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ResJudicataisaphrasewhichhasbeenevolvedfromaLatinmaxim,whichstandforthethinghasbeenjudged,meaningtherebythattheissuebeforethecourthasalreadybeendecidedbyan
sameparties.Therefore,thecourtwilldismissthecasebeforeitasbeinguseless.ResJudicataasaconceptisapplicablebothincaseofCivilaswellasCriminallegalsystem.

Thetermisalsousedtomeanastobarrelitigationofsuchcasesbetweenthesameparties,whichisdifferentbetweenthetwolegalsystems.Onceafinaljudgmenthasbeenannouncedinalaw
whoareconfrontedwithasuitthatisidenticaltoorsubstantiallythesameastheearlierone,theywouldapplytheResJudicatadoctrinetopreservetheeffectofthefirstjudgment.Thisistopreve
acasesupposedlyfinished,butperhapsmostlytoavoidunnecessarywasteofresourcesandtimeoftheJudicialSystem.

And,therefore,thesamecasecannotbetakenupagaineitherinthesameorinthedifferentCourtofIndia.Thisisjusttopreventthemfrommultiplyingjudgments,soaprevailingplaintiffmaynot
defendanttwiceforthesameinjury.
FormakingResJudicatabinding,severalfactorsmustbemetupwith:
identityinthethingatsuit
identityofthecauseatsuit
identityofthepartiestotheaction
identityinthedesignationofthepartiesinvolved
whetherthejudgmentwasfinal
whetherthepartiesweregivenfullandfairopportunitytobeheardontheissue.

Regardingdesignationofthepartiesinvolved,apersonmaybeinvolvedinanactionwhilefillingagivenofficeandmaysubsequentlyinitiatethesameactioninadifferingcapacity.InthatcaseRe
availableasadefenseunlessthedefendantcouldshowthatthedifferingdesignationswerenotlegitimateandsufficient.

Therefore,ResJudicatainanutshellisajudicialconceptwhereintheCourtsdonotallowapetitiontobefiledinthesameortotheotherCourtforthedoctrineofResJudicatawouldapplyandthe
tofilethepetitionortocontinuethepetitionasthecasemaybe.
ThesphereofResJudicataisevergrowing.AlthoughtheCivilProceduredoesnotapplytotheproceedingsotherthansuits.WhereasinAdministrativeLaw,theconceptofResJudicatadealsonl
WritProceedings.

BriefHistoryandOriginofResJudicata
"Resjudicataproveritateaccipitur"isthefulllatinmaximwhichhas,overtheyears,shrunktomere"ResJudicata".
TheconceptofResJudicatafindsitsevolvementfromtheEnglishCommonLawsystem,beingderivedfromtheoverridingconceptofjudicialeconomy,consistency,andfinality.Fromthecommo
CodeofCivilProcedureandwhichwaslaterasawholewasadoptedbytheIndianlegalsystem.

FromtheCivilProcedureCode,theAdministrativeLawwitnessesitsapplicability.Then,slowlybutsteadilytheotheractsandstatutesalsostartedtoadmittheconceptofResJudicatawithinitsam

ResJudicataasaconceptunderCivilProcedureCode1908.
ThedoctrineofResJudicatainnationsthathaveacivillawlegalsystemismuchnarrowerinscopethanincommonlawnations.Accordingtothedictionarymeaning,'ResJudicata'meansacase
issuebetweentwoormorepartiesalreadydecidedbyacourt.Thereafter,ifeitherofthepartiesapproachesthesamecourtfortheadjudicationofthesameissue,thesuitwillbestruckbythelaw

