds the
OSHA limits..

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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The two factors that determine how hazardous


noise is are:
Intensity (Loudness) measured in dBA
Time of Exposure measured in Hours and
Minutes
The louder the noise, the more hazardous it is.
Also, the longer the exposure time, the more
hazardous the noise is.
A Noise Dose combines both loudness and time
and is a convenient way of describing the
relative hazard of the noise.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Allowable Noise exposure is based on Noise


Dose.
Noise Dose is expressed as a percentage of
the allowable limit. How high it goes depends
on both noise intensity and time of exposure to
noise.
Louder (More dBA) = More Noise Dose
Longer (More Time) = More Noise Dose
Absolute Quiet = 0% Noise Dose
85 dBA for 8 Hrs = 50% Noise Dose
90 dBA for 8 hrs = 100% Noise Dose
95 dBA for 8 Hrs = 200% Noise Dose
95 dBA for 12 Hrs = 300% Noise Dose

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Different combinations of Loudness and Time can produce


the same Noise Dose. The following combinations can all
produce about 75% Noise Dose.

84 dBA for 14 Hrs


85 dBA for 12 Hrs
87 dBA for 9 Hrs
88 dBA for 8 Hrs
93 dBA for 4 Hrs
95 dBA for 3 Hrs
98 dBA for 2 Hrs
103 dBA for
1 Hr
108 dBA for 30 Min
113 dBA for 15 Min

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

76%
75%
74%
76%
76%
75%
75%
76%
76%
76%

Note: The above Noise Doses are based on using the 80 dBA (Low)
threshold.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Table 1 Safe Exposure Time


Sound Level, dBA

Permissible time, hours

80

32

85

16

90

95

100

105

110

0.5

115

0.25

120

0.125

125

0.063

130

0.031

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Table 2 Dose / Percentage Noise


Exposure
% of Noise exposure
(Dose)

*TWAN 8 hours

25

80

50

85

100

90

200

95

400

100

*TWAN - Time Weighted Average Noise Levels shows a worker's daily exposure to
occupational noise (normalized to an 8 hour day), taking into account the average
levels of noise and the time spent in each area. This is the parameter that is used by
the OSHA Regulations and is essential in assessing a workers exposure and
what action should be taken

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Table 3 SCALE FOR COMBINING NOISE SOURCES


Difference between two decibel
levels to be added (dB)

Amount to be added to larger level


to obtain decibel sum (dB)

3.0

2.6

2.1

1.8

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.5

10

0.4

11

0.3

12

0.2

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Noise Control

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1, TWAN

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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TUTORIAL: Estimation of noise dose/ exposure

A worker exposed to noise at a workstation that consist of


four sources, resulted the following readings for various
time periods during the 8-hour shift. Calculate the
cumulative noise exposure for employee to determine
whether the Action Levels and maximum Permissible
Exposure Levels have been exceeded.
MACHINE NO

NOISE LEVEL

86 dB

86 dB

82 dB

78 dB

Tip: Use table 3 to estimate the differences in noise exposure. And table 1 to
make decision whether the worker expose to noise below /exceed the PEL

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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TUTORIAL: Estimation of noise dose/ exposure

A worker exposed to noise at a workstation, resulted the


following readings for various time periods during the 8-hour
shift. Calculate the cumulative noise exposure for employee
to determine whether the Action Levels and maximum
Permissible Exposure Levels (PEL) have been exceeded.
Time

A weighted sound level

8:00-10:00am

90 dBA

10:00-11:00am

95 dBA

11:00-12:30pm

75 dBA

12:30-1:30pm

85 dBA

1:30-2:00pm

95 dBA

2:00-4:00pm

90 dBA

Tip: Use table 1 to estimate the percentages in noise exposure. And table 2
to make decision whether the worker expose to noise below /exceed the PEL

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Noise Control

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Attenuation* Method:
- Reducing sound intensity
- Porous mediums, air, insulator
- Used muffler or silencer

*the gradual loss in intensity or reduction of noise strength during transmission

