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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 2 Issue 7, July 2015, ISSN 2348 8050

IMPLIMANTATION OF STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL IN


SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES-A REVIEW
Gajendra Patidar (patidargajendra25@gmail.com),
Dr. Devendra Singh Verma (dev1_ver@yahoo.co.in)
(Mechanical Engineering Department, Institute of Engineering & Technology DAVV Indore)
ABSTRACT
SPC have been introduced into a vast number of
companies around the world in the last decades. The
methods and practicesof process control in
manufacturing help companies to continually meet and
exceed the needs of their customers in providing
highquality products at a low price. Quality has
become one of the most important customer decision
factors in the selection among the competing product
and services. Consequently, understanding and
improving quality is a key factor leading to business
success, growth and an enhanced competitive position.
Hence quality improvement program should be an
integral part of the overall business strategy. Quality
has become one of the most important customer
decision factors in the selection among the competing
product and services. Consequently, understanding and
improving quality is a key factor leading to business
success, growth and an enhanced competitive position.
Hence quality improvement program should be an
integral part of the overall business strategy.
Keywords: Control Chart, SPC, SQC,
Assignable Causes, Natural Variations etc.

TQM,

1. INTRODUCTION
SQC tools uses the process values to determine,
whether the process is in control or out of control. If
the process is found out to be in control as specified by
the customers or engineers, the process needs not to be
disturbed. But, by theory of manufacturing, no two
products manufactured in same conditions and same
parameters are identical. The variations are inevitable.
If the deviations are too high, i.e., if the process is out
of control, then some measures are to be carried out to
make the process, back into the form. For continuous
improvement of the process, monitoring every process
is essential in case of mass production. This can be
made easy by using the Statistical tools such as
Control chart and Histogram principles

2. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
This research paper is based on secondary
data,secondary data is collected from various article
and magazines and research articles available on

internet. The key research objective soft hr research


papers are
To identify various advantages to implement
SPC in industry.
To indentify further the practices in SPC.
How does a firms orientation about SPC
affectquality practices?

3. LITERATURE REVIEW
Jane M, Cramm et al. [1] has proposed to explore
innovative cultures in Quality Improvement (QI) teams
over time and identify its determinants. The study
included, QI teams participating between 2006 and
2011 in a national Dutch quality program (Care for
Better) using an adapted version of the Breakthrough
Method. Each QI team member received a
questionnaire by mail. They measured innovative
culture, respondent characteristics (age, gender, and
education),
perceived
team
effectiveness,
organizational support and management support.
Multilevel
analyses
showed
that
perceived
effectiveness, organizational support, and management
support predicted innovative culture. Their QI teams
were not able to improve innovative culture over time
but their innovative culture scores were higher than
nonparticipant professionals. QI interventions require
organizational and management support to enhance
innovative culture in long-term care settings.
S Raghuraman et al [2] they implementation of the
Statistical Tools along with the SPC and Process
Capability Studies, decline the process capability,
unless it is used in a right way. It was noted that the
productions process was not in normal condition
before these techniques are implemented into the
process. After the techniques were built into the
process, the management and the employee had
understood the cost wastage due to the rejection of the
work piece and motivation among them were
developed.
In statistical process control: strategy to monitor and
Control manufacturing process, Anuj kumar et al [3]
identify various advantages to implement SPC in
industry. This study focused on importance of SPC in
reduction of variations in process. This research
enquires usefulness of SPC as a Strategy to Monitoring
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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)