Section11ofCodeofCivilProceduredealswiththisconcept.ItembodiesthedoctrineofResJudicataortheruleofconclusivenessofajudgement,astothepointsdecidedeitheroffact,oroflaw
subsequentsuitbetweenthesameparties.Itenactsthatonceamatterisfinallydecidedbyacompetentcourtnopartycanbepermittedtoreopenitinasubsequentlitigation.Intheabsenceofsu
endtolitigationandthepartieswouldbeputtoconstanttrouble,harassmentandexpenses.
ThedoctrineofResJudicataisbasedonthreeRomanmaxims:
aNemodebetlisvaxariproeademcausawhichmeansthatnomanshouldbevexedannoyedtwiceforthesamecause
bInterestrepublicaeutsitfinislitiummeaningtherebythatitisintheinterestofthestatethatthereshouldbeanendtoalitigationand
cRejudicataproveritateoccipiturwhichbearsthemeaningasajudicialdecisionmustbeacceptedascorrect.
TheprerequisiteswhicharenecessaryforResJudicataare:
1Theremustbeafinaljudgment
2Thejudgmentmustbeonthemerits
3Theclaimsmustbethesameinthefirstandsecondsuits
4Thepartiesinthesecondactionmustbethesameasthoseinthefirst,orhavebeen
representedbyapartytotheprioraction.
TheprovisionsofSection11arenotatallexhaustiveeventhoughithasverywideandenlargedamplitude.

ThesectiondoesnotaffectthejurisdictionoftheCourtbutoperatesasapartothetrialofthesuitorissue,ifthematterinthesuitwasdirectlyandsubstantiallyinissueandfinallydecidedint
samepartieslitigatingunderthesametitleinaCourt,thentheyarenotcompetenti.e.theybecomebarredtotrythesubsequentsuitinwhichsuchissuehasbeenraised.

Thus,thisdoctrineofResJudicataisafundamentalconceptbasedonpublicpolicyandprivateinterest.Itisconceivedinthelargerpublicinterest,whichrequiresthateverylitigationmustcometo
tocivilsuits,executionproceedings,arbitrationproceedings,taxationmatters,writpetitions,administrativeorders,interimorders,criminalproceedings,etc.

Anordinarylitigationbeingapartyorclaimingunderapartyofaformersuitcannotavoidtheapplicabilityofsection11ofC.P.C.asitismandatoryexceptonthegroundoffraudorcollusionasthe
proofliesonthepartyrelyingonthetheoryofResJudicata.Theprovisionsofsection11ofC.P.C.arenotdirectorybutmandatory.Thejudgmentinaformersuitcanbeavoidedonlybytakingre
IndianEvidenceActonthegroundoffraudorcollusion.
HonbleMr.JusticeDasGuptainSatyadhanGhosalv.DeorajanDebsaidthattheprincipleofResJudicataisbasedontheneedofgivingfinalitytothejudicialdecisions.

AsmallintroductionofAdministrativeLaw.
Administrativelawisanoftenmisunderstoodsubject.Asthenamesuggests,AdministrativeLawdealswiththestructure,powersandfunctionsoftheorgansofadministration,thelimitsontheirpo
proceduresfollowedbytheminexercisingtheirpowersandfunctions,themethodbywhichtheirpowersarecontrolled.

Administrativelaw,alsoknownasregulatorylaw,iscreatedandenforcedbysometypeofadministrativegovernmentbodyfromwhomthelawderivesitspowertosetandenforceregulationsdepe
isexecutive.Itappliestoallpublicofficialsandpublicagencies.

AnAdministrativeGovernmentbodymayactthroughrulemaking,adjudication,orbyenforcingaspecificregulatoryagenda.Administrativelawistechnicallyconsideredabranchofpubliclaw.Adm
oflawwhichappliesforhearingsbeforequasijudicialbodies,boards,commissionsoradministrativetribunalssupplementtherulesofnaturaljusticewiththeirowndetailedrulesofprocedure.

Asdistinguishedfromlegislativeandjudicialauthority,administrativeauthorityentailsthepowertoissuerulesandregulationsbasedonstatutes,grantlicensesandpermitstofacilitatetheconduc
initiateinvestigationsofandprovideremediesforcomplaintsorproblems,andissueordersdirectingpartiestoconformtogoverningstatutesorrules.

Thetwobasicprinciplesofadministrativelawareaudialterampartemnopersonshallbecondemned,punishedorhaveanypropertyrightdeprived,unheardandnemojudexinpartesuano
whichheorsheispartyorinwhichhe/shehasaninterest

Themainreasonforthedevelopmentofadministrativelawhasbeentheexpansionoftheadministrativeapparatus,functionsandpowersofthegovernment.Thiswasprimarilyduetotheeffectof
prevalentinthe9thCentury.Whenextensivepowersareconferredontheadministration,itbecomesnecessarytoevolveasuitablecontrolmechanismoverthepowersupholdedbytheadministra

