You are on page 1of 10

COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING PART 14

NAVIGATIONAL AIDS
Multiple Choice: Encircle the letter that corresponds to your
answer.
1. An area directly above a radio range station where
practically no signal is heard.

5. A measure of the ability of the receiver to detect


transmission
a.
b.
c.
d.

selectivity
sensitivity
detector
demodulator

6. Radio range stations in LFR operate on frequencies between


a.
b.
c.
d.

radio range
cone of silence
coverage area
RDF area

2. A shipboard equipment which measures the distance


between the ships bottom and the ocean floor by sending
the ultrasonic pulses via a transducer which are reflected at
the sea bottom and received with the same transducer.
a.
b.
c.
d.

echosounder
SONAR
Compandor
Hydrophone

3. The ratio of the pulse width to the time between the


beginning of 2 pulses
a.
b.
c.
d.

duty cycle
doppler shift
blind speed
tracking error

a.
b.
c.
d.

20KHz & 40 KHz


200 KHz & 400 KHz
30 KHz & 300 KHz
2 MHz & 4 MHz

7. The fifth center tower in an LFR is used for transmitting


_____ reports
a.
b.
c.
d.

hazard
range
weather
direction

8. The direction of one terrestrial point from another, expressed


as angular distance from a reference direction.
a.
b.
c.
d.

heading
bearing
relative bearing
true bearing

9. DME operates in the ________ frequency band.


4. A navigation system from which hyperbolic lines of position
are determined by measuring the difference in the times of
arrival of pulses from widely spaced, synchronized
transmitting stations.
a.
b.
c.
d.

LORAN
TACAN
DME
VOR

a.
b.
c.
d.

LF
HF
VHF
UHF

10. SONAR equipment feature which enlarges all echoes on the


screen.
a.
b.
c.
d.

grayline
zoom
sensitivity
ASP

11. A major obstacle in achieving high speed operation in a


SONAR manifested by turbulent water flow.
a.
b.
c.
d.

transom
cavitation
thru-hull
shoot thru

12. Considered to be the SONAR units antenna


a.
b.
c.
d.

crystal
transducer
localizer
transceiver

16. The distance in angular degrees in a clockwise direction


from magnetic north.
a.
b.
c.
d.

phase difference
azimuth
latitude
longitude

17. _______ is used with a localizer station to indicate the


desired approach path of an aircraft.
a.
b.
c.
d.

glide slope system


marker
LORAN chart
OBI

13. The speed of sound through water


a.
b.
c.
d.

4800 m/sec
1463 m/sec
4800 miles/sec
5000 ft/sec

14. What is an electronic measuring equipment used in


navigation operating in 1 GHz band which provides bearing
and distance indication?
a.
b.
c.
d.

TACAN
VOR
ILS
DME

15. An instrument used to measure one location in terms of


coordinates.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Global positioning system


Hydrometer
Altimeter
Increductometer

18. _______ is a 30 Hz signal which has a constant phase at all


points around the VOR station.
a.
b.
c.
d.

reference signal
variable signal
ID signal
voice modulation

19. If the peak transmitted power in a radar system is increased


by a factor of 16, the maximum range will be increased by a
factor of
a.
b.
c.
d.

2
4
8
16

20. After a target has been acquired, the best scanning system
for tracking is
a.
b.
c.
d.

nodding
spiral
conical
helical

21. The coho in MTI radar operates at the


a.
b.
c.
d.

intermediate frequency
transmitted frequency
received frequency
pulse repetition frequency

22. If the target cross section is changing , the best system for
accurate tracking is
a.
b.
c.
d.

lobe switching
sequential lobing
conical scanning
monopulse

23. The number of pulses that occur per second in a radar is


called
a.
b.
c.
d.