Volume 2 Issue 7, July 2015, ISSN 2348 8050

and Controlling Manufacturing Process. Statistical


Process control in manufacturing ensures real time
analysis of the overall enterprise, resulting in cost
effective manufacturing and efficient use of all
resources.
Marcello Colledani, Tullio Tolio, Anath Fischer
Benoit Iung , Gisela Lanza, Robert Schmitt, Jo zsef
Vancz [4] this paper include companies are
continuously facing the challenge of operating their
manufacturing processes and systems in order to
deliver the required production rates of high quality
products, while minimizing the use of resources.
Production quality is proposed in this paper as a new
paradigm aiming at going beyond traditional six-sigma
approaches. This new paradigm is extremely relevant
in technology intensive and emerging strategic
manufacturing sectors, such as aeronautics,
automotive, energy, medical technology, micromanufacturing, electronics and mechatronics.
T. R. Vijayaram, S. Sulaiman, A. M. S. Hamouda,
M.H.M. Ahmad [5] In this review paper, some of the
solutions and quality control aspects are explained in a
simplified manner to eliminate the unawareness of the
foundry industrial personnel who work in the casting
manufacturing quality control departments. This
review paper provides very valuable information to the
young manufacturing and mechanical engineers who
have interest to start their career in the manufacturing
concerns of medium and large scale captive foundries.
Anirudha joshi, L.M. Jugulkar [6] this paper presents
all data of manual metal casting operations and defects
leads to rejection for this organization. The paper also
represents analysis of these defects with Pareto and
Cause and Effect diagrams to know correct cause and
correct remedial factors to improve quality level and
productivity of organization. Todays competitive
environment has, lower manufacturing cost, more
productivity in less time, high quality product, defect
free operation are required to follow to every foundry
man.
Shiroya Nikunj R J B Shah [7] prepares a review paper
on Improve Quality in Sand Casting Industry using
Total Quality Management (TQM) Tool. They
conclude the benefits of TQM implementation in small
scale industries. Total Quality management is not only
beneficial to large and medium scale industries but
also beneficial to small scale enterprise. The company
must develop standard operating procedures for all
processes involved in production line by improving the
existing policy in order to make production process
more efficient.
Jose Antonio Vera Lopez, Salvador Merino
Cordoba,and Jose Luis Galan Garca Statistical
Quality Controlin the Construction Industry-Algebra
applications forcomputers is an essential tool for
solving complexproblems. Among the variety of

programs that existnowadays, in this paper we will


choose Maxima as opensource computer algebra
system for symboliccomputation on Lisp language [8].
This software will be applied to the statistical control
ofquality, which is commonplace in many business
areasand most developed in mass production
industries.
Authors such as Juran, Deming and Ishikawa
havecontributed substantially to this end.
In the case of construction industry, quality control
isoften carried out very poorly. Mini- mum
legalrequirements are usually the target, causing
serioustrouble to the works and adding unexpected
costs. Forthis reason, this article aims to transfer
quality controlstatistical methods that have been
successful producingindustry-scale objects, to an
industry which is quitedistant to it, such as
construction. Algorithmicdevelopment under Maxima
was used in order to solveand implement this
approach.
A research article on Statistical process control keyto
competitive manufacturing In todays tough world
market environment, the need to be better is
moredemanding, and the need to be more competitive
is anecessity to survive. A company cannot rest on
thesuccess of past performance and expect to continue
toremain successful. There are many well known
examplesof companies both large and small that were
once leadersin their field and now are skeletons of
themselves or justplain dead and buried.
Dr. D. R. Prajapati [21], Implementation of SPC
Techniquesin Automotive Industry: A Case Study In
this paper, an attempt has been made to implement
thesome statistical process control (SPC) techniques in
theindustry that is offering its customers the widest
andlatest range of sealing solutions for various
applicationsin the automotive industry. The power of
SPC lies in theability to examine a process and the
sources of variationin that process, using tools that
gives weightage toobjective analysis over subjective
opinions and that allowthe strength of each source to
be determined numerically [21].
Only two main techniques i.e. cause and effect
diagramand control charts are implemented in this
industry out ofseven SPC techniques. The present
work deals with thestudy of defects in shocker seals of
an automotiveindustry. It is found that after
implementing the SPC toolsto remove the root causes,
the percentage rejection isreduced from 9.1% to 5%
and process capability of 0.953is achieved.
M. Schaeffer [10]-Integrating SPC & SQC-SQC and
SPCare both powerful techniques, but they both
havedisadvantages. In this document a methodology
ispresented which will overcome the disadvantages of
theseparate systems by integrating the techniques.
Theamount of calculations necessary to apply the
122

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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)


Volume 2 Issue 7, July 2015, ISSN 2348 8050

solutiongiven requires automatic data entry in attribute


charts.
S. M. Hannaet all [11]-Application of statistical
process control in manufacturing of medical
accelerator, Proceedingsof the 2003 Particle
Accelerator
Conference-linearaccelerators.
Manufacturing reliable accelerators andhence, reliable
radiation therapy machines requiresaccurate, efficient,
and well-controlled processesthroughout the steps of
electron acceleratormanufacturing. Statistical Process
Control (SPC)techniques are utilized at Siemens.
Oncology CareSystems (OCS) to meetthese
requirements.