Theexpansionintheadministrativepowerscreatesthespectacleofmisuseandabuseofpower.Therefore,fortheregulationandcontroloftheadministrativepowers,AdministrativeLawbeganto

Itisimportanttoconsidertwovitalfactorsindealingwithadministrativeagencies:1therulesandregulationsareoftenspecialforeachagencyandarenotusuallyfoundinthestatutesbutinthose
ofthepublicmust"exhausthis/heradministrativeremedies"takeeverystep,includingappealswiththeagencyanditssystembeforehe/shecanchallengetheadministrativerulingwithalawsuit

Anadministrativelawjudgeisagovernmentofficialwithquasijudicialpowers,includingtheauthoritytoconducthearings,makesfindingsoffact,andrecommendsresolutionofdisputesconcernin

OverviewofResJudicataasaconceptunderAdministrativeLaw
Basically,theDoctrineofResJudicataisapplicabletotheCodeofCivilProcedure.But,attimes,inmanyotherstatutesthereisauseofthedoctrine.
AsweknowthattheworkortheroleplayedbytheAdministrativeLawisthatofawatchdog.TheAdministrativeLawseesthatthereisnouseofpowerwhichhasamaliciousintention.TheAdmin
thatthereisanimprovementinthesocietywithoutanyhurdlesandtheadministrationperformsitsdutyinanhonestmanner.

InAdministrativeLaw,theuseofthisdoctrineisthat,itadministersastohowwelltheJudiciarydoesitswork,howefficientlytheJudiciarydisposesoffthecaseandthedoctrinemakesitselfapplic
thanonepetitionfiledinthesameorintheothercourtofIndia.

Thepartiescanfileanothersuitinanothercourt,justtoharassandmalignthereputationoftheoppositepartyorcandosoforreceivingcompensationtwicefromthedifferentcourts.Therefore,jus
andextracasesinthecourtskitty,ResJudicataholdsabigresponsibilityandimportance.

AcomparisonofResJudicataasaconceptinbetweenAdministrativeLawandtheotherlaws.InAdministrativeLaw,thedoctrineworksasaworkingprincipleandhasbeenadoptedortakenfrom
C.P.C.,aswehavediscussedabove,Section11hasabigroletobeplayedinthecivilcourtsofIndia.EveninInternationalLawwhichisapplicableinTheInternationalCourtofJustice,theretooS
dedicatedtowardsthedoctrineofResJudicata.
TheSectionreadsasfollows:
1.TheCourt,whosefunctionistodecideinaccordancewithinternationallawsuchdisputesasaresubmittedtoit,shallapply:
a.internationalconventions,whethergeneralorparticular,establishingrulesexpresslyrecognizedbythecontestingstates
b.internationalcustom,asevidenceofageneralpracticeacceptedaslaw
c.thegeneralprinciplesoflawrecognizedbycivilizednations
d.subjecttotheprovisionsofArticle59,judicialdecisionsandtheteachingsofthemosthighlyqualifiedpublicistsofthevariousnations,assubsidiarymeansforthedeterminationofrulesoflaw.

TheprinciplesofResJudicataevenapplytotheConstitutionmatters.TheruleofResJudicataisbasicallyaruleofprivatelawbuthasbeentransposedintotheareaofwritproceedingsaswell.Th
fromtakingoneproceedingafteranotherandurgingnewgroundseverytime,inrespectofoneandthesamegroundeverytimecausingharassmenttotheoppositeparty.Therefore,asubsequent
movedagainstthejudgementofapetitioninaparticularHighCourt.ThejudgementcanbeofanynatureandofanyHighCourt,butthatordercannotbeinanysensebechallenged.

TheCriminalLawandtobemorespecific,EvidenceLawalsotalksaboutthedoctrineofResJudicatabutinthesamecontextasthathasbeenusedinC.P.C.Therefore,apartfromtheAdministra
aresomefewotherlawswhichtalkabouttheroleofResJudicatainthestatute.