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Noise Controlcont

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Engineering Control
- modification

or replacement of
equipment, or related physical change at
the noise source or along the
transmission path that reduces the noise
level at the employee's ear
- e.g: mufflers on heavy equipment
exhausts or on air release valves

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Engineering Control

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Muffler

Silencer

Engineering Control

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Attenuation Method

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CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Attenuation Method

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CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Administrative Control

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changes in the work schedule or


operations which reduce noise exposure
Examples:
Post signboard at the entrance to any work area
where noise levels equal or exceed 85 dB
Increasing the distance, rotation of jobs between
workers in the high noise area
Enforcement of the wearing of hearing protection
in the designated areas using established
disciplinary procedures

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Hearing protective devices (HPD)

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any device that can be worn to


reduce the level of sound entering
the ear where:
greater than 85 dBA sound levels
and/or;
120 dB peak sound pressure level
or greater

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Hearing protective devices (HPD)


Premolded Earplugs

Earmuffs

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Custom Molded Earplugs

Formable

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Hearing protective devices (HPD)

Formable

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CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Hearing protective devices (HPD)

Good Fit

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Improper Fit

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Vibration Hazard
i.

ii.
iii.
iv.

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Closely associated with noise hazards


affects the hands, arms or whole body; if
handle heavy equipment.
Lead to motion sickness to spinal injury;
called hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAV).
May also produce injuries of the joints, of
the hands, elbows and shoulders.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Control Measures for Vibration Hazard


i.
ii.
iii.

Limit the employee exposure ~ no more than


4 hours per day, two days per week.
Use Low-vibration tools
Change the employee work habits

Wear properly fitted thick gloves that absorb vibration


Taking periodic breaks (recommended 10 minutes every
hour)
Using vibrationabsorbing floor mats & seat covers.
Keeping tools properly maintained (replacing vibrationabsorbing pads regularly)
Using a loose grip on the tool & holding it away from the
body

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Radiation Hazard

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Two categories:

Ionizing & Nonionizing

Ionizing Radiation

Such as Ultraviolet (UV), x-rays and gamma ray


Adverse effects: genetic changes (broken bonds &
damage DNA), cancer, leukemia, ulceration, etc
and in extreme cases death
UV can affects the eyes and causing intense
conjunctivitis (welders flash)
Symptoms are redness of the eyes and pain

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Radiation Hazard

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Non-ionizing Radiation

Non-ionizing radiation for common tasks:

microwave radiation telecommunications and heating


food
infrared radiation infrared lamps to keep food warm in
restaurants
radio waves broadcasting
source: microwave oven, AM radio, FM radio, TV

Adverse effects:

Thermal ~ introduce high currents (heating)


Non-thermal ~ low currents
Photo chemical effect (optical) for IR

AM~ amplitude modulation, FM ~ frequency modulation

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Light (Glare)

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Poor illumination:
Eye strain, headache, eye pain, congestion
around cornea and eye fatigue

Excessive brightness:
Discomfort, annoyance and visual fatigue
Intense direct glare*
Blurring of vision and lead to accidents
*Glare is difficulty seeing in the presence of bright light such as direct or reflected sunlight

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Heat

Operations on construction sites, heat


from machines or processes ~ hot and
uncomfortable.
Direct effects:
o

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burns, heat exhaustion, heat stroke, heat


cramps*

Indirect effects:
o

decreased efficiency, increased fatigue,


enhanced accident rates
*Heat cramps are muscle spasms (contraction of a muscle) that result from loss
of large amount of salt and water through exercise

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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What signs and symptoms might you


notice if your body is too hot?

Tired and less mentally alert. This increases


the danger of accidents.
Sweat. The body produces sweat so the
evaporation will cool you off. Sweating isnt as
effective if the air is very humid, because not
as much sweat evaporates.
Heat rash ~ is a red or pink rash usually found
on body areas covered by clothing
Sunburn. Sunburn can be painful and may even
lead to skin cancer.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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What does heat stress do to your body?


