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Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Introduction to Hydrodynamic Stability


V. Shankar
Department of Chemical Engineering
IIT Kanpur
vshankar@iitk.ac.in
home.iitk.ac.in/~vshankar

SADEAFFP-2014, Department of Mathematics, IIT Kanpur

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

1 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Outline

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

2 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

References

P. G. Drazin, Introduction to Hydrodynamic Stability, Cambridge


(2002).

F. Charru, Hydrodynamic Instabilities, Cambridge (2011).

P. Schmid and D. Henningson, Stability and Transition in Shear


Flows, Springer (2001).

P. G. Drazin and W. H. Reid, Hydrodynamic Stability, Cambridge


(1981).

S. Chandrasekhar, Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability,


Oxford (1961).

National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films, Video on Instability


and Transition, http://web.mit.edu/hml/ncfmf.html

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

3 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Outline

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

4 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Instabilities are everywhere

Water flow from a tap.


Smoke from an incence stick.
Flow between two concentric
cylinders.
A layer of heated liquid.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

5 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Instabilities are everywhere

Water flow from a tap.


Smoke from an incence stick.
Flow between two concentric
cylinders.
A layer of heated liquid.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

5 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Instabilities are everywhere

Water flow from a tap.


Smoke from an incence stick.
Flow between two concentric
cylinders.
A layer of heated liquid.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

5 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Instabilities are everywhere

Water flow from a tap.


Smoke from an incence stick.
Flow between two concentric
cylinders.
A layer of heated liquid.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

5 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Hydrodynamic stability: connection with Mathematics

Pioneers: Applied Mathematicians and Mathematical Physicists in


late 1800s and early 1900s.
E.g. von Helmholtz, Lord Kelvin, Lord Rayleigh, Neils Bohr,
A Sommerfeld, W Heisenberg (PhD thesis, 1923), S Chandrasekhar,
V I Arnold...
One of the 7 Millennium Prize problems of Clay Mathematical
Institute.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

6 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Hydrodynamic stability: connection with Mathematics

Pioneers: Applied Mathematicians and Mathematical Physicists in


late 1800s and early 1900s.
E.g. von Helmholtz, Lord Kelvin, Lord Rayleigh, Neils Bohr,
A Sommerfeld, W Heisenberg (PhD thesis, 1923), S Chandrasekhar,
V I Arnold...
One of the 7 Millennium Prize problems of Clay Mathematical
Institute.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

6 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Hydrodynamic stability: connection with Mathematics


Pioneers: Applied Mathematicians and Mathematical Physicists in
late 1800s and early 1900s.
E.g. von Helmholtz, Lord Kelvin, Lord Rayleigh, Neils Bohr,
A Sommerfeld, W Heisenberg (PhD thesis, 1923), S Chandrasekhar,
V I Arnold...
One of the 7 Millennium Prize problems of Clay Mathematical
Institute.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

6 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Laminar-turbulent transition
Osborne Reynolds (1883), An experimental investigation of the
circumstances which determine whether the motion of water shall be
direct or sinuous..

Discontinuous transition from laminar to a turbulent flow when


Re VD/ > 2000.
For rectangular channels, transition at Re 1200.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

7 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Laminar-turbulent transition
Osborne Reynolds (1883), An experimental investigation of the
circumstances which determine whether the motion of water shall be
direct or sinuous..
Discontinuous transition from laminar to a turbulent flow when
Re VD/ > 2000.

For rectangular channels, transition at Re 1200.


V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

7 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Laminar-turbulent transition

Osborne Reynolds (1883), An experimental investigation of the


circumstances which determine whether the motion of water shall be
direct or sinuous..
Discontinuous transition from laminar to a turbulent flow when
Re VD/ > 2000.
For rectangular channels, transition at Re 1200.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

7 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Practical perspective

Newtonian fluids: Navier-Stokes equations have all the information


about fluid flow.
Laminar flows: simple solutions to governing equations.
Examples: plane and pipe Poiseuille flows; plane Couette flow.
Flow in a pipe: laminar flow unstable at Re 2000.
Instability leads to turbulence.
Turbulent flows: high mixing and drag.
Laminar flows: low mixing and drag.
When does a given laminar flow become unstable ?

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

8 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Practical perspective

Newtonian fluids: Navier-Stokes equations have all the information


about fluid flow.
Laminar flows: simple solutions to governing equations.
Examples: plane and pipe Poiseuille flows; plane Couette flow.
Flow in a pipe: laminar flow unstable at Re 2000.
Instability leads to turbulence.
Turbulent flows: high mixing and drag.
Laminar flows: low mixing and drag.
When does a given laminar flow become unstable ?

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

8 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Practical perspective

Newtonian fluids: Navier-Stokes equations have all the information


about fluid flow.
Laminar flows: simple solutions to governing equations.
Examples: plane and pipe Poiseuille flows; plane Couette flow.
Flow in a pipe: laminar flow unstable at Re 2000.
Instability leads to turbulence.
Turbulent flows: high mixing and drag.
Laminar flows: low mixing and drag.
When does a given laminar flow become unstable ?

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

8 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Practical perspective

Newtonian fluids: Navier-Stokes equations have all the information


about fluid flow.
Laminar flows: simple solutions to governing equations.
Examples: plane and pipe Poiseuille flows; plane Couette flow.
Flow in a pipe: laminar flow unstable at Re 2000.
Instability leads to turbulence.
Turbulent flows: high mixing and drag.
Laminar flows: low mixing and drag.
When does a given laminar flow become unstable ?

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

8 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Practical perspective

Newtonian fluids: Navier-Stokes equations have all the information


about fluid flow.
Laminar flows: simple solutions to governing equations.
Examples: plane and pipe Poiseuille flows; plane Couette flow.
Flow in a pipe: laminar flow unstable at Re 2000.
Instability leads to turbulence.
Turbulent flows: high mixing and drag.
Laminar flows: low mixing and drag.
When does a given laminar flow become unstable ?

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

8 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Practical perspective

Newtonian fluids: Navier-Stokes equations have all the information


about fluid flow.
Laminar flows: simple solutions to governing equations.
Examples: plane and pipe Poiseuille flows; plane Couette flow.
Flow in a pipe: laminar flow unstable at Re 2000.
Instability leads to turbulence.
Turbulent flows: high mixing and drag.
Laminar flows: low mixing and drag.
When does a given laminar flow become unstable ?

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

8 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Practical perspective

Newtonian fluids: Navier-Stokes equations have all the information


about fluid flow.
Laminar flows: simple solutions to governing equations.
Examples: plane and pipe Poiseuille flows; plane Couette flow.
Flow in a pipe: laminar flow unstable at Re 2000.
Instability leads to turbulence.
Turbulent flows: high mixing and drag.
Laminar flows: low mixing and drag.
When does a given laminar flow become unstable ?