TheNatureofResJudicata.
TheDoctrineofResJudicatastrivestostrikeabalancebetweenthetwolargelyseparatedpoles.Onepitassuresanefficientjudicialsystemthatrendersfinaljudgmentswithcertaintyandprevent
havingtodefendthesameclaimorissueoflawrepeatedly.Ontheotherhand,itprotectstheplaintiff'sinterestinhavingissuesandclaimsfullyandfairlylitigated.AUSSupremeCourtJusticeexp
legalpreceptasfollows:
Federalcourtshavetraditionallyadheredtotherelateddoctrinesofresjudicataclaimpreclusionandcollateralestoppelissuepreclusion.UnderResJudicata,afinaljudgmentonthemeritsofa
parties...fromrelitigatingissuesthatwereorcouldhavebeenraisedinthataction.Undercollateralestoppel,onceacourthasdecidedanissueoffactorlawnecessarytoitsjudgment,thatdec
litigationoftheissueinasuitonadifferentcauseofactioninvolvingapartytothefirstcause.Asthiscourtandothercourtshaveoftenrecognized,resjudicataandcollateralestoppelrelievepartie
ofmultiplelawsuits,conservejudicialresources,andbypreventinginconsistentdecisions,encouragerelianceonajudication

ThebasicpointinvolvedintheNatureofthedoctrineofResJudicataisthatthedoctrinetriestobringinnaturalandfairjusticetothepartiesandthattoobybarringtheotherpartytofileamultiple
justiceorforharassingtheotherparty.

Resjudicataincludestworelatedconcepts:claimpreclusion,andissuepreclusionalsocalledcollateralestoppel,thoughsometimesResJudicataisusedmorenarrowlytomeanonlyclaimprecl
focusesonbarringasuitfrombeingbroughtagainonalegalcauseofactionthathasalreadybeenfinallydecidedbetweentheparties.Issuepreclusionbarstherelitigationoffactualissuesthath
necessarilydeterminedbyajudgeorjuryaspartofanearlierclaim.
Itisoftendifficulttodeterminewhich,ifeither,oftheseapplytolaterlawsuitsthatareseeminglyrelated,becausemanycausesofactioncanapplytothesamefactualsituationandviceversa.

Therefore,thenatureofthedoctrineofResJudicataistoenabletheCourtsdeliverthejusticeandthentodismissorfreezetheotheractivesuitswhichareoftheverysamenaturealthoughisatd
enablestheCourttodismissthematterfromitsjurisdictionandalsothejurisdictionoftheotherCourtswhichareatthesamelevel.

AlsothatResJudicatadoesnotrestricttheappealsprocess,whichisconsideredalinearextensionofthesamelawsuitasittravelsupandbackdowntheappellatecourtladder.Appealsarecon
mannerbywhichittochallengeajudgmentratherthantryingtostartanewtrial,andoncetheappealsprocessisexhaustedorwaived,ResJudicatawillapplyeventoajudgmentthatiscontraryt

ScopeofResJudicata.
TheScopeofResJudicatahasverywellbeendecidedinthecaseofGulamAbbasv.StateofU.P.wherethecodeembodiestherulesofconclusivenessasevidenceorbarsasapleaofanissue
foundedonaplaintinwhichthematterisdirectlyandsubstantiallyanissuebecomesfinal.Section11doescreateanyrightorinterestoverthepropertybutmerelyoperatesasabartotrytheissu
assumedandappliedtoallthejudicialbodiesworkinginIndia.

Thescopeofanearlierjudgmentisprobablythemostdifficultquestionthatjudgesmustresolveinapplyingresjudicata.Sometimesmerelypartofasubsequentlawsuitwillbeaffected,suchasa
fromacomplaint,orasinglefactualissuebeingremovedfromreconsiderationinthenewtrial.TheprincipleofResJudicatahasbeenheldtobeofwiderapplicationonthebasisofthewiderprinc
byCourtsoflawandadecisionunderSection12oftheU.P.AgriculturistsReliefActof1934washeldtooperateasResJudicataSection11CPCwhichembodiestheprincipleofResJudicataha
exhaustiveandeventhoughamattermaynotbedirectlycoveredbytheprovisionsofthatsectionthemattermaystillbeResJudicataongeneralprinciples.

ThescopeoftheprincipleofResJudicataisnotconfinedtowhatiscontainedinSection11butisofmoregeneralapplication.ResJudicatacouldbeasmuchapplicabletodifferentstagesofthes
issuesindifferentsuits.