First symptom - heat cramps. Muscle pain or muscle
spasms. Most common in the arms. Heat exhaustion
can follow. Your whole body or circulatory system is
extremely stressed. Some possible symptoms are:
Pale, flushed face and neck
Clammy skin
Heavy sweating
Fatigue
Shortness of breath
Headache, dizziness,
Nausea and vomiting
Rapid heartbeat and breathing

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Whats the best treatment for the


different stages of heat stress?
Heat

cramps Stop work, drink fluids, and rest


in a cool area. Drinking electrolyte solutions may
also help.
Heat exhaustion Give first aid by moving the
person to a cool place to rest. Remove as much
clothing as possible. Give the person water.
Drinking electrolyte solutions may also help. Dont
allow the person to get chilled, and treat for shock
if necessary. Get medical help.
Heat stroke Call 999 to get an ambulance
immediately. Immerse the person in cool water or
ice.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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What precaution do we need to take on


the site to prevent heat stress?
1. Assign strenuous* work during cooler
parts of the day.
2. Give new hires who are not acclimatized
lighter work during their first week.
3. Rotate workers in strenuous, hot jobs so
no one is exposed too long.
4. Shield or enclose sources of heat (eg.
furnaces) to minimize radiant heat.
*strenuous requires all your effort and strength, like a hard workout at the gym

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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What precaution do we need to take on


the site to prevent heat stress?
5. Provide water-cooled garments or icepacket vests where necessary.
6. Keep first aid supplies and equipment
available.
7. Drink a lot of cool water. You may need a
quart an hour or more, depending on
conditions. Drink even if you dont feel
thirsty.
8. Take frequent breaks in an air-conditioned
or shaded area.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Cold

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The effects of cold on


your body range all the
way from numbness*, to
the loss of a hand or foot,
to hypothermia** and even
death.

*Loss of
feeling

**abnormally low body temperature.


It can make you sleepy, confused and clumsy

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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When and where might you be exposed


to extremely cold temperatures in work
place?

Outdoors on a cold day


In a refrigerated room
In an unheated building
During a vehicle breakdown
When working in cold water

When handling cold objects or materials.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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What are some effects of cold on your


body?
1.

Dehydration.

4.

Frostbite.

You can get dehydration from cold as easily as you can


from heat.
2. Numbness (no sense, no feeling)
Toes, ears, nose tip, and cheeks.
3. Shivering ( body shaking if with cold)
This is the bodys way of trying to warm up.
Parts of your body freeze. The first warning sign may
be a sharp, prickly sensation but if the affected body
parts are already numb, you wont feel anything. skin
may turn another color (red, white, gray, purple, or
black, depending on the severity), also peel off. Can get
a permanent injury, like loss of a body part.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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5.Immersion foot (trench foot).

Skin is exposed to cold and dampness too long. The skin


doesnt actually freeze, but you can get swelling, itching,
loss of skin, or skin ulcers.

6. Hypothermia.

This is the most serious effect of cold. Your body cant


maintain its normal temperature (37 C). Symptoms
include low body temperature, violent shivering, slow or
slurred speech, drowsiness, confusion, hallucinations, a
weak and irregular pulse, or even unconsciousness. If not
treated right away, you can die.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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What precaution do we need to take on


the site to protect against cold?
Control

temperature and wind when


possible by using heaters and
windbreaks.
Rotate workers in cold jobs so no
one is exposed too long.
Keep first aid supplies and
equipment available.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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What precaution do we need to take on


the site to protect against cold?
Drink

warm liquidsbut not too


much coffee. Soup and broth
are better.
Take your breaks in a warm
area (like a heated shed,
trailer, or van).