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

8 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Practical perspective

Newtonian fluids: Navier-Stokes equations have all the information


about fluid flow.
Laminar flows: simple solutions to governing equations.
Examples: plane and pipe Poiseuille flows; plane Couette flow.
Flow in a pipe: laminar flow unstable at Re 2000.
Instability leads to turbulence.
Turbulent flows: high mixing and drag.
Laminar flows: low mixing and drag.
When does a given laminar flow become unstable ?

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

8 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Laminar flows
Navier-Stokes equations
v =0

Re[t v + v v] = p + 2 v

Laminar flows: flows with relatively simple kinematics and are usually
time-independent.
Laminar flow solutions satisfy Navier-Stokes equations at any Re.

Landau & Lifshitz


Yet not every solution of the equations of motion, even if it is exact, can
actually occur in Nature. The flows that occur in Nature must not only
obey the equations of fluid dynamics, but also be stable

Need to probe the stability of laminar flows to external disturbances.


V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

9 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Laminar flows
Navier-Stokes equations
v =0

Re[t v + v v] = p + 2 v

Laminar flows: flows with relatively simple kinematics and are usually
time-independent.
Laminar flow solutions satisfy Navier-Stokes equations at any Re.

Landau & Lifshitz


Yet not every solution of the equations of motion, even if it is exact, can
actually occur in Nature. The flows that occur in Nature must not only
obey the equations of fluid dynamics, but also be stable

Need to probe the stability of laminar flows to external disturbances.


V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

9 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Laminar flows
Navier-Stokes equations
v =0

Re[t v + v v] = p + 2 v

Laminar flows: flows with relatively simple kinematics and are usually
time-independent.
Laminar flow solutions satisfy Navier-Stokes equations at any Re.

Landau & Lifshitz


Yet not every solution of the equations of motion, even if it is exact, can
actually occur in Nature. The flows that occur in Nature must not only
obey the equations of fluid dynamics, but also be stable

Need to probe the stability of laminar flows to external disturbances.


V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

9 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Laminar flows
Navier-Stokes equations
v =0

Re[t v + v v] = p + 2 v

Laminar flows: flows with relatively simple kinematics and are usually
time-independent.
Laminar flow solutions satisfy Navier-Stokes equations at any Re.

Landau & Lifshitz


Yet not every solution of the equations of motion, even if it is exact, can
actually occur in Nature. The flows that occur in Nature must not only
obey the equations of fluid dynamics, but also be stable

Need to probe the stability of laminar flows to external disturbances.


V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

9 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Why do instabilities occur ?

Real flows subjected to disturbances of


various types.
Disturbances distort the existing force
equilibrium.
Thermal convection & Circular Couette
flows.

After instability
New complex laminar states.
Direct transition to turbulence.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

10 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Why do instabilities occur ?

Real flows subjected to disturbances of


various types.
Disturbances distort the existing force
equilibrium.
Thermal convection & Circular Couette
flows.

After instability
New complex laminar states.
Direct transition to turbulence.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

10 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Why do instabilities occur ?

Real flows subjected to disturbances of


various types.
Disturbances distort the existing force
equilibrium.
Thermal convection & Circular Couette
flows.

After instability
New complex laminar states.
Direct transition to turbulence.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

10 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Why do instabilities occur ?

Real flows subjected to disturbances of


various types.
Disturbances distort the existing force
equilibrium.
Thermal convection & Circular Couette
flows.

After instability
New complex laminar states.
Direct transition to turbulence.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

10 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Why do instabilities occur ?

Real flows subjected to disturbances of


various types.
Disturbances distort the existing force
equilibrium.
Thermal convection & Circular Couette
flows.

After instability
New complex laminar states.
Direct transition to turbulence.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

10 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

How to analyze and predict instabilities ?

Experiments, computation and theory.


What is the effect of an initial disturbance on
laminar flow ?
Do perturbations grow or decay ?
At what value of Reynolds number ?
Infinitesimal vs. finite disturbances.
Infinitesimal disturbances: unavoidable.
Linear stability theory.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

11 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

How to analyze and predict instabilities ?

Experiments, computation and theory.


What is the effect of an initial disturbance on
laminar flow ?
Do perturbations grow or decay ?
At what value of Reynolds number ?
Infinitesimal vs. finite disturbances.
Infinitesimal disturbances: unavoidable.
Linear stability theory.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

11 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

How to analyze and predict instabilities ?

Experiments, computation and theory.


What is the effect of an initial disturbance on
laminar flow ?

STABLE

Do perturbations grow or decay ?


At what value of Reynolds number ?
Infinitesimal vs. finite disturbances.
Infinitesimal disturbances: unavoidable.
Linear stability theory.
UNSTABLE

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

11 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

How to analyze and predict instabilities ?

Experiments, computation and theory.


What is the effect of an initial disturbance on
laminar flow ?

STABLE

Do perturbations grow or decay ?


At what value of Reynolds number ?
Infinitesimal vs. finite disturbances.
Infinitesimal disturbances: unavoidable.
Linear stability theory.
UNSTABLE

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

11 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

How to analyze and predict instabilities ?

Experiments, computation and theory.


What is the effect of an initial disturbance on
laminar flow ?

STABLE

Do perturbations grow or decay ?


At what value of Reynolds number ?
Infinitesimal vs. finite disturbances.
Infinitesimal disturbances: unavoidable.
Linear stability theory.
UNSTABLE

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

11 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

How to analyze and predict instabilities ?

Experiments, computation and theory.


What is the effect of an initial disturbance on
laminar flow ?

STABLE

Do perturbations grow or decay ?


At what value of Reynolds number ?
Infinitesimal vs. finite disturbances.
Infinitesimal disturbances: unavoidable.
Linear stability theory.
UNSTABLE

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

11 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

How to analyze and predict instabilities ?

Experiments, computation and theory.


What is the effect of an initial disturbance on
laminar flow ?

STABLE

Do perturbations grow or decay ?


At what value of Reynolds number ?
Infinitesimal vs. finite disturbances.
Infinitesimal disturbances: unavoidable.
Linear stability theory.
UNSTABLE

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

11 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Outline

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

12 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Specify governing equations

Navier-Stokes equations (Newtonian fluid)


v = 0,
[t v + (v )v] = p + 2 v + g .
Boundary conditions at rigid surface: no-slip and no-penetration.
Find the base state: v x (z), and p(x) (steady, unidirectional).

For complex fluids


Specify appropriate constitutive relation.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

13 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Specify governing equations

Navier-Stokes equations (Newtonian fluid)


v = 0,
[t v + (v )v] = p + 2 v + g .
Boundary conditions at rigid surface: no-slip and no-penetration.
Find the base state: v x (z), and p(x) (steady, unidirectional).

