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C

Chapter 30
Inductance
30-1 Mutual Inductance
30-2 Self-inductance and Inductors

30-3 Magnetic Field Energy


30-5 The L-C Circuit
30-6 The L-R-C Series Circuit

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Objective
Calculate mutually-induced EMF given the mutual
inductance between two circuits

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

I and I are both constant.

Question:
What if instead of straight wires we have coils?
Also, there is a changing current in one of the coils.
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Remember that:
If the coils are in vacuum:
M21 is a constant.
It depends on the geometry of both coils
(size, shape, number of turns, orientation
of each coil, separation between coils).

For our case, we assume that any magnetic


material present has constant Km so that M21 is
constant.
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

For any two coils (symmetric or not):

SI Unit of mutual inductance M:

1 H = 1 Wb/A
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Example:

Equation to be used:

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Example:

Equations to be used:

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Seatwork:
The figure shows two insulated coils wrapped around each
other with mutual inductance M = 0.5 H. If the current in coil 2
varies as I(t) = 8t2 + 2t + 14, what will be the induced emf in
coil 1 after 1 s?

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Chapter 30
Inductance
30-1 Mutual Inductance
30-2 Self-inductance and Inductors

30-3 Magnetic Field Energy


30-5 The L-C Circuit
30-6 The L-R-C Series Circuit

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Objective
Calculate self-induced EMF given the self-inductance of the
circuit

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Any circuit that carries a varying current has an emf induced in it


by the variation in its own magnetic field.

Self-Induced emf
It can occur in any circuit.
The effect is greatly enhanced if circuit includes a coil with
N turns of wire.

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Self-Inductance/Inductance

Since current i in the circuit changes


with time t,

From Faradays Law:

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Potential difference between the terminals of the inductor

If the rate of change of current is zero:

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Potential difference between the terminals of the inductor

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What is the physical significance of inductance

L?

When L is large, the rate of change of current is small.

When L is small, the rate of change of current is large.

So, what is the use of an inductor in a circuit?

An inductor helps to prevent rapid changes in current.

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Example:

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Example:

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Seatwork:
A current i flowing from a to b passes through an inductor of
inductance L, as shown in the figure. It is observed that the
potential at b is higher than at a.
Which of the following describes the current passing through
the inductor? increasing, decreasing or constant?

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Chapter 30
Inductance
30-1 Mutual Inductance
30-2 Self-inductance and Inductors

30-3 Magnetic Field Energy


30-5 The L-C Circuit
30-6 The L-R-C Series Circuit

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Objective
Calculate the total magnetic energy stored in an inductor
and its magnetic energy density after current is increased
from zero to a final-state value

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Energy Stored in an Inductor


The total energy U supplied while the current increases from
zero to a final value I is

This is actually stored


in the magnetic field
within the coil.
When the current decreases from I to zero, the inductor
acts as a source that supplies a total amount of energy U.

Note:

When a steady current flows through an inductor,


there is no energy flow in or out. .
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Resistor vs. Inductor


A resistor is a device in which energy
is irrecoverably dissipated.

Energy stored in a current-carrying


inductor can be recovered when the
current decreases to zero.

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Magnetic Energy Density


Magnetic energy density in vacuum

Magnetic energy density in a material where = Kmo

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Example:

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Seatwork:
How much current is required to store an energy of 7.2 kJ in
a coil with an inductance of 100 H?

Equation to be used:

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Chapter 30
Inductance

OPTIONAL: *30-4 The R-L Circuit

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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R-L Circuit
A circuit that includes both a resistor and an inductor, and possibly a
source of emf

Current growth

Current decay

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Current Growth in an R-L Circuit

Current in an R-L circuit with emf:

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Current Growth in an R-L Circuit


Current in an R-L circuit with emf:

Time constant of an R-L circuit:

At time , the current has risen to or about


63% of its final value /R.
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Example:
What is the current through the ideal battery after a very
long time the switch S is closed?

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Current Decay in an R-L Circuit


Current in an R-L circuit:

Io: initial current in the circuit

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Current Decay in an R-L Circuit


Current in an R-L circuit:

Io: initial current in the circuit


Time constant of an R-L circuit:

At time , the current has decreased to or


about 37% of its initial value Io
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Example:

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Seatwork:
For the circuit shown, find the currents I1, I2, and I3
(a) immediately after switch S is closed and
(b) a long time after switch S has been closed.

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Chapter 30
Inductance
30-1 Mutual Inductance
30-2 Self-inductance and Inductors

30-3 Magnetic Field Energy


30-5 The L-C Circuit
30-6 The L-R-C Series Circuit

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Objective
Describe the charge and current variation in time in an L-C
circuit

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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L-C Circuit
A circuit that includes both an inductor and a capacitor
Both charge and current in an L-C circuit oscillate sinusoidally with time, with an
angular frequency of

Capacitor charge:

If at time t = 0:

Current in the circuit:

the left-hand capacitor plate has


its maximum charge Q and the
current i is zero, then

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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L-C Circuit
Capacitor charge:

Current in the circuit:

Imax

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Energy in an L-C Circuit


Total energy of the LC circuit:

(inductor)

(capacitor)

The total energy


in an LC circuit is
constant.

Recall:
Capacitor charge:

Current in the circuit:

Imax = Q
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Example:

Use the following equations:


(a) Since = , =
(b) = 1 2

then =

(c) Energy = 2 2 where = ()


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Seatwork (4 pts):

Use the following equations:


2
(a) = 42
(b) =
1
(c) = 2 2
(d) = 2/
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Chapter 30
Inductance
30-1 Mutual Inductance
30-2 Self-inductance and Inductors

30-3 Magnetic Field Energy


30-5 The L-C Circuit
30-6 The L-R-C Series Circuit

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

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Objective
Describe the charge, voltage and current variation in time
for underdamped, critically damped and overdamped L-R-C
circuits

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L-R-C Series Circuit


An inductor with inductance L and a resistor of resistance R are
connected in series across the terminals of a charged capacitor.

3 cases:
1. Underdamped oscillation
2. Critically damped
3. Overdamped
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Underdamped
(Small R)

CRITICALLY damped OVERdamped


(Large R)

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

(Very large R)

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Example:
An L-R-C series circuit includes a 2.0- resistor. At t = 0 the
capacitor charge is 2.0 C. For which of the following
values of inductance and capacitance will the charge on the
capacitor not oscillate?
A. L = 3.0 H, C = 6.0 F
B. L = 6.0 H, C = 3.0 F
C. L = 3.0 H, C = 3.0 F

Hint:

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Seatwork (1 pt):
Consider an R-L-C series circuit with resistance 1 . Which
values of inductance L and capacitance C will the charge on
the capacitor undergo a damped oscillation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

L = 1.0 H, C = 4.0 F
L = 3.0 H, C = 12.0 F
L = 3.0 H, C = 18.0 F
L = 3.0 H, C = 6.0 F
L = 1.0 H, C = 8.0 F

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