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GRE 阅读

GRE 阅读电子讲义
主讲:胡楠

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第 1 部分 新 GRE 阅读简介

解读新 GRE 考试阅读理解部分的改革
国外考试部北美项目 胡楠

美国教育考试服务中心(ETS)将在 2011 年 8 月推出新的美国研究生院入学
考试(GRE)。新的考试在传统 GRE 的考试内容、考试形式和计分方法上进行了变
化。无疑,这一考试的变革将会深刻地影响国内莘莘学子的海外求学准备历程。
而语文部分将依然是中国考生的软肋。按照 ETS 官方的讲法: “(新 GRE 考试
将会)减少对于单词意涵背记的孤立考察(如取消类比和反义试题),更加
突出基于语境的理解能力的考察(如增加阅读理解题目)。”以期更加深入并
且真实地反映考生的高级认知能力。具体说来,这些能力包括:

分析一段论述文字并推导结论;根据不完全的数据做推导;识别作者的
前提/假设条件和视角; 理解语言文字的多层次含义,包括字面意涵,修
辞意涵和作者目的等

挑选重要观点,区别主要论述和次要/相关论述;总结全文;理解文章结

koolearn. one.com]网络课堂电子教材系列  GRE 阅读 理解词,句和段落篇章的意涵;理解不同词和概念间的关系等。 那么,发生在新 GRE 考试语文部分的具体变化主要有哪些呢?随之而来的 准备重点的变化究竟是什么呢?我们首先来看看从解题的时间要求上新 GRE 考 试将带给我们怎样的变化(请见表 1)。 传统 GRE 考试 新 GRE 考试 两个部分 每部分 38 题 每部分 30 分钟 两个部分 每部分约 20 题 每部分 30 分钟 表 1 新旧 GRE 考试语文部分时间对比 仅从表面上看来新 GRE 考试似乎给了考生更多的解题时间,这一变化会让 粗心大意者欣喜不已。这一理解偏差的根本原因在于没有同时考察 GRE 题型的 显著变化。让我们再来看看传统 GRE 考试语文部分中的题型分布(请见表 2)。 传统 GRE 考试题型 类比/反义词 句子填空 阅读理解 每部分中的题数/总题数 20/38 7/38 11/38 表 2 传统 GRE 考试语文部分各种题型数量对比 从表 2 中我们可以看到,传统 GRE 考试语文部分中阅读理解和句子填空试题 仅占语文考试题目比重的不到二分之一(18/38),而新 GRE 考试则主要由这 两部分试题组成。这表明,我们再也不能仅仅通过勤奋地背记单词而取得考试的 优胜;想要在新 GRE 考试中获得相对优势就必须夯实自己的“实力”。这个“实 力”就是在更广泛语篇中参透作者字里行间的意义。换句话说,就是新 GRE 考试 语文部分成倍地增加了英文语篇的阅读量,变相缩短了考试时间,实际上增加 了考试难度。这将使绝大部分中国大陆考生不堪重负,甚至丧失已有的竞争优势 面对这种情况,我们唯有两条解决策略。一是在新 GRE 考试登陆中国大陆地 区之前参加传统 GRE 考试;二是认真分析新 GRE 的变化规律并且切实提高自 己的学术文章阅读水平。下面,笔者将着力谈及新 GRE 考试阅读理解部分的题 型,以期对各位考生有所启发。新 GRE 考试阅读理解部分有三种题型组成(请 见表 3): Multiple-choice Questions — Select One Answer Choice: These are the traditional multiple-choice questions with five answer choices of which the examinee must select 第一种:多项选择题I (5 选 1) one.新东方在线 [www. two or all three of the answer choices may be correct. the 第 二 种 : 多 项 选 择 题 II (新题型) (在 3 个选择项中选择任意 . Multiple-choice Questions — Select One or More Answer Choices: These provide three answer choices and ask the examinee to select all that are correct. To gain credit for these questions.

Currently.”我们发现文章的下一句话当中出现了这样的比 例 关 系 。 “ But because sequestration does not affect the cost of electricity transmission and distribution. It is dwelt on by policymakers to the exclusion of other costs associated with electricity delivery. C.”这说明“sequestration”所 占的比重不超过总费用的二分之一。既然只有“发电”和“减排”两个过程。那么,发电的花费 当 然 是 最 多 只 能 占 到 二 分 之 一 了 。 答 案 C 所 说 正 是 : “ It constitutes at most half of the delivered price of electricity. clicking anywhere on a sentence will highlight it. delivered prices will rise less. by no more than 50 percent.com]网络课堂电子教材系列 GRE 阅读 examinee must select all the correct answers. B. Research into better technologies for capturing carbon dioxide will undoubtedly lead to lowered costs. It constitutes at most half of the delivered price of electricity. It is somewhat less than the cost of electricity transmission and distribution. The passage implies which of the following about the current cost of generating electricity? A. delivered prices will rise less.koolearn. It is higher than it would be if better technologies for capturing carbon dioxide were available. (第一种题型:多项选择题I) Sample Multiple-choice Questions — Select One Answer Choice 1. It is not fully recovered by the prices charged directly to electricity consumers. To answer the question. there is no credit for partially correct answers. But because sequestration does not affect the cost of electricity transmission and distribution. Answer: C 解 析 : 首 先 , 我 们 需 要 找 到 题 干 文 句 中 的 定 位 关 键 词 “ the current cost of generating electricity”。之后,将这个关键词定位到文章中去,发现这组定位词出现在文章当中的第二 句 话当 中: “Currently. D. 符合题意的答案,1 项到 3 项均可,错选漏选不给分) 第三种:段 中 点 选 题 ( 新 题型) (在段落中点选符合题设问 题的答案句) 表 3 新 GRE 考试阅读理解部分的三种题型 下面,我们举一个 ETS 官方样题题目来分析。 Sample questions 1 to 3 below are based on this passage: Policymakers must confront the dilemma that fossil fuels continue to be an indispensable source of energy even though burning them produces atmospheric accumulations of carbon dioxide that increase the likelihood of potentially disastrous global climate change. and only those.”故选。通过这道题目,我们发现 ETS 在新 GRE 考试中沿用了 . Select-in-Passage: The question asks the examinee to click on the sentence in the passage that meets a certain description. technology that would capture carbon dioxide emitted by power plants and sequester it harmlessly underground or undersea instead of releasing it into the atmosphere might double the cost of generating electricity.新东方在线 [www. E. by no more than 50 percent. technology that would capture carbon dioxide emitted by power plants and sequester it harmlessly underground or undersea instead of releasing it into the atmosphere might double the cost of generating electricity. the examinee chooses one of the sentences and clicks on it.