For complex fluids


Specify appropriate constitutive relation.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

13 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Add a small perturbation

v(x, t) = vx (x) + v (x, t) ,

p(x, t) = p(x) + p (x, t) ,

|| 1.

Key questions
For a given control parameter , does v grow or decay with
time ?
What is the critical for instability ?
What is the spatial structure at the critical value ?
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

14 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Add a small perturbation

v(x, t) = vx (x) + v (x, t) ,

p(x, t) = p(x) + p (x, t) ,

|| 1.

Key questions
For a given control parameter , does v grow or decay with
time ?
What is the critical for instability ?
What is the spatial structure at the critical value ?
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

14 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Linearize about laminar state

Nonlinear term in Navier-Stokes:


v v = v v + (v v + v v ) + 2 v v
v v is the trivial laminar-flow contribution.
At O(), terms linear in the perturbations Include.
At O( 2 ), terms non-linear in the perturbations Neglected for
small perturbations.
Hence, linear stability.
Can predict only the onset of instability.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

15 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Linearize about laminar state

Nonlinear term in Navier-Stokes:


v v = v v + (v v + v v ) + 2 v v
v v is the trivial laminar-flow contribution.
At O(), terms linear in the perturbations Include.
At O( 2 ), terms non-linear in the perturbations Neglected for
small perturbations.
Hence, linear stability.
Can predict only the onset of instability.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

15 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Linearize about laminar state

Nonlinear term in Navier-Stokes:


v v = v v + (v v + v v ) + 2 v v
v v is the trivial laminar-flow contribution.
At O(), terms linear in the perturbations Include.
At O( 2 ), terms non-linear in the perturbations Neglected for
small perturbations.
Hence, linear stability.
Can predict only the onset of instability.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

15 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Linearize about laminar state

Nonlinear term in Navier-Stokes:


v v = v v + (v v + v v ) + 2 v v
v v is the trivial laminar-flow contribution.
At O(), terms linear in the perturbations Include.
At O( 2 ), terms non-linear in the perturbations Neglected for
small perturbations.
Hence, linear stability.
Can predict only the onset of instability.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

15 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Linearize about laminar state

Nonlinear term in Navier-Stokes:


v v = v v + (v v + v v ) + 2 v v
v v is the trivial laminar-flow contribution.
At O(), terms linear in the perturbations Include.
At O( 2 ), terms non-linear in the perturbations Neglected for
small perturbations.
Hence, linear stability.
Can predict only the onset of instability.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

15 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Linearized PDEs: Fourier expansion


Collect terms of O():
v = 0
[t v + v v + v v] = p + 2 v
BCs: v = 0 at rigid boundaries; Initial condition v (x, t = 0).
y
x MEAN FLOW :
(Vx (y), 0, 0 )

Fourier expand the disturbances


A(x, t) =

dkx

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

dkz

An (k, t)Fn (y ) exp[i(kx x + kz z)]

n=1

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

16 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Linearized PDEs: Fourier expansion


Collect terms of O():
v = 0
[t v + v v + v v] = p + 2 v
BCs: v = 0 at rigid boundaries; Initial condition v (x, t = 0).
y

x MEAN FLOW :
(Vx (y), 0, 0 )

Fourier expand the disturbances


=

A(x, t) =

+
Z

dkx

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

+ ...

dkz

An (k, t)Fn (y ) exp[i(kx x + kz z)]

n=1

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

16 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Normal modes: Eigenvalue problem

Linearity Study the dynamics of all Fourier modes individually.


Time dependence An (k, t) = An (k) exp[sn t]
Complex growth rate s = sr + isi
sr > 0 Instability; sr < 0 Stability; sr = 0 Neutral stability.
If any Fourier mode grows with time unstable, exponential growth
as t .
If all Fourier modes decay stable as t .
Need to solve coupled ODEs (for F (y )) with an eigenvalue s for
various values of control parameter .

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

17 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Normal modes: Eigenvalue problem

Linearity Study the dynamics of all Fourier modes individually.


Time dependence An (k, t) = An (k) exp[sn t]
Complex growth rate s = sr + isi
sr > 0 Instability; sr < 0 Stability; sr = 0 Neutral stability.
If any Fourier mode grows with time unstable, exponential growth
as t .
If all Fourier modes decay stable as t .
Need to solve coupled ODEs (for F (y )) with an eigenvalue s for
various values of control parameter .

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

17 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Normal modes: Eigenvalue problem

Linearity Study the dynamics of all Fourier modes individually.


Time dependence An (k, t) = An (k) exp[sn t]
Complex growth rate s = sr + isi
sr > 0 Instability; sr < 0 Stability; sr = 0 Neutral stability.
If any Fourier mode grows with time unstable, exponential growth
as t .
If all Fourier modes decay stable as t .
Need to solve coupled ODEs (for F (y )) with an eigenvalue s for
various values of control parameter .

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

17 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Normal modes: Eigenvalue problem

Linearity Study the dynamics of all Fourier modes individually.


Time dependence An (k, t) = An (k) exp[sn t]
Complex growth rate s = sr + isi
sr > 0 Instability; sr < 0 Stability; sr = 0 Neutral stability.
If any Fourier mode grows with time unstable, exponential growth
as t .
If all Fourier modes decay stable as t .
Need to solve coupled ODEs (for F (y )) with an eigenvalue s for
various values of control parameter .

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

17 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Normal modes: Eigenvalue problem

Linearity Study the dynamics of all Fourier modes individually.


Time dependence An (k, t) = An (k) exp[sn t]
Complex growth rate s = sr + isi
sr > 0 Instability; sr < 0 Stability; sr = 0 Neutral stability.
If any Fourier mode grows with time unstable, exponential growth
as t .
If all Fourier modes decay stable as t .
Need to solve coupled ODEs (for F (y )) with an eigenvalue s for
various values of control parameter .

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

17 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Normal modes: Eigenvalue problem

Linearity Study the dynamics of all Fourier modes individually.


Time dependence An (k, t) = An (k) exp[sn t]
Complex growth rate s = sr + isi
sr > 0 Instability; sr < 0 Stability; sr = 0 Neutral stability.
If any Fourier mode grows with time unstable, exponential growth
as t .
If all Fourier modes decay stable as t .
Need to solve coupled ODEs (for F (y )) with an eigenvalue s for
various values of control parameter .

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

17 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Normal modes: Eigenvalue problem

Linearity Study the dynamics of all Fourier modes individually.


Time dependence An (k, t) = An (k) exp[sn t]
Complex growth rate s = sr + isi
sr > 0 Instability; sr < 0 Stability; sr = 0 Neutral stability.
If any Fourier mode grows with time unstable, exponential growth
as t .
If all Fourier modes decay stable as t .
Need to solve coupled ODEs (for F (y )) with an eigenvalue s for
various values of control parameter .

