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For overcomes several shortcomings of the inverse control design to controlling nonlinear systems using the neural networks as the controller based self tuning regulator. The one link manipulator parameters are estimated online and are used to update the weights of the RBFNN. The weight update equations are derived based on the least mean squares principle. The RBFNN virtually models the inverse of the plant and thus the output tracks the reference trajectory. The proposed algorithm is successfully verified using simulations. Then, this paper compared its result with the outcome of using proportional-plus-integral feedback (PI) self tuning regulator.

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Using Self-Tuning Regulator

Abd-El meged mohamed1, Gaber elsaady2, Ashraf Hemeda3, Asmaa Fawzy4

1engineering faculty, Aswan university, Egypt

2engineering faculty, Assiut university, Egypt

3,4energy engineering faculty, Aswan university, Egypt

Abstract

For overcomes several shortcomings of the inverse

control design to controlling nonlinear systems using the

neural networks as the controller based self tuning

regulator. The one link manipulator parameters are

estimated online and are used to update the weights of

the RBFNN. The weight update equations are derived

based on the least mean squares principle. The RBFNN

virtually models the inverse of the plant and thus the

output tracks the reference trajectory. The proposed

algorithm is successfully verified using simulations.

Then, this paper compared its result with the outcome of

using proportional-plus-integral feedback (PI) self

tuning regulator.

Keywords: STR, RBFNN, ARX, LMS, arm robot

1 INTRODUCTION

Adaptive inverse control method has received much

attention in recent years. But its main problem, when

applied to controlling nonlinear systems, is how to adapt

the inverse controller. The adaptive inverse control

system based neural network can achieve good

performance. The basic idea of adaptive inverse control

is to drive the plant with a signal from a controller

whose transfer function is the inverse of that of the plant

itself. The objective of this system is to cause the plant

output to follow the command input. Since the plant is

generally unknown, it is necessary to adapt or to adjust

the parameters of the controller in order to create a true

plant inverse. An error signal, the difference between the

plant output and the command input, is used by an

adaptive algorithm to adjust the controllers parameters

to minimize the mean square of this error [1].

In many practical applications it is, however, difficult

to determine the parameters of the controller, since the

dynamics of the process and its disturbances are

unknown [2, 3]. The parameters of the process thus have

to be estimated. For stationary processes it is possible to

determine

the

unknown

parameters

through

identification. The experiments and their evaluations

can, however, be rather time consuming. It is thus

desirable to have a regulator which tunes its parameters

on-line [4]. The purpose of self-tuning regulators (STR)

parameters. The regulators can also be applied to

systems with slowly varying parameters.

K. Amini [5] their research addresses fuzzy-logic

method as an appropriate approach to control of

mechanical robot manipulators. The method is explained

and a review on applications of method in control of

mobile robot and flexible links manipulators is

presented. Ismail H. [6] utilized PID and State feedback

control methods which have been studied for Single Link Flexible Joint Robot Manipulator. The obtained

results compared due to various input signals for each

control methods. The results showed that state feedback

control slightly outperforms the PID control for singlelink flexible manipulator.

Neural network (NN) is a good structure for control

the nonlinear plants and has many types [7, 8]. Kumar

[9] used neural network for modeling the retention

process and as controller. In this paper, we used the

RBFNN as a controller. This type is faster one and uses

least number of neurons at hidden layer [10, 11]. The

inverse control means that the controller (RBFNN) acts

the inverse of the plant (dc motor) so the output tracks

the reference input [12]. Enzeng [13] present a neural

network based self tuning PID controller for autonomous

underwater vehicle, the control system consists of neural

network identifier and neural network controller, and the

weights of neural networks are trained by using Davidon

least square method, also[14].

Sabahi [15] used a new adaptive and nonlinear

control based on neural network approaches, this method

has been named feedback error learning (FEL)

approaches, that classical controller is used for training

of neural network feedforward controller. Pal [16]

proposed a simple self-tuning scheme for PI-type fuzzy

logic controllers (FLCs) for a real time water pressure

control system. This scheme is improved performance of

the system even at load change and set point variations.

Kota [17] used PID controller and fuzzy logic controller

for control separately excited dc motor. Fuzzy selftuning PID has better dynamic response curve, shorter

response time, small overshoot, and small steady state

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69

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

Volume 4 Issue 2, February 2015

[18] proved that the proposed Neural Network (NN)

self-tuning PID controller is more efficient to control the

robot manipulator to follow the desired trajectory

compared to classical tuning method of PID controller.