4. PARAMETERS FOR
SUCCESSFULIMPLEMENTATION
OF SPC
In order to effectively apply SPC in any organization,
it is fundamental to understand the essential
ingredients that will make the application of SPC
successful. These ingredients are:
4.1 Management Issues: total management support
and commitment, necessary resources for training and
education + follow-up of training from time to time,
actions on the system/processes whenever needed
4.2 Engineering Skills: understanding the key
benefits from the introduction and application of SPC,
measurement system analysis (stability, capability,
linearity etc.), process prioritization, understanding
what key characteristics or process parameters to
measure and how to measure them, etc.
4.3 Statistical Skills: statistical stability, calculation
of control limits, interpretation of control limits,
selection of control charts, determination of sample
size & sub-group size, etc.
4.4 Teamwork Skills: company-wide understanding
of SPC and its benefits, co-operation from all levels of
the organization, brainstorm what needs to measure in
a process and so on.
SPC implementation included: a well structured and
documented SPC plan; a comprehensive SPC training
program for engineers, managers, and production
employees; a team approach; and senior management
involvement and reviews.

5. CONTROL CHARTS :
KEYINVESTIGATION TOOL FOR
SPC

5.1 Control Charts: Control charts are statistical


tool, showing whether a process is in control or not. It
is a graphical tool for monitoring the activities of an
ongoing process also referred as Shewhart control
charts.

6. Various companies implement SPC


Table-1 Benefit derived from SPC Implementation:
Company
Benefit derived from SPC
name
Implementation
Apurvi
Productivity has been increased and
industry
reducereworak.
Soap industry
Reducing the variability in soap and
control the process.
Garments
Identify process capability and
Manufacturing eliminate 100% inspection.
Industry
Campbell's
20% reduction in quality costs; 70%
Soup
reduction in inventory.
Florida Power
$4,300,000 savings through Process
& Light
Improvement; attained the Deming
Award.
Lifespan
Controlling the process and reducing
Pharmaceutical waste.
Limited
Ford 85% reduction in scrap and rework
Rawsonville
for wiper motors, and a total savings
Plant
of $118,000 annually.
Globe
Metallurgical

Food industry
ITT

Seafood
Processing
industry
Mattatuck
Manufacturing

Motorola

Westinghouse

The main goals of SPC is an identification of abnormal


variability caused by assignable causes with the aim to
Making the process stable, Minimize the process
variability and Improve the process performance The
key tool of SPC is a control chart. There are a number
of different types of variable data control charts but the
most common chart is the x-bar and R chart.

Client complaints dropped 91%;


greater than 50% increase in market
share in 1988; attained the Malcolm
Baldrige Award.
Increase the process performance
80% reductions in scrap on power
seat tracks and 100% inspection
eliminated.
Increasing the productivity from 70
to 80%, reducing bottle neck.
80%reduction in client complaints
99% reduction in client rejections;
7% reduction of in-house scrap; 52%
reduction in defects found at final
inspection
Attained six-sigma capability (3.4
defects per million); captured pager
market; attained Malcolm Baldrige
Award.
Yield rose from 46% to 87%;
attained the Malcolm Baldrige
Award

6. CONCLUSION
Statistical Process control in manufacturing ensures
real time analysis of the overall enterprise, resulting in
cost effective manufacturing and efficient use of all
resources.

123
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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)


Volume 2 Issue 7, July 2015, ISSN 2348 8050

Manufacturing organizations are looking for using


SPC to analyze their impact, identify problems, and
monitor the results you can improve achieve your
quality goals.SPC analysis provides trends of your
process capabilities you can take action to correct
process problems before scrap is generated.SPC helps
in reducing scrapped parts means a higher yield for
your investment in materials and equipment. In the
Automotive industry, the TS 16949 standard
specifically calls for evidence that your organization
can use SPC for the monitoring and measurement of
your process capabilities. Implementing SPC allows
you to satisfy your customer while improving your
product.

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