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

17 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Outline

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

18 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

A simple toy example


Governing equation: t f = f f 2 + 1 y2 f
Boundary conditions: f (y = 0) = f (y = 1) = 0.
Base state: f = 0
Add perturbation: f (y , t) = f + f (y , t)
Linearize:


t (f + f ) = f f2 + 1 y2 f + f 2ff + 1 y2 f + O( 2 )
At O(): t f = f 2ff + 1 y2 f

+ 1 y2 f , f (y
modes: f (y , t) =

Normal

sF = F +

1 2
dy F

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

= 0) = f (y = 1) = 0
F (y ) exp[st]

F (y = 0) = F (y = 1) = 0

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

19 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

A simple toy example


Governing equation: t f = f f 2 + 1 y2 f
Boundary conditions: f (y = 0) = f (y = 1) = 0.
Base state: f = 0
Add perturbation: f (y , t) = f + f (y , t)
Linearize:


t (f + f ) = f f2 + 1 y2 f + f 2ff + 1 y2 f + O( 2 )
At O(): t f = f 2ff + 1 y2 f

+ 1 y2 f , f (y
modes: f (y , t) =

Normal

sF = F +

1 2
dy F

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

= 0) = f (y = 1) = 0
F (y ) exp[st]

F (y = 0) = F (y = 1) = 0

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

19 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

A simple toy example


Governing equation: t f = f f 2 + 1 y2 f
Boundary conditions: f (y = 0) = f (y = 1) = 0.
Base state: f = 0
Add perturbation: f (y , t) = f + f (y , t)
Linearize:


t (f + f ) = f f2 + 1 y2 f + f 2ff + 1 y2 f + O( 2 )
At O(): t f = f 2ff + 1 y2 f

+ 1 y2 f , f (y
modes: f (y , t) =

Normal

sF = F +

1 2
dy F

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

= 0) = f (y = 1) = 0
F (y ) exp[st]

F (y = 0) = F (y = 1) = 0

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

19 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

A simple toy example


Governing equation: t f = f f 2 + 1 y2 f
Boundary conditions: f (y = 0) = f (y = 1) = 0.
Base state: f = 0
Add perturbation: f (y , t) = f + f (y , t)
Linearize:


t (f + f ) = f f2 + 1 y2 f + f 2ff + 1 y2 f + O( 2 )
At O(): t f = f 2ff + 1 y2 f

+ 1 y2 f , f (y
modes: f (y , t) =

Normal

sF = F +

1 2
dy F

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

= 0) = f (y = 1) = 0
F (y ) exp[st]

F (y = 0) = F (y = 1) = 0

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

19 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

A simple toy example


Governing equation: t f = f f 2 + 1 y2 f
Boundary conditions: f (y = 0) = f (y = 1) = 0.
Base state: f = 0
Add perturbation: f (y , t) = f + f (y , t)
Linearize:


t (f + f ) = f f2 + 1 y2 f + f 2ff + 1 y2 f + O( 2 )
At O(): t f = f 2ff + 1 y2 f

+ 1 y2 f , f (y
modes: f (y , t) =

Normal

sF = F +

1 2
dy F

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

= 0) = f (y = 1) = 0
F (y ) exp[st]

F (y = 0) = F (y = 1) = 0

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

19 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

A simple toy example


Governing equation: t f = f f 2 + 1 y2 f
Boundary conditions: f (y = 0) = f (y = 1) = 0.
Base state: f = 0
Add perturbation: f (y , t) = f + f (y , t)
Linearize:


t (f + f ) = f f2 + 1 y2 f + f 2ff + 1 y2 f + O( 2 )
At O(): t f = f 2ff + 1 y2 f

+ 1 y2 f , f (y
modes: f (y , t) =

Normal

sF = F +

1 2
dy F

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

= 0) = f (y = 1) = 0
F (y ) exp[st]

F (y = 0) = F (y = 1) = 0

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

19 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

A simple toy example


Governing equation: t f = f f 2 + 1 y2 f
Boundary conditions: f (y = 0) = f (y = 1) = 0.
Base state: f = 0
Add perturbation: f (y , t) = f + f (y , t)
Linearize:


t (f + f ) = f f2 + 1 y2 f + f 2ff + 1 y2 f + O( 2 )
At O(): t f = f 2ff + 1 y2 f

+ 1 y2 f , f (y
modes: f (y , t) =

Normal

sF = F +

1 2
dy F

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

= 0) = f (y = 1) = 0
F (y ) exp[st]

F (y = 0) = F (y = 1) = 0

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

19 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

A simple toy example


Governing equation: t f = f f 2 + 1 y2 f
Boundary conditions: f (y = 0) = f (y = 1) = 0.
Base state: f = 0
Add perturbation: f (y , t) = f + f (y , t)
Linearize:


t (f + f ) = f f2 + 1 y2 f + f 2ff + 1 y2 f + O( 2 )
At O(): t f = f 2ff + 1 y2 f

+ 1 y2 f , f (y
modes: f (y , t) =

Normal

sF = F +

1 2
dy F

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

= 0) = f (y = 1) = 0
F (y ) exp[st]

F (y = 0) = F (y = 1) = 0

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

19 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

A simple toy example


Governing equation: t f = f f 2 + 1 y2 f
Boundary conditions: f (y = 0) = f (y = 1) = 0.
Base state: f = 0
Add perturbation: f (y , t) = f + f (y , t)
Linearize:


t (f + f ) = f f2 + 1 y2 f + f 2ff + 1 y2 f + O( 2 )
At O(): t f = f 2ff + 1 y2 f

+ 1 y2 f , f (y
modes: f (y , t) =

Normal

sF = F +

1 2
dy F

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

= 0) = f (y = 1) = 0
F (y ) exp[st]

F (y = 0) = F (y = 1) = 0

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

19 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Solution of toy problem

F (y ) = c sin[ny ] n integer.
sn = 1

n2 2

Stable s < 0 for < n2 2


Neutral s = 0 for = n2 2
Unstable s > 0 for > n2 2
Most unstable mode:
f (y , t) = h
c sin[y ] exp 1

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

 i
t

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

20 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Solution of toy problem

F (y ) = c sin[ny ] n integer.
sn = 1

n2 2

Stable s < 0 for < n2 2


Neutral s = 0 for = n2 2
Unstable s > 0 for > n2 2
Most unstable mode:
f (y , t) = h
c sin[y ] exp 1

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

 i
t

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

20 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Solution of toy problem

F (y ) = c sin[ny ] n integer.
sn = 1

n2 2

Stable s < 0 for < n2 2


Neutral s = 0 for = n2 2
Unstable s > 0 for > n2 2
Most unstable mode:
f (y , t) = h
c sin[y ] exp 1

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

 i
t

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

20 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Solution of toy problem

F (y ) = c sin[ny ] n integer.
sn = 1

n2 2

Stable s < 0 for < n2 2


Neutral s = 0 for = n2 2
Unstable s > 0 for > n2 2
Most unstable mode:
f (y , t) = h
c sin[y ] exp 1

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

 i
t

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

20 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Outline

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

21 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability - I
Two incompressible, inviscid fluids in horizontal parallel infinte
streams of different densities and velocities, one stream above the
other.
U(z) = U2 i, (z) = 2 , P(z) = p0 g 2 z for z > 0.
U(z) = U1 i, (z) = 1 , P(z) = p0 g 1 z for z < 0.
Irrotational perturbations: restrictive, but enough for a proof of
instability.
Does not prove stability as the analysis gives no information about
rotational disturbances.
Perturbed interface z = (x, y , t).
u = where = 1 for z > , and = 2 for z < .