Alfonso [19] introduced a new self-tuning algorithm is

developed for determining the Fourier Series Controller

coefficients with the aim of reducing the torque ripple in

a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM), thus

allowing for a smoother operation. This algorithm

adjusts the controller parameters based on the

component's harmonic distortion in time domain of the

compensation signal.

In this paper a technique is proposed that gives a good

control for the one link manipulator. An online control

algorithm is structured using the radial basis function

neural network (RBFNN). The one link manipulator

parameters are estimated on line and are used to update

the weights of the RBFNN. The weight update equations

are derived based on the least mean squares principle.

The RBFNN virtually models the inverse of the one link

manipulator and thus the output tracks the reference

trajectory. The self tuning regulator (STR) inspects with

the various disturbances.

DERIVATION OF EQUATIONS OF

MOTION FOR ACTUATED ONE-LINK

MANIPULATOR

It has one rotational joint. The mass is considered to be

located at a point at the distal end of the link, and so the

moment of inertia is ml 2 [21].

elevated object is equal to the work done against gravity

in lifting it. Thus, for an object at height h , the

gravitational potential energy E p is defined by its mass

E p mgh

(2)

Lagrange's equations employ a single scalar function,

rather than vector components. In classical mechanics,

the natural form of the Lagrangian is defined as

L Ek E p

(3)

L 12 mv 2 mgh

L 1 ml 2 2 mgl sin

2

(4)

(5)

d L L

dt

(6)

equation

L

mgl cos

d L

ml 2

dt

L

ml 2

Equation

ml 2 mgl cos

(7)

Linearization for one-link manipulator

The linearization of system is based on the Taylor

series expansion and on knowledge of nominal system

trajectories and nominal system inputs [22]. Assume that

the motion of the nonlinear system is in the

neighborhood of the nominal system trajectory, that is

(t ) n (t ) (t )

(t ) n (t ) (t )

Where (t ) represents a small quantity. It is natural to

The kinetic energy is defined as the work needed to

accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated

velocity. In classical mechanics, the kinetic energy E k of

a point object is defined by its mass m and velocity v that

is a vector representing the change in position:

Ek 12 mv 2

(1)

The potential energy is the energy of an object or a

system due to the position of the body or the

arrangement of the particles of the system. The amount

nominal trajectory will be sustained by a system input

which is obtained by adding a small quantity to the

nominal system input

(t ) n (t ) (t )

(t ) n (t ) (t )

Abstract

n f ( n ,n , n ,n )

The righthand side can be expanded into a Taylor series about the

nominal system trajectory and input, which produces

(t ) a1 (t ) a 0 (t ) b1 (t ) b0 (t )

Where

the corresponding coefficients are evaluated at the

nominal points as

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70

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

Volume 4 Issue 2, February 2015

f ( n ,n , n ,)

0

f ( n ,n , n ,)

g

a0

sin n

l

f ( n ,n , n ,)

b1

0

f ( n , n , n ,)

1

b0

2

ml

applicable control input for driving robot arm is the

armature voltage of the motors, here. So, by using

equations (8)-(12) and neglecting the inductance L ,

because of its tiny amount, the following equation is

achieved.

a1

1

1

V RKm ((J m g r g r ml 2 )

1

1

( Bm g r K m R 1 K b g r g r k 2 )

n (t ) n 0 , n (t ) 2 producing a 0 g l

the linearized equation is given by

g

l

ml 2

The mathematical equations describing electrical and

mechanical dynamics of a permanent magnet DC motor

are as follows [24]:

(9)

(10)

K mi

(11)

Where V is the armature voltage of the motor, R and

L are armature equivalent resistance and inductance,

respectively,

rotor position, J m is the total moment of inertia, Bm is

the damping coefficient, m and represent the

generated motor torque and the load torque, respectively,

and K m is the diagonal matrix of motor torque constant.

With the purpose of increasing motion speed of the

manipulators, motors are equipped with the high

reduction gears as follows:

q g r r

(12)

m g r

K R1n .

(8)

Therefore, the pole placement method is used to

determine a value of K R1n that will produce a

desired set of closed-loop poles. Ackermann's formula

can be used for pole placement. Ackermann's formula

(1972) is a direct evaluation method. It is only

applicable to SISO systems [23].