PRR
pulse train
pulse width
duty cycle

24. The phenomenon evidenced by the change in the observed


frequency of a sound or a radio wave caused by the time
rate of change in the magnitude of the radial component of
relative velocity between the source and the point of
observation.
a.
b.
c.
d.

tunnel effect
doppler effect
gunn effect
end effect

25. _______ are non-directional transmitters that operate in the


LF and MF bands.
a.
b.
c.
d.

radio beacons
DME
ILS
LORAN

26. When a single antenna is intended to be used for


transmitting and receiving , it is necessary to use a
a.
b.
c.
d.

duplexer
diplexer
combiner
translator

27. The most commonly used component in a RADAR


transmitter is the _______ tube.
a.
b.
c.
d.

dynatron
twystron
magnetron
cyclotron

28. A radar display that sweeps outward of the center of the


screen while rotating is known as
a.
b.
c.
d.

CRT
PPI
D-scope
periscope

29. The time from the transmission of a radar pulse to its


reception is 0.12 msec. The distance to the target is
_________ nautical miles.
a.
b.
c.
d.

4.85
11.2
9.7
7.9

30. The pulse duration of a radar signal is 600 nanoseconds.


The PRF is 185 pulses per second. The duty cycle is
a.
b.
c.
d.

0.01%
5.5%
31%
97%

31. Doppler effect allows which characteristic of a RADAR target


to be measured?
a.
b.
c.
d.

distance
speed
size of target
azimuth

32. Most radar antennas use


a.
b.
c.
d.

dipoles
broadside array
horn and parabolic antenna
discone

33. The following are the components of an ILS except:


a.
b.
c.
d.

localizer
glide slope
markers
goniometer

34. The following are hyperbolic systems except:


a.
b.
c.
d.

LORAN
DECCA
OMEGA
TACAN

35. What do you call an electronic measuring equipment used in


navigation which provides runway direction, distance and
height guidance to permit blind landing?

d. VOR
37. An agency of the United Nations, that formulates standards
and recommended practices for all civil aviation.
a.
b.
c.
d.

ICAO
CAA
IATA
ATO

38. LORAN is a navigation system used primarily for


a.
b.
c.
d.

obtaining fixes over large distances


approach control
blind landing
IFF surveillance operation

39. TACAN is a navigational aid providing


a.
b.
c.
d.

speed and height indication


bearing and weather information
bearing and distance indication
cone of confusion

40. Otherwise known as Coastline refraction or the refraction of


waves towards the coastline.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Polarization effect
Land effect
Skin effect
Luxembourg effect

41. Low-power radar uses


a.
b.
c.
d.

DME
VOR
TACAN
ILS

36. A radio aid to navigation that uses a rotatable loop or other


highly directional antenna arrangement to determine the
direction of a radio signal.
a. DME
b. RDF
c. TACAN

a.
b.
c.
d.

RIMPATT
TRAPATT
Magnetron
IMPATT

42. RADAR means:


a.
b.
c.
d.

Radio Detection and Rating


Radio Detection and Ranging
Radio Distance and Ranging
Radio Delay and Ranging

43. A long range navigation system in which two pairs of ground


stations transmit pulsed signal, which are used by aircraft or
ships to determine their position.
a.
b.
c.
d.

LORAN
SHORAN
Gee
TCAS

44. LORAN stands for


a.
b.
c.
d.

low radar navigation


low range navigation
long range radar navigation
long range navigation

45. LORAN was developed in the United States during WWII.


What system equivalent to LORAN, which was developed in
England and is used for guiding high-flying bombers over
Germany during WWII?
a.
b.
c.
d.

SHORAN
DECCA
OMEGA
Gee

46. What navigational system that uses the principle known as


hyperbolic navigation?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Gee
LORAN
OMEGA
All are correct

47. Navigation principle that depends on the measurement of


the difference in distance to two fixed stations whose
separation distance is accurately known.
a.
b.
c.
d.

triangulation
hyperbolic
elliptic
pilotage

48. In hyperbolic navigation, how many sets of hyperbolas are


needed before a position (fix) is obtained?
a.
b.
c.
d.

2
4
6
8

49. In LORAN system, at least how many ground stations are


needed before a position (fix) is obtained?
a.
b.
c.
d.