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

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Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability - II

u = 0, u = 0 u = .
2 1 = 0 for z > and 2 2 = 0 for z < .
BC: = U as z = .
Kinematic condition at moving interface z = , k = 1, 2:
k
k

D
k
Dt = uz = t + x x + y y
Normal
stress continuity (Bernoulli
theorem)
at z = :
h
h
i
i
1
2
1
1
2
gz = 2 C2 2 (2 )2
gz
1 C1 2 (1 )
t
t
The base flowalso satisfies thiscondition (at z = 0):
1 C1 21 U12 = 2 C2 21 U22
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

23 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability - Linearization


2 = U2 x + 2 for z > , 1 = U1 x + 1 for z < . Neglect products
of small perturbations 1 , 2 and .

,
1 and g U12 , U22 .
How small ?
x y
Taylor-expand z = about z = 0:

k |z= = k |z=0 + k |z=0 +


z
2 2 = 0, 2 1 = 0
BC: k 0 for z for k = 1, 2
k

=
+ Uk
at z = 0 for k = 1, 2.
z
t
x




2 2
1 1
1 U1
+
+ g = 2 U2
+
+ g at z = 0.
x
t
x
t
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

24 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability - Normal Modes

1 , 2 ) exp[i(kx + ly ) + st]
(, 1 , 2 ) = (,
h 2
i
2 k ddz2k (k 2 + l 2 )k = 0

+ B2 exp[kz],
k 2 = (k 2 + l 2 ).
2 = A2 exp[kz]

BC at y , uz2 = 0 B2 = 0.
and 1 = A1 exp[kz].

So: 2 = A2 exp[k]z
Using the kinematic condition at interface:
k,

k.

A2 = (s + ikU2 )/
A1 = (s + ikU1 )/
Using the normal stress condition at interface:
+ (s + ikU1 )2 ] = 2 [kg
(s + ikU2 )2 ]
1 [kg

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

25 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability - Growth Rate

2 U2
s = ik 1 U11 +

+2

k 2 1 2 (U1 U2 )2
(1 +2 )2

i
(1 2 ) 1/2
kg
1 +2

Both roots are neutrally stable if


(2 2 ) k 2 1 2 (U1 U2 )2 . When the equality holds, marginal
kg
2
1
stability.
One root is unstable (with Re[s] > 0) if
(2 2 ) < k 2 1 2 (U1 U2 )2 .
kg
1
2

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

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Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Surface Gravity Waves

2 = 0 and U1 = 0, U2 = 0. Surface gravity waves on deep water.


Stable with phase velocity:
1/2
c = is/k = (g /k)
Oscillatory, stable normal modes.
Waves a special case of hydrodynamic stability.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

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Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Internal Gravity Waves


No basic flow: U1 = 0, U2 = 0.
(2 1 )/(1 + 2 )2 ]1/2
s = [kg
Instability if 1 < 2 (heavey fluid rests above light fluid).
If 1 > 2 , there is stability, and there are waves with phase velocity:
1 + 2 )]1/2 .
c = [g (1 2 )/k(
The eigenfunctions decay exponentially away from the interface.
Motion confined to the vicinity of the interface.
Observed between layers of fresh and salt water that occur in
estuaries.
Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the whole system has an upward
acceleration f . Same result with g = f + g . If 2 > 1 , then
instability occurs only of g < 0.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

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Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Instability Due to Shear


No effect of buoyancy: 1 = 2 , but U1 6= U2 .
s = 12 ik(U1 + U2 ) 12 k(U1 U2 )
Flow always unstable if U1 6= U2 . Waves of all wavelengths are
unstable.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

29 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Outline

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

30 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Capillary Instability of a Jet


A cylindrical jet of liquid moving with uniform velocity in air (e.g.
water jet from a slightly-open tap).
Surface tension at the liquid-air interface.
Assume density of outside fluid is zero, and inviscid dynamics for the
liquid.


u=0
u + uu = p
t
Pressure inside the jet: P = P + n at r = (x, , t)
Perturbed unit normal to the jet:
,1, )
(
r #
n = " x

 1/2
2
+1+ 2
x
r

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

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Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Capillary Instability of a Jet


Kinematic condition: ur =

D
Dt

at r = .

Base flow: U = 0, P = p + /a for 0 r a, as n = 1/r when


n = er .
Disturbances: u = U + u , p = P + p , and = a +

u = p and
u = 0.
t
2
2
1
n = 1r

2
r 2
x 2


2

Normal stress BC at r = a: p = a2 +
+ a2 2
x 2

2
2
2
2 p = 0, where 2 = 2 + 2 + 1r + r12 2 .
r
x
r

exp[st + i(kx + n)]


Normal modes: (u , p , ) = (
u(r ), p(r ), )

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

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Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Capillary Instability of a Jet


d2 p

dr 2

p
1 d
r dr


k2 +

n2
r2

p = 0

Linearly independent solutions: modified Bessel functions In (kr ),


Kn (kr ); take n 0 without loss of generality.
Physically allowed solution: p(r ) = AIn (kr ).
= A(s)1 (ikIn (kr ), kIn (kr ), inr 1 In (kr ))
u
2,
Linearized BCs: AIn () = (1 2 n2 )/a
1

A(as) In () = s where = ak.


Eigenvalue relation:
s2 =

In ()
(1
a3 In ()

2 n 2 )

In ()/In () > 0 for all 6= 0. So s 2 < 0 if n 6= 0.


s 2 > 0 for 1 < < 1 if n = 0.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

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Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Dispersion relation: theory and experiments

Jet stable to all nonaxisymmetric disturbances (n 6= 0).