InthecaseofSatyadhyanGhosalv.Smt.DeorajinDebi,wheretheprincipleofResJudicataisinvokedinthecaseofthedifferentstagesofproceedingsinthesamesuitthenatureoftheproceed
enquirywhichtheadjectivallawprovidesforthedecisionbeingreachedaswellasthespecificprovisionmadeonmatterstouchingsuchdecisionsaresomeofthefactorstobeconsideredbeforet
applicable.OrderIXRule7doesnotputanendtothelitigationnordoesitinvolvethedeterminationofanyissuesincontroversyinthesuit.Adecisionordirectioninaninterlocutoryproceedingo
OrderIXRule7isnotofthekindwhichcanoperateasResJudicatasoastobarthehearingonthe,meritsofanapplicationunderOrderIXRule13

ExceptionstoResJudicata.
However,therearelimitedexceptionstoResJudicatathatallowapartytoattackthevalidityoftheoriginaljudgment,evenoutsideofappeals.Theseexceptionsusuallycalledcollateralattacks
proceduralorjurisdictionalissues,basednotonthewisdomoftheearliercourtsdecisionbutitsauthorityorcompetencetoissueit.Acollateralattackismorelikelytobeavailableandtosucceed
multiplejurisdictions,suchasunderfederalgovernments,orwhenadomesticcourtisaskedtoenforceorrecognisethejudgmentofaforeigncourt.

Inaddition,incasesinvolvingdueprocess,casesthatappeartobeResJudicatamayberelitigated.Aninstancewouldbetheestablishmentofarighttocounsel.Peoplewhohavehadtheirlibert
imprisonedmaybeallowedtoberetriedwithacounselorasamatteroffairness.

JudicialPronouncementsinrelationtoResJudicata.
InthecaseofJallurVenkataSeshayyavs.ThadvicondaKoteswaraRao,asuitwasfiledintheCourtforthepurposeofdeclaringcertaintemplespublictemplesandforsettingasidealienationofe
managerthereof.AsimilarsuitwasdismissedbytheCourttwoyearsagoandtheplaintiffsherecontendedthatitwasthegrossnegligenceonthepartoftheplaintiffsoftheprevioussuitandhen
Judicatashouldnotbeapplied.But,thePrivyCouncilsaidthatfindingofagrossnegligencebythetrialcourtwasfarfromafindingofintentionalsuppressionofthedocuments,whichwouldamou
collusiononthepartoftheplaintiffsinpriorsuit.Therebeingnoevidenceinthesuitestablishingeitherwantofbonafideofcollusiononthepartofplaintiffsasresjudicata.

InthecaseofBeliramandBrothersvs.ChaudariMohammedAfzalitwasheldthatwhereaminorssuitwasnotbroughtbytheguardianoftheminorsbonafidebutwasbroughtincollusionwiththe
wasafictitioussuit,adecreeobtainedthereinisoneobtainedbyfraudandcollusionwithinthemeaningoftheIndianEvidenceAct,1872,s.44anddoesnotoperateResJudicata.Theprincipleof
CivilProcedure,1908,s.11ismodifiedbytheIndianEvidenceAct,1872,s.44andtheprincipleswillnotapplyifanyofthethreegroundsmentionedins.44exists.Generalprinciplesmaynotbe
CodeofCivilProcedure,1908,s.11nugatory.

InthecaseofRuralLitigationAndEntitlementKendravs.StateofUttarPradesh,itwasheldthatthewritpetitionsfiledintheSupremeCourtarenotinterpartydisputesandhavebeenraisedbyw
andthecontroversybeforethecourtisastowhetherforsocialsafetyandforcreatingahazardlessenvironmentforthepeopletolivein,miningintheareamustbepermittedorstopped.Evenifiti
order,inadisputeofthistypeitwouldbedifficulttoentertainthepleaofResJudicata.TheCourtwasoftheviewthatleavingthequestionopenforexaminationinfuturewouldleadtounnecessary
andwouldbeagainsttheinterestsofthesociety.Itismeteandproperasalsointheinterestofthepartiesthattheentirequestionistakenintoaccountatthisstage.Undoubtedly,theEnvironment
comeintoforcewitheffectfrom19November1986.Underthisenactment,powerbecamevestedintheCentralGovernmenttotakemeasurestoprotectandimprovetheenvironment.Thesewritp
as1983morethanthreeyearsbeforetheenactmentcameintoforce.TheprincipleofResJudicatadoesnotapplystrictlytopublicinterestlitigations.Theprocedurallawsarenotfullyapplicableto
cases.Wherethepriorpublicinterestrelatestoillegalmining,subsequentpublicinterestlitigationtoprotectenvironmentisnotbarred.