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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4.5 Introduction to Environmental


Health
Environmental Health is the branch of
public health that is concerned with all
aspects of the natural and built
environment that may affect human
health.
It refer to the discipline of environmental
health include environmental public health
and environmental health and protection.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Environmental health addresses all human-healthrelated aspects of both the natural environment
and the built environment. Environmental health
concerns include:
1.Air quality, including both ambient

outdoor air and indoor air quality, which


also comprises concerns about
environmental tobacco smoke.
2.Climate change and its effects on
health.
3.Disaster preparedness and response.
4.Food safety, including in agriculture,
transportation, food processing,
wholesale and retail distribution and sale.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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5. Hazardous materials management,


including hazardous waste management,
contaminated site remediation, the
prevention of leaks from underground
storage tanks and the prevention of
hazardous materials releases to the
environment and responses to emergency
situations resulting from such releases.
6. Liquid waste disposal, including city
wastewater treatment plants and on-site
waste water disposal systems, such as
septic tank systems and chemical toilets.
7. Medical waste management and disposal.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Noise pollution control.


9. Occupational health and industrial hygiene.
10. Radiological health, including exposure to
ionizing radiation from X-rays or radioactive
isotopes.
11. Safe drinking water.
12. Solid waste management, including landfills,
recycling facilities, composting and solid waste
transfer stations.
13. Toxic chemical exposure whether in
consumer products, housing, workplaces, air,
water or soil.
14. Vector control, including the control of
mosquitoes, rodents, flies, cockroaches and
other animals that may transmit pathogens.
8.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Objectives of Environmental Health


1.
2.

3.

To achieve a sustainable basis for


health
To ensure an environment that
promotes health
To make individuals and organizations
aware of their responsibility for
health and its environmental basis.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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4. To achieve safe, sustainable and health-enhancing


human environments, protected from biological,
chemical and physical hazards, and secure from
the adverse effects of global and local
environmental threats.
5. To facilitate incorporation of effective health
dimensions into regional and global policies
affecting health and environment, and into
national development policies and action plans for
environment and health, including legal and
regulatory frameworks governing management of
the human environment

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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4.6 Awareness of Regulation relating


to Safety and Health (Law)

Occupational Safety and Health, 1994


[OSHA or ACT 514, 1994]

Regulations under OSHA, 1994

Factories and Machinery Act, 1967


[FMA or ACT 139, 1967]

Regulations under FMA. 1967

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Health and Safety POLICE


WHO ?????

DOSH
Department of
Occupational
Safety and Health

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Malaysian Regulatory structure


Act
Regulation
Order
Codes of Practices
Guidelines

Descending
sequence

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Primary Aim of OSHA

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The Occupational Safety and Health Act,


1994 provides for the promotion,
coordination, administration and
enforcement of occupational S & H.
The Act place certain duties on employers,
employees, self-employed persons,
manufacturer, designers and suppliers. It
also place emphasis on the prevention of
accidents, ill health and injury

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Civil vs. OSH Law

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FMA Factories and Machineries Acts

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

OSHA 1994 has 15 parts:

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PART I: PRELIMINARY
PART II: APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS
PART III:NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR OCC.
SAFETY AND HEALTH

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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PART IV: GENERAL DUTIES OF EMPLOYERS


AND SELF-EMPLOYED PERSONS
15. General duties of employers and selfemployed persons to their employees.
16. Duty to formulate safety and health policy.
17. General duties of employers and selfemployed persons to persons other than their
employees.
18. Duties of an occupier of a place of work to
persons other than his employees.
19. Penalty for an offence under section 15. 16.
17 or 18

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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PART V: GENERAL DUTIES OF DESIGNERS,


MANUFACTURERS AND SUPPLIERS
20. General duties of manufacturers, etc. as
regards plant for use at work.
21. General duties of manufacturers, etc. as
regards substances for use at work.
22. Explanations to sections 20 and 21.
23. Penalty for an offence under section 20 or 21.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

PART VI: GENERAL DUTIES OF


EMPLOYEES

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24. General duties of employees at work.