Jet unstable to axisymmetric modes with wavelengths
= 2/k > 2a.
If km is the wavenumber at which s is maximum, km = 0.7/a.
Jets of all radii are unstable. No critical parameter that marks the
domain of stability.
In experiments the liquid jet will break up with wavelength about
2/km 9a
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

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Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Physical interpretation
Displacement of the jet radius: Rnew = R + cos(kz), k = 2/.
Surface area of the perturbed jet:
A=

V =

2Rnew ds
0

2
Rnew
dz

#1/2

dRnew 2
+1
ds =
dz
dz
h
2 i
dz
For small , ds = 1 + 21 dRdznew
"

1
A = 2R + R2 k 2
2

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

35 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Physical interpretation

V =

dz [R + cos(kz)]2

1
V
= R 2 + 2

2
i
h
2 1/2
Require V / = R02 , so R = R0 1 21 R 2

To O(2 ), R = R0

1 2
4 R02

Then, change in surface area of the jet (per unit wavelength) due to the
displacement Rnew = R + cos(kz) is then
1 2
[(2R0 )2 2 )]
2 R02
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

36 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Physical interpretation

In terms of , the change in surface area is


1 2

[(2R0 )2 2 ]
2 R02 2
For > 2R0 , the surface area decreases.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

37 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Linear stability analysis: success stories


Rayleigh-Benard thermal convection

Critical Rayleigh number Rac = 1708. Experiments: 1705 10.


V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

38 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Linear stability analysis: success stories

Taylor-Couette Centrifugal Instability

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

39 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Outline

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

40 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Stability of Parallel Shear Flows

Parallel Base Flow: U = (U(y ), 0, 0)


Perturbations: u, v , w
u
u
+U
+ vU
t
x
v
v
+U
t
x
w
w
+U
t
x
u v
w
+
+
x
y
z
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

p
1 2
+
u
x
Re
p
1 2
=
+
v
y
Re
p
1 2
=
+
w
z
Re
=

= 0

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

41 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Stability of Parallel Shear Flows

v
2 p = 2U
x
h

i
+ U 2 U 1 4 v = 0
Re
t
x
x
h
i
+ U 1 2 = U v
Re
t
x
z
u
w
Normal vorticity: =

.
z
x
Boundary conditions: v = v = = 0 at solid walls and in the far
field.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

42 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire equations

v (x, y , z, t) = v (y ) exp[i(x + z t)]


(x, y , z, t) = (y ) exp[i(x + z t)]
k 2 = (2 + 2 )


1
(D2 k 2 )2 v = 0
(i + iU)(D k 2 ) iU
Re


1
2
2
(D k ) = iU v
(i + iU)
Re
BCs: v = D
v = = 0 at solid walls and in free stream.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

43 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire equations


Temporal problem: , real, complex.
Spatial problem: real, , complex.
We will consider the temporal problem: c = / is the complex
wavespeed (eigenvalue) of the OS equation, and the associated v are
the eigenfunctions.
OS equation is homogeneous, while the Squire equation is forced by
the solutions of the OS equation.
Two classes of eigenmodes: OS modes and Squire modes.
OS modes: Find vn and n by solving OS equation and then find np
by solving the inhomogeneous Squire equation.
Squire modes: v = 0, m m

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

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Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Squires transformation and Squires theorem

(U c)(D k 2 )
v U v

1
2
iRe (D

k 2 )2 v = 0

OS equation with = 0 (no variation in the z direction):


2 )2 v
2 )
=0
(U c)(D 2D
v U v i2D1Re2D (D2 2D
Comparing: the two equations will have
p identical solutions if the
following relations hold: 2D = k = 2 + 2
2D Re2D = Re
Re2D = Re k < Re
To each 3D OS mode, there is a corresponding 2D OS mode at a
lower Reynolds number.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

45 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Squires transformation and Squires theorem


Damped Squire modes: The solutions to the Squire equation are
always damped with ci < 0 for all , , and Re.
To prove, multiply Squire equation by and integrate from y = 1
to y = 1 (the fluid domain), and take imaginary part.
ci

1
dy |
| =
Re
1
2

dy |D|2 + k 2 |
|2 < 0

Squires theorem
Given ReL as the critical Reynolds number for the onset of linear instability
for a given , , the Reynolds number Rec below which no exponential
instabilities exisit for any wavenumber satisfies
Rec min, ReL (, ) = min ReL (, 0)
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

46 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Inviscid Analysis
Rayleigh Equation: Neglect viscous terms in OS equation
(U c)(D2 k 2 )
v U v = 0
with k 2 = 2 + 2 , and BCs: v = 0 at y = 1 at solid boundaries.
We have to forgo the no-slip BC due to the reduced order of the ODE.
Since the coefficients of the Rayleigh equation are real, any complex
eigenvalue will appear in conjugate pairs. If c is an eigenvalue, so is
c .
Regular singular point in the complex y plane when U(y ) = c. The
corresponding real part of this location yc is the critical layer where
U(y ) = cr .

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

47 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Inviscid Analysis
Singularity is logarithmic, and Frobenius series can be used to find the
solution about yc .
v1 (y ) = (y yc )P1 (y )
U
v2 (y ) = P2 (y ) + c ln(y yc )
Uc
Here, P1 and P2 are analytic.
The second solution is multivalued due to the logarithmic term.
When ci = 0, the critical layer is on the real axis,
ln(y yc ) = ln |y yc | i for y < yc .
The correct sign of the imaginary part cannot be determined within
the inviscid analysis.
Must do a matched asymptotic expansion of the Rayleigh invisicd
solution with the full OS solution about y = yc .
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

48 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Classical theorems in inviscid stability


Multiply Rayleigh equation by v and integrate from y = 1 to
y = 1. Then integrate by parts:
Z

dy |D
v |2 + k 2 |
v |2 +

dy
1

U
|
v |2 = 0
U c

Take imaginary part:


ci
|
v |2

dy U
1

|
v |2
=0
|U c|2

c|2

Both
and |U
are nonnegative. If ci is positive, then U has
to change sign in order for the integral to be zero.
Raylieghs inflexion point theorem only a necessary condition.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

49 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Classical theorems in inviscid stability


Rayleighs inflexion point theorem
If there exist perturbations with ci > 0, then U (y ) must vanish for some
y [1, 1] for instability.
Z

dy |D
v | + k |
v| +
1

Take real part:


Z

dy
1

U
|
v |2 = 0
U c

Z 1
U (U cr )
dy
dy |D
v |2 + k 2 |
v |2
=
2
|U

c|
1
1
Then add the following expression to the left side of above equation:
1

|
v |2
=0
|U c|2
1
The above expression is zero
due to inflexion point theorem.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP-2014
(cr Us )

dy U

50 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Classical theorems in inviscid stability


Z

U (U Us) 2
|
v| =
dy
|U c|2
1

dy |D
v |2 + k 2 |
v |2

For the integral to be negative, U (U Us ) < 0 in the flow field.