Generally the actuators used to move the joints of any

industrial robot are motors, usually DC permanent

magnet (PM) motors or AC (PM) motors. Other motors

can be used, including pneumatic or hydraulic servo

motors.

di

d

V Ri L Kb r

dt

dt

J m r Bm r m

g r (k1 mLg) )

(13)

PROPOSED STRUCTURE

with exogenous input (ARX) is used to identify the onelink manipulator and found the model. The model

coefficients are updated online depending on the onelink manipulator parameters variation. These

coefficients are fed the weight update block which trains

the controller whether RBFNN or PI controller using the

least mean square LMS algorithm.

structure

3.1 ARX model

The process is modeled by an ARX model [20],

whose output is given by

n

y (t ) ai y (t i ) b j x(t j ) (14)

i 1

j 1

Bq b1q b2 q bm q m

1

Aq 1 a1q 1 a2 q 2 an q n

Or in terms of q 1 operator

y (t )

B ( q 1 ) d

q x (t )

A(q 1 )

(15)

A single input single output radial basis function

neural network (SISO RBFNN) is shown in Fig. 3. It

consists of an input node r (t ) , a hidden layer with n

neurons and an output node x(t ) . Each of the input

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71

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

Volume 4 Issue 2, February 2015

through unity weights (direct connection). While each of

the hidden layer nodes is connected to the output node

w , , w

n0

through some weights 1

.

Each neuron finds the distance d of the input and its

center and passes the resulting scalar through

nonlinearity. So the output of the hidden neuron is given

by [10, 20]

(d ) exp( 12 d 2 )

exp( r (t ) ci )

2

1

2

(16)

( K 1) ( K )

I

( K )

taken as a Gaussian function of width . The output

x(t ) is a weighted sum of the outputs of the hidden

layer, given by

(20)

I

W ( K 1) W ( K )

W ( K )

PI ( K 1) PI ( K )

r (t ) cn0

r (t ) c1

1

2

th

ci is the center of i

hidden layer node

where i 1,2,, n0 , is the norm matrix and (.) is

(21)

I

PI ( K )

(22)

Where a1 an b1 bm is the parameter

vector,

RBFNN,

W w1 w2 wn0

PI k p

is the learning

number of training.

Keeping the regressions of the variables in the

system

in

a

regression

vector

as

(t ) (t 1) (t n) V (t d ) V (t m d )

n0

x(t ) wi ( r (t ) ci )

the output joint position of the one-link manipulator. The

coefficients of the ARX model and the weights of the

RBFNN/parameters of the PI are updated in the negative

direction of the gradient as,

(17)

i 1

and

finding

partial derivatives.

utilized a radial construction mechanism. This gives the

hidden layer parameters of RBF networks a better

interpretation than for the multilayer perceptron network

MLP, and therefore allows new, faster training methods.

I 1 e 2 (t )

(23)

2

(24)

e(t ) (r (t ) (t ))

1

n

r (t ) a1q an q (t )

e(t )

b1q 1 bm q m q d V (t )

I

(25)

e(t ) (t )

( K 1) ( K ) e(t ) (t ) (26)

follows,

Fig. 3: A general RBF network

3.3 parameters estimation for controller

The parameters of the one-link manipulator model

are estimated online and are used to update the

coefficients of the controller (weights of the RBFNN /

parameters of PI). The weight/coefficient update

equations are derived based on a recursive scheme (least

mean squares principle). This previous parameters are

updated by minimizing the performance index I given

by [11]

I 12 e 2 (t )

e(t ) r (t ) (t )

(18)

I

1 e 2 (t )

(27)

W 2 W

B(q 1 ) d

r (t )

(28)

e(t )

q V (t )

1

W

A(q )

I

e(t ) B(q 1 )q d (t )

W

(29)

W ( K 1) W ( K ) e(t ) B(q 1 )q d (t )

But the final coefficients update equation of PI will be,

PI ( K 1) PI ( K ) e(t ) B(q 1 )q d

(V (t 1) (t s 1)V (t ))

(19)

sample time.

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ts

is the

72

Volume 4 Issue 2, February 2015

SIMULATION RESULTS

arm robot input & output

designed to achieve trajectory tracking with minimum

steady state error and improving the dynamic behavior

(overshoot).

When utilizing the RBFNN, the actuated one link

manipulator has got an excellent output with a square

wave reference and small estimated parameters values,

Fig. 4. Secondly, the system gives a good tracking of

various sinusoidal reference trajectories and the model

parameters value fluctuates as seen; Fig. 5. Finally, the

output controller meets disturbance at specific time

period 250 t 300 and the output of self-tuning

regulator (STR) structure mimics the track at different

disturbances Fig. 6.