25. Duty not to interfere with or misuse
things provided pursuant to certain
provisions.
26. Duty not to charge employees for
things done or provided.
27. Discrimination against employee, etc.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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PART VII: SAFETY AND HEALTH


ORGANIZATIONS

28. Medical surveillance.


29. Safety and health officer
30. Establishment of safety and health
committee at place of work.
31. Functions of safety and health
committee.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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PART VIII: NOTIFICATION OF ACCIDENTS,


DANGEROUS OCCURRENCE,
OCCUPATIONAL POISIONING AND
OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES AND
INQUIRY
PART IX:
PROHIBITION AGAINST USE OF PLANT
OR SUBSTANCE
PART X:
INDUSTRY CODES OF PRACTICE
PART XI:
ENFORCEMENT AND INSPECTION
PART XII: LIABILITY FOR OFFENSES
PART XIII: APPEALS
PART XIV: REGULATIONS
PART XV:
MISCELLANEOUS

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Terminology and Definition

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Occupier in relation to place of work, means a person


who has the management or control of the place of work
Place of work means premises where persons work or
premises used for the storage of plant or substance
Plant - includes machinery, equipment, appliance, tools,
any component and anything fitted or connected
Premises includes any land, building or part of building,
any vehicle, vessel or aircraft. Any installation on land,
offshore installation or other installation whether o the
bed of or floating on any water, any tent or movable
structure
Prescribed means prescribed by this Act or the
regulations

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

OSH Regulation include:


1. OSH

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(Employers Safety and Health General


Policy Statements) (Exception) Regulations,
1995
2. OSH (Safety and Health Committee)
Regulations, 1996
3. OSH (Safety and Health Officer) Regulations,
1997
4. OSH (Safety and Health Officer) Order, 1997
5. OSH (Control of Industrial Major Accident
Hazards) Regulations, 1996

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

OSH Regulation include:cont

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6. OSH (Classification, Packaging and Labeling


of Hazardous Chemical) Regulations, 1997
7. OSH (Use and Standards of Exposure of
Chemicals Hazardous to Health) Regulations,
2000
8. OSH (Prohibition of Use of Substance)
Order, 1999
9. OSH (Notification of Accident, Dangerous
Occurrence, Occupational Poisoning and
Occupational Disease) Regulations, 2004

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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OSH (Employers Safety and Health


General Policy Statements)
(Exception) Regulations, 1995

Section 16 of the Act (to establish


policy) applies to every employer and
every self-employed person except
who carry on an undertaking with less
than 5 employees.

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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OSH (Safety and Health Committee)


Regulations, 1996

Every employer shall establish S&HC at


place of work in accordance with this
section if:

There are FORTY (40) or more persons


employed at the place of work;
OR
The Director General directed the
establishment of such a committee at place of
work

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Objectives of Safety and Health


Committee

To provide consultation and cooperation


between mgmt and workers in upgrading S&H
at work
To provide two-way communication
channel for dissemination of information on
S&H issues.
To enhance interest and motivation of all
groups of mgmt and workers at place of work
in all S&H

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Safety and Health Committee


Composition
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Where

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Employer or his authorized manager


Secretary/Safety Officer
Mgmt representatives (Division Mgr /
Section Supervisor)
Worker representatives
(representative from every section and
process)

There are <100 person or less employed ; at least 2 representatives


from employees and management
There are > 100 person employed; at least 4 representatives each from
employees and management

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Safety and Health Committee Main


Function

Review the measures taken to ensure


the S & H of persons at the place of
work
2. Investigation on any matters at the
place of work;
1.

which a member of committee / employee


brought the attention of employer
which has been brought to the attention of
employees

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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Safety and Health Committee Main


Functioncont

3. Meeting

Frequency, at least every 3 months.


Minutes of meeting to submit to top
management within 10 days
Recordkeeping

4. Training and information

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

Safety and Health Committee


Function (others)

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Workplace inspection at least once in 3 months.


Make recommendation.
Accident investigation
Complaint investigation
Establish & discuss S & H rules with Mgmt
Study trend of accident, near-miss or
occupational diseases, poisoning & dangerous
occurrences
Report of unsafe condition or practices
Recommend Corrective Action

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

OSH (Safety and Health


Officer) Regulations, 1997

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Qualification for registration


Notification of S & H Officer
Duties of S & H Officer
Submission of report to employer

CLD 20002 Occupational Safety & Health

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