Fjortofts Criterion
Given a monotonic mean velocity profile U(y ), a necessary condition for
instability is that U (U Us ) < 0, with Us = U(ys ) as the mean velocity
at the inflexion point, i.e., U (ys ) = 0.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

51 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Classical theorems in inviscid stability


Howards semicircle theorem
The unstable eigenvalues of the Rayleigh equation satisfy


1
cr (Umax + Umin )
2

2

ci2

(Umax Umin )
2

2

For ci 0+ , Umin < cr < Umax for marginally stable modes.


For plane-Poiseuille flow and many internal channel flows, U does
not vanish in the domain of the flow, and so these flows are stable in
the inviscid limit to 2D infinitesimal perturbations.
Unbounded jets and free shear layers are unstable in the inviscid limit.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

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Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Viscous instability

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

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Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Numerical Eigenspectrum

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

54 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Numerical Eigenspectrum

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

54 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Comparison with experiments


Plane-Poiseuille flow (numerical solution): Rec = 5722.2
Experiments: Rec could be as low as 1000.
Pipe-Poiseuille flow (asymptotic/numerical solution): Rec =
Experiments: Rec 2000.
Plane Couette flow (numerical solution): Rec = .
Experiments: Rec 360.
Can a unavoidable disturbance in an experiment be treated as
infinitesimal ?
Very careful experiments in pipe flow: Re for transition could be 105 .
Still need to explain the usual value of Re 2000.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

55 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Comparison with experiments


Plane-Poiseuille flow (numerical solution): Rec = 5722.2
Experiments: Rec could be as low as 1000.
Pipe-Poiseuille flow (asymptotic/numerical solution): Rec =
Experiments: Rec 2000.
Plane Couette flow (numerical solution): Rec = .
Experiments: Rec 360.
Can a unavoidable disturbance in an experiment be treated as
infinitesimal ?
Very careful experiments in pipe flow: Re for transition could be 105 .
Still need to explain the usual value of Re 2000.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

55 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Comparison with experiments


Plane-Poiseuille flow (numerical solution): Rec = 5722.2
Experiments: Rec could be as low as 1000.
Pipe-Poiseuille flow (asymptotic/numerical solution): Rec =
Experiments: Rec 2000.
Plane Couette flow (numerical solution): Rec = .
Experiments: Rec 360.
Can a unavoidable disturbance in an experiment be treated as
infinitesimal ?
Very careful experiments in pipe flow: Re for transition could be 105 .
Still need to explain the usual value of Re 2000.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

55 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Comparison with experiments


Plane-Poiseuille flow (numerical solution): Rec = 5722.2
Experiments: Rec could be as low as 1000.
Pipe-Poiseuille flow (asymptotic/numerical solution): Rec =
Experiments: Rec 2000.
Plane Couette flow (numerical solution): Rec = .
Experiments: Rec 360.
Can a unavoidable disturbance in an experiment be treated as
infinitesimal ?
Very careful experiments in pipe flow: Re for transition could be 105 .
Still need to explain the usual value of Re 2000.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

55 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Comparison with experiments


Plane-Poiseuille flow (numerical solution): Rec = 5722.2
Experiments: Rec could be as low as 1000.
Pipe-Poiseuille flow (asymptotic/numerical solution): Rec =
Experiments: Rec 2000.
Plane Couette flow (numerical solution): Rec = .
Experiments: Rec 360.
Can a unavoidable disturbance in an experiment be treated as
infinitesimal ?
Very careful experiments in pipe flow: Re for transition could be 105 .
Still need to explain the usual value of Re 2000.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

55 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Comparison with experiments


Plane-Poiseuille flow (numerical solution): Rec = 5722.2
Experiments: Rec could be as low as 1000.
Pipe-Poiseuille flow (asymptotic/numerical solution): Rec =
Experiments: Rec 2000.
Plane Couette flow (numerical solution): Rec = .
Experiments: Rec 360.
Can a unavoidable disturbance in an experiment be treated as
infinitesimal ?
Very careful experiments in pipe flow: Re for transition could be 105 .
Still need to explain the usual value of Re 2000.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

55 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Nonlinear stability

A sufficiently large disturbance could destabilize or stabilize.


A toy nonlinear ODE:

dx
dt

= ax bx 3

Base-state: x = xB1 = 0 , x = xB2 = +


a/b > 0.

p
p
a/b , xB3 = a/b for

Stability: x = xB1 + x , dx
dt = ax , x (t) = A exp[at] , Unstable for
a > 0 and Stable for a < 0.

Stability of xB2 and xB3 :


s = 2a.

dx
dt

= ax 3bxB2 x , x (t) = A exp[st] ,

xB2 and xB3 stable if a > 0 and are unstable if a < 0.


V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

56 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Nonlinear stability

A sufficiently large disturbance could destabilize or stabilize.


A toy nonlinear ODE:

dx
dt

= ax bx 3

Base-state: x = xB1 = 0 , x = xB2 = +


a/b > 0.

p
p
a/b , xB3 = a/b for

Stability: x = xB1 + x , dx
dt = ax , x (t) = A exp[at] , Unstable for
a > 0 and Stable for a < 0.

Stability of xB2 and xB3 :


s = 2a.

dx
dt

= ax 3bxB2 x , x (t) = A exp[st] ,

xB2 and xB3 stable if a > 0 and are unstable if a < 0.


V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

56 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Nonlinear stability

A sufficiently large disturbance could destabilize or stabilize.


A toy nonlinear ODE:

dx
dt

= ax bx 3

Base-state: x = xB1 = 0 , x = xB2 = +


a/b > 0.

p
p
a/b , xB3 = a/b for

Stability: x = xB1 + x , dx
dt = ax , x (t) = A exp[at] , Unstable for
a > 0 and Stable for a < 0.

Stability of xB2 and xB3 :


s = 2a.

dx
dt

= ax 3bxB2 x , x (t) = A exp[st] ,

xB2 and xB3 stable if a > 0 and are unstable if a < 0.


V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

56 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Nonlinear stability

A sufficiently large disturbance could destabilize or stabilize.


A toy nonlinear ODE:

dx
dt

= ax bx 3

Base-state: x = xB1 = 0 , x = xB2 = +


a/b > 0.

p
p
a/b , xB3 = a/b for

Stability: x = xB1 + x , dx
dt = ax , x (t) = A exp[at] , Unstable for
a > 0 and Stable for a < 0.

Stability of xB2 and xB3 :


s = 2a.

dx
dt

= ax 3bxB2 x , x (t) = A exp[st] ,

xB2 and xB3 stable if a > 0 and are unstable if a < 0.


V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

56 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Nonlinear stability

A sufficiently large disturbance could destabilize or stabilize.