1

0.5

0

-0.5

-1

50

100

-5

-1

250

300

400

450

50

100

200

250

300

350

400

450

50

100

position (q)

150

450

500

200

250

time(sec)

300

350

400

450

500

350

400

450

500

350

400

450

500

350

400

450

500

-0.5

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

x 10

0.5

500

500

50

100

150

x 10

400

-1

150

350

0.5

100

300

50

250

-0.5

-10

200

(a)

150

10

-2

500

15

-1

350

450

20

1

200

400

parameters evolution

150

350

x 10

-5

100

300

-0.5

50

250

200

0.5

link manipulator has got a good output with a square

wave reference and small estimated parameters values,

Fig. 7. Then, the system gives a good tracking of various

sinusoidal reference trajectories and the model

parameters value hardly change; Fig. 8. At last, the

output controller meets disturbance at specific time

period 250 t 300 and the output of self-tuning

regulator (STR) structure mimics the track at two

statuses low and high disturbances; the model

parameters value hardly change after the end of noise

Fig. 9.

-2

150

200

250

300

parameters evolution

20

0.5

0

-0.5

15

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

10

parameters evolution

50

0

-50

50

100

150

200

250

time(sec)

300

350

400

450

50

100

150

200

250

time(sec)

300

500

link manipulator for a square wave reference

(b)

Fig. 5 the output of radial basis self-tuning actuated one

link manipulator system for a different sinusoidal wave

reference

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73

Volume 4 Issue 2, February 2015

2

-2

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

-1

500

50

100

150

position (q)

position (q)

250

300

350

400

450

500

300

350

400

450

500

350

400

450

500

350

400

450

500

2

0

-2

200

50

100

-10

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

0

-1

500

50

100

150

200

250

x 10

0.5

0

-0.5

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

-2

500

50

100

150

50

10.012

10.01

-50

50

100

150

200

250

time(sec)

300

200

250

300

parameters evolution

parameters evolution

350

400

450

10.008

500

(a)

50

100

150

200

250

time(sec)

300

link manipulator system

2

1

0.5

-2

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

-0.5

position (q)

-1

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

350

400

450

500

350

400

450

500

-2

0.05

0

50

100

-10

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

x 10

0.5

0

-0.5

-0.05

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

50

100

150

parameters evolution

200

250

300

parameters evolution

200

10.0106

10.0104

10.0102

-200

50

100

150

200

250

time(sec)

300

350

400

450

500

10.01

10.0098

(b)

Fig. 6 Simulation Results for radial-basis self-tuning

actuated robot system output disturbance (a) 0.05 sin(t )

(b) 0.5 sin(t )

www.ijsret.org

50

100

150

200

250

time(sec)

(a)

300

74

Volume 4 Issue 2, February 2015

0.5

0.5

-0.5

-0.5

-1

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

-1

500

50

100

-3

0.05

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

350

400

450

500

350

400

450

500

x 10

0.5

0

0

-0.5

-0.05

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

-1

500

50

100

150

parameters evolution

200

250

300

parameters evolution

10.012

11

10

10.011

9

10.01

10.009

8

0

50

100

150

200

250

time(sec)

300

350

400

450

500

(b)

Fig. 8 the output of PI self-tuning actuated one link

manipulator system for a sine wave reference with

different frequency

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

x 10

0.5

0

-0.5

-1

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

250

time(sec)

300

CONCLUSIONS

500

-0.5

50

200

construction mimics the trajectory of the reference. As is

noticed in aforementioned figures, the radial basis

function neural network is the best method and the

parameters evolution are smaller value than its

counterpart at the another method (PI) in most cases.

-3

150

500

0.5

100

control the actuated one link manipulator that updates

itself online. The exact model of the actuated one link

manipulator needs not to be known and just the

estimates are enough to drive the RBFNN as the process

inverse.

-1

50

one link manipulator system output disturbance

0.5 sin(t ) at 250 t 300

parameters evolution

others type due to using least mean squares principle as

training algorithm. Its structure has 2 neurons in hidden

layer.

10.015

10.01

10.005

10

0

50

100

150

200

250

time(sec)

300

350

400

450

REFERENCES

500

one link manipulator system output disturbance

0.05 sin(t ) at 250 t 300

www.ijsret.org

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Kyungsang Yoo ; Young Tae Kim. Self-tuning

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Electronics,

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Drives,

Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), 2012

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[4] K.J. ASTROM, U. BORISSON, L. LJUNG, B.

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[16] A.K.Pal, I.Naskar.

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Torque Ripple Minimization in Permanent

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