InForwardConstructionCo.v.PrabhatMandal,theSupremeCourtwasdirectlycalledupontodecidethequestion.Theapexcourtheldthattheprinciplewouldapplytopublicinterestlitigationpr
litigation.

InanothercaseofRamdasNayakv.UnionofIndia,thecourtobserved:
Itisarepetitivelitigationontheverysameissuecomingupbeforethecourtsagainandagaininthegrabofpublicinterestlitigation.Itishightimetoputanendtothesame.Thesewerefewcases
pronounceditsjudgementeitherinfavouroragainstthedoctrineofResJudicata

Conclusion
TheDoctrineofResJudicatacanbeunderstoodassomethingwhichrestrainstheeitherpartytomovetheclockbackduringthependencyoftheproceedings.TheextendofResJudicataisvery

lotofthingswhichevenincludesPublicInterestLitigations.ThisdoctrineisapplicableevenoutsidetheCodeofCivilProcedureandcoversalotofareaswhicharerelatedtothesocietyandpeople
haswidenedwiththepassageoftimeandtheSupremeCourthaselongatedtheareaswithitsjudgments.

Criticisms.
ResJudicatadoesnotrestricttheappealsprocess,whichisconsideredalinearextensionofthesamelawsuitasthesuittravelsupandbackdowntheappellatecourtladder.Appealsareconsid
bywhichtochallengeajudgmentratherthantryingtostartanewtrial.Oncetheappealsprocessisexhaustedorwaived,ResJudicatawillapplyeventoajudgmentthatiscontrarytolaw.

TherearelimitedexceptionstoResJudicatathatallowapartytoattackthevalidityoftheoriginaljudgment,evenoutsideofappeals.Theseexceptionsusuallycalledcollateralattacksaretypical
jurisdictionalissues,basednotonthewisdomoftheearliercourt'sdecisionbutitsauthorityoronthecompetenceoftheearliercourttoissuethatdecision.Acollateralattackismorelikelytobeav
judicialsystemswithmultiplejurisdictions,suchasunderfederalgovernments,orwhenadomesticcourtisaskedtoenforceorrecognizethejudgmentofaforeigncourt.

Inaddition,inmattersinvolvingdueprocess,casesthatappeartobeResJudicatamayberelitigated.Anexamplewouldbetheestablishmentofarighttocounsel.Peoplewhohavehadlibertyta
maybeallowedtoberetriedwithacounselorasamatteroffairness.

Failuretoapply
WhenasubsequentcourtfailstoapplyResJudicataandrendersacontradictoryverdictonthesameclaimorissue,ifathirdcourtisfacedwiththesamecase,itwilllikelyapplya"lastintime"rule
laterjudgment,eventhoughtheresultcameoutdifferentlythesecondtime.Thissituationisnotunheardof,asitistypicallytheresponsibilityofthepartiestothesuittobringtheearliercasetothe
judgemustdecidehowbroadlytoapplyit,orwhethertorecognizeitinthefirstplace.
References
Books:
1TakwaniC.K.,CivilProcedureCode,Edition5.Reprint2007,EasternBookPublication,Lucknow.
2Dr.MyneniS.R.,TheLawofEvidence.Edition1.AsialawHouse,Hyderabad.
3HalsburyLawsofIndia,Vol.1:AdministrativeLaw.
4HalsburyLawsofIndia,Vol.:CodeofCivilProcedure
WebReferences:
1http://vlex.in/vid/arjunsinghvsmohindrakumarors29694951
2http://www.legalserviceindia.com/articles/rju.htm
3http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Res_judicata
4http://www.icjcij.org/documents/index.php?p1=4&p2=2&p3=0#CHAPTER_II
5http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1102910#
6http://www.utcle.org/eLibrary/preview.php?asset_file_id=12359
7http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Res_judicata#encyclopedia
8http://www.wisegeek.com/whatisresjudicata.htm

Theauthorcanbereachedat:shashwat.nirma@legalserviceindia.com

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