A toy nonlinear ODE:

dx
dt

= ax bx 3

Base-state: x = xB1 = 0 , x = xB2 = +


a/b > 0.

p
p
a/b , xB3 = a/b for

Stability: x = xB1 + x , dx
dt = ax , x (t) = A exp[at] , Unstable for
a > 0 and Stable for a < 0.

Stability of xB2 and xB3 :


s = 2a.

dx
dt

= ax 3bxB2 x , x (t) = A exp[st] ,

xB2 and xB3 stable if a > 0 and are unstable if a < 0.


V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

56 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Supercritical and Subcritical Bifurcation

Supercritical bifurcation for b > 0: Solutions xB2 and xB3 exist only
for a > 0; for a < 0, x = 0 is the only solution.
For a > 0 x = 0 becomes unstable and gives rise to two new stable
solutions xB2 or xB3 . (RayleighBenard convection).
Subcritical bifurcation for b < 0: For b < 0, xB2 and xB3 exist only
for a < 0.
For a < 0, xB2 and xB3 are unstable.
The x = 0 solution could become unstable even for a < 0 to a
sufficiently large disturbance (Shear flow instabilities).
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

57 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Supercritical and Subcritical Bifurcation

Supercritical bifurcation for b > 0: Solutions xB2 and xB3 exist only
for a > 0; for a < 0, x = 0 is the only solution.
For a > 0 x = 0 becomes unstable and gives rise to two new stable
solutions xB2 or xB3 . (RayleighBenard convection).
Subcritical bifurcation for b < 0: For b < 0, xB2 and xB3 exist only
for a < 0.
For a < 0, xB2 and xB3 are unstable.
The x = 0 solution could become unstable even for a < 0 to a
sufficiently large disturbance (Shear flow instabilities).
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

57 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Weakly nonlinear effects: Landau equation

Linear theory:

1 dA
A dt

= s0 A A(t) = A(0) exp[s0 t]

When s0 > 0 Flow unstable: Only onset predicted.


Exponential growth: Cannot neglect nonlinearities anymore.
Nonlinearities can saturate exponential growth, or further accelerate
exponential growth.
Weakly nonlinear theory:
Landau Equation:

1 dA
A dt

= s0 + s1 A2 ;

s1 : Landau constant effect of nonlinearities.

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

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Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Supercritical Equilibrium
Landau Constant negative
A

1 dA
A dt

New non-laminar
steady states
> c

< c

= s0 |s1 |A2 A2s = s0 /|s1 |.


|{z}
+ve

A linearly unstable mode saturates to a new steady state.


Rayleigh Bernard convection cells, Taylor vortices . . .

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

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Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Subcritical Instability
Landau constant positive
A
c

No nearby equilibrium states

1 dA
A dt

Stable to
Small disturbances

Unstable to
finite disturbances

= |s0 | + s1 A2 Instability for < c if A2intial > |s0 |/s1 .


|{z}
ve

A linearly stable mode becomes unstable to finite amplitude


disturbances.

Plane Poiseuille flow in a rigid channel: 65% reduction in critical Re


for vx /V = 0.025; Strongly subcritical.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

60 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Subcritical Instability
weakly
subcritical
strongly
A subcritical

1 dA
A dt

Unstable

= |s0 | + s1 A2 Instability for < c if A2intial > |s0 |/s1 .


|{z}
ve

A linearly stable mode becomes unstable to finite amplitude


disturbances.
Plane Poiseuille flow in a rigid channel: 65% reduction in critical Re
for vx /V = 0.025; Strongly subcritical.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

60 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Transient or algebraic growth: A simple example


d
1
2
Coupled ODEs: dv
dt = Re v ,
dt = v Re
Solution: Exponential decay of v (t) and (t)

v (t) = v0 exp[t/Re]
(t) = v0 Re(exp[t/Re] exp[2t/Re]) + 0 exp[2t/Re]
For small times, series expand:
Rev0 (exp[t/Re] exp[2t/Re]) = v0 t

3v0 2
t +
Re

Growth t for small times t < O(Re), and exponential decay for
long times.
During this transient growth nonlinearities could become important
and lead to instabilities.
Bypass transition.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

61 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Transient or algebraic growth: A simple example


d
1
2
Coupled ODEs: dv
dt = Re v ,
dt = v Re
Solution: Exponential decay of v (t) and (t)

v (t) = v0 exp[t/Re]
(t) = v0 Re(exp[t/Re] exp[2t/Re]) + 0 exp[2t/Re]
For small times, series expand:
Rev0 (exp[t/Re] exp[2t/Re]) = v0 t

3v0 2
t +
Re

Growth t for small times t < O(Re), and exponential decay for
long times.
During this transient growth nonlinearities could become important
and lead to instabilities.
Bypass transition.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

61 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Transient or algebraic growth: A simple example


d
1
2
Coupled ODEs: dv
dt = Re v ,
dt = v Re
Solution: Exponential decay of v (t) and (t)

v (t) = v0 exp[t/Re]
(t) = v0 Re(exp[t/Re] exp[2t/Re]) + 0 exp[2t/Re]
For small times, series expand:
Rev0 (exp[t/Re] exp[2t/Re]) = v0 t

3v0 2
t +
Re

Growth t for small times t < O(Re), and exponential decay for
long times.
During this transient growth nonlinearities could become important
and lead to instabilities.
Bypass transition.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

61 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Non-modal (transient) growth

In rigid tubes, pipe flow always (asymptotically) stable at any Re as


per normal mode analysis.
Plane-Poiseuille flow unstable at Rec = 5772, but experiments show
instability at Re 1200.
Underlying differential operators are non-normal, and eigenfunctions
are non-orthogonal.
Possibility of algebraic or transient growth at early times, which
eventually decay as t .

Schmid and Henningson, 2001

V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

62 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Non-modal (transient) growth


In rigid tubes, pipe flow always (asymptotically) stable at any Re as
per normal mode analysis.
Plane-Poiseuille flow unstable at Rec = 5772, but experiments show
instability at Re 1200.
Underlying differential operators are non-normal, and eigenfunctions
are non-orthogonal.
Possibility of algebraic or transient growth at early times, which
eventually decay as t .
transient
growth
disturbance
energy
asymptotic
decay
time
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

Schmid and Henningson, 2001


SADEAFFP-2014
62 / 63

Introduction

Linear stability theory

A toy example

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

Capillary Instability

Parallel shear flows

Spatio-temporal analysis
Response to impulse forcing at x = 0, t = 0.
t

x
Convective

G (x, t) =
I (x, ) =

d
L 2

d
2

Absolute

I (x, ) exp(it)
D(k, )1 exp(ix)

Absolute instability: Contour deformation in the L-domain until there


is a pinching of branches in the F -domain.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)

Hydrodynamic Stability

SADEAFFP-2014

63 / 63