2
4
6
8

50. In Gee system, at least how many ground stations are


needed before a position or fix is determined?
a.
b.
c.
d.

2
3
5
7

51. In __________ system, one of the ground stations in each


pair serves as a master station and synchronizes the pulses
from the other station.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Gee
VOR
TCAS
LORAN

52. In __________ system, all the three stations


synchronized and both difference distances
simultaneously acquired.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Gee
VOR
TCAS
LORAN

are
are

53. Gee system operates at what frequency range?


a.
b.
c.
d.

1850 1950 kHz


40 80 MHz
118 135 MHz
960 1213 MHz

54. Operating frequency of LORAN system


a.
b.
c.
d.

1850 1950 kHz


40 80 MHz
118 135 MHz
960 1213 MHz

55. A long-range navigation system that operates at a frequency


of 100 kHz. It operates on the hyperbolic principles.
a.
b.
c.
d.

LORAN
LORAN A
LORAN C
LORAN D

56. Tactical LORAN system


a.
b.
c.
d.

LORAN
LORAN A
LORAN C
LORAN D

57. LORAN system used by aircraft that operates independent


of ground stations to prevent unwanted enemy detection of
aircraft position.
a.
b.
c.
d.

LORAN
LORAN A
LORAN C
LORAN D

59. Approximate range of Gee system


a.
b.
c.
d.

200 to 300 miles


500 to 700 miles
800 to 1000 miles
1200 to 1500 miles

60. In LORAN system, if the ground station is in error, how does


it inform the users?
a.
b.
c.
d.

by blinking the signal


by shutting off the signal
by inverting the signal
by reducing the signal

61. In LORAN, if the ship moves a path such that every pulse
from two ground stations arrive at the ship at exactly the
same time, the ship is moving on
a. a circular course
b. a hyperbolic course
c. a perpendicular course bisecting the transmitters
baseline
d. a straight course joining the two transmitters
baseline
62. In LORAN, if the pilot flies such a path that his equipment
interrogates a ground transponder and receives return
pulses which have a constant time delay between
transmission and reception, the aircraft is flying
a.
b.
c.
d.

in circular path
in parabolic path
in hyperbolic path
in straight and level flight

63. A navigational system that is normally used by military, it


provides bearing and range.

58. Approximate range of LORAN system


a.
b.
c.
d.

200 to 300 miles


500 to 700 miles
800 to 1000 miles
1200 to 1500 miles

a.
b.
c.
d.

VOR
DME
ADF
TACAN

64. TACAN operates at what spectrum?


a.
b.
c.
d.

LF
MF
VHF
UHF

70. TACAN system can operate without interference to over how


many aircraft at the same time?
a.
b.
c.
d.

10
25
50
100

65. TACAN operates at what frequency range?


71. Approximate maximum slant-range of TACAN:
a.
b.
c.
d.

108 112 MHz


330 335 MHz
962 1213 MHz
1030 1090 MHz

a.
b.
c.
d.

100 nmiles
200 nmiles
400 nmiles
600 nmiles

66. TACAN means


72. TACAN provides bearing similar to that of
a.
b.
c.
d.

Tactical Air Navigation


Traffic Alert Collision and Navigation
Traffic Alarm Collision and Navigation
Tactical Aircraft Control and Navigation

a. ADF
b. Compass
c. VOR
d. LORAN

67. The TACAN system has how many two-way channels?


73. TACAN provides range or distance similar to that of
a.
b.
c.
d.

33
63
126
252

a.
b.
c.
d.

Barometric-altimeter
Radio altimeter
LORAN
DME

68. Adjacent channels in TACAN system are separated by


a.
b.
c.
d.

0.1 MHz
1.0 MHz
30 MHz
63 MHz

69. In TACAN system, the transmit and receive frequencies are


spaced
a.
b.
c.
d.

at 1.0 MHz
at 63 MHz
at 99 MHz
at 150 MHz

74. In TACAN system, the main azimuth reference burst is


transmitted usually at
a.
b.
c.
d.

magnetic North
magnetic South
magnetic West
magnetic East

75. The TACAN ground station replies to interrogation exactly


__________ after receiving the interrogation.
a.
b.
c.
d.

10 sec
25 sec
50 sec
100 sec

76. A TACAN station is identified by means of


a.
b.
c.
d.

Morse code
ASCII
BCD
EBCDEC

82. When both aircraft are able to display distance information


between them, the operation is known as
a.
b.
c.
d.

bilateral ranging
dual ranging
RHO-RHO navigation
RHO-THETA navigation

77. In TACAN system, morse coding is achieved by proper


a.
b.
c.
d.

spacing of pulse pairs


variation of pulse amplitude
adjustment of pulse repeatation
pulse with modulation

78. The basic TACAN operates on


a.
b.
c.
d.

ground to ground
ground to surface only
air to surface only
air to air only

79. Which navigational system that is capable of air-to-air


ranging?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Radio altimeter
TACAN
DME
ADF

80. Air-to-air TACAN is possible if the system is modified to


receive __________ and by adding a transponding function
to the airborne equipment.
a.
b.
c.
d.

standby frequency
harmonics
image frequency
reflected frequency

81. Air-to-air TACAN will provide distance information to


a.
b.
c.
d.

the interrogating aircraft only


the transponding aircraft only
both aircraft
ground in both aircraft

83. Navigation system that derives position based on the


measured distance of two different stations (DME/DME).
a.
b.
c.
d.

RHO-RHO
RHO-RHO-RHO
RHO-THETA
THETA-THETA

84. A method of navigation that derives position by


measurement of distance and bearing from a single ground
station (DME/VOR).
a.
b.
c.
d.

RHO-RHO
RHO-RHO-RHO
RHO-THETA
THETA-THETA

85. Uses hyperbolic principle in position determination.


a.
b.
c.
d.

ADF
VOR
LORAN
DME

86. Navigation system that operates at VLF and is originally


designed for use on ballistic missile submarine.
a. ADF
b. IRS
c. OMEGA
d. NMS

87. Hyperbolic navigational system that transmits continuouswave


a.
b.
c.
d.

LORAN
DECCA
FMS
GPS

88. Co-located VOR and TACAN station is called


a.
b.
c.
d.

VORTAC
VOR/TACAN
VOR/DME
TACVOR

89. A radio navigation whose ground station transmits two


signals (reference and variable). It operates at VHF band.
a.
b.
c.
d.

DME
ATC
LORAN
VOR

93. With 200 watts power output VOR station, it can provide a
service range up to
a.
b.
c.
d.

25 NM
200 NM
600 NM
5000 NM

94. DME means


a.
b.
c.
d.

altitudes
distance
air speed
slant distance

95. DME operates at a frequency range of


a.
b.
c.
d.

1030 1090 MHz


962 1213 MHz
329.3 335 MHz
1750 1950 kHz

96. DME measures distance by using


90. VOR uses a sub-carrier of
a.
b.
c.
d.

9960 Hz
30 Hz
60 Hz
108 MHz

91. Frequency range of TVOR


a.
b.
c.
d.

108 117.95 MHz


962 1860 kHz
1030 1090 MHz
962 1213 MHz

92. VOR beacons for en-route navigation has a typical output


power of
a.
b.
c.
d.

50 W
200 W
50 kW
50 MW

a.
b.
c.
d.

pulse radar principle


radar transponder principle
continuous-wave radar principle
virtual ground principle

97. System that enables navigator or pilot to determine its timeto-station (TTS) or time-to-go (TTG).
a.
b.
c.
d.

VOR
DME
ADF
TCAS

98. The airborne equipment or component used in DME system


is called
a.
b.
c.
d.

interrogator
transceiver
duplexer
transponder

99. What do you call the ground equipment used in DME


system?
a.
b.
c.
d.

interrogator
transceiver
duplexer
transponder

100.
Equipment such as interrogator or transponder are
actually a
a.
b.
c.
d.

receiver
transmitter
transceiver
any of these