Power plants would consume progressively lower quantities of fossil fuels.”所以,随着化石燃 料使用量的增加,未来可以预期的发电成本将会先增加后减少。应该选择选项B( The proportion of the delivered price of electricity due to generation would rise and then decline. delivered prices will rise less. delivered prices will rise less. Research into better technologies for capturing carbon dioxide will undoubtedly lead to lowered costs. have which of the following consequences? A. over time.新东方在线 [www. The burning of fossil fuels would eventually cease to produce atmospheric accumulations of carbon dioxide. 2. The proportion of the delivered price of electricity due to generation would rise and then decline. Select the sentence that explains why an outcome of sequestration that might have been expected would not occur. The passage suggests that extensive use of sequestration would." . Answer: B 解析: 首先,从文章中可以看出,没有什么方法可以“停止”大气中二氧化碳的累积,所以 A 选项中所提到的 “ The burning of fossil fuels would eventually cease to produce atmospheric accumulations of carbon dioxide. B.com]网络课堂电子教材系列 GRE 阅读 传统 GRE 考试的解题套路。 (第二种题型:多项选择题II) Sample Multiple-choice Questions — Select One or More Answer Choices Consider each of the three choices separately and select all that apply. Answer: "But because sequestration does not affect the cost of electricity transmission and distribution. C. by no more than 50 percent. by no more than 50 percent.”显然是错误的。另外,整个文章中也并没有提供一种方法 可以使得电厂可以 “减少化石燃料的使用量 ”,所以C选项显然不符合题意。由于文章中的 最后二句话中指出: “ But because sequestration does not affect the cost of electricity transmission and distribution. )由此可 以看出,尽管新 GRE 考试中出现了新的多项选择题型,但是并没有在实质上改变原有的命 题核心思想。即考察考生的对文章事实的理解和推断进一步信息的能力。所以,原有的解题 方法的运用不仅是可能的,也是必要的应对新 GRE 考试的工具。 (第三种题型:段中点选题) Sample Select-in-Passage Question 3.koolearn.

second next   4 (1) 比较式中的标志词     compare like/alike in the same manner resembles   4 (2) 对比式中的标志词     although different but   5 (1) 表原因的标志词     because attribute to since   5 (2) 表结果的标志词     as a result reflection therefore expansion classification classes now   another also however   for this reason traceable in effect motivation .新东方在线 [www.com]网络课堂电子教材系列 GRE 阅读 面对这三种全新的题型,我们需要具备的能力和准备的方向又该如何呢? 除却传统 GRE 复习过程中对于语篇结构和句法的把握之外,段中点选题 (Select-in-Passage Question)又为我们提出了新的要求。这种题型要求我们准确把 握文章中各个句子之间的逻辑关系。由于传统 GRE 阅读理解考试当中很少涉及 此类信息的考察,句际关系就成了多数考生思维上的盲点。事实上,英文作为一 种“形合”的语言,它的起承转合之间经常依赖逻辑关系词的介入和辅助。以第三 题为例,此题表面上是考察考生对句子的理解和信息搜索能力,而实际上则是 考察问题中所涉及的结论在原文当中是如何被解释的。如果各位能够注意到提干 当中的“…explains why an outcome of sequestration…”,那么,就可以迅速而直接地 定位到原文的表示原因的句式(…But because sequestration…)当中。这种 why 和 because 之间的微妙对应关系可以泛化到广阔的同类命题当中去。笔者对 在新 GRE 考试中可能出现的句际关系做了以下总结(请见表 4),相信这些信 号词的总结会给广大考生在应对新 GRE 考试阅读理解部分时带来帮助。 1 分类式中的标志词     categories sorts groups   2 排序式中的标志词     first last later   3 列举式中的标志词     1234 first.koolearn.

(3) information or ideas implied or suggested by the author.com]网络课堂电子教材系列 GRE 阅读 6 定义式的标志词     define is defined as we mean i.koolearn. (2) information explicitly stated in the passage. (5) the author’s logic. 7 例证式的标志词     for example specifically to illustrate   8 (1) 表示问题的标志词     problem phenomenon fogginess mistiness 8 (2) 表示解决的标志词     solution resolve therapy   the term means that is for instance such as duskiness dilemma remedy resolution 表 4 新 GRE 考试阅读理解中常见句际关系词总结 Six types of reading comprehension questions. These types focus on (1) the main idea or primary purpose of the passage. (4) possible applications of the author’s ideas to other situations. including the identification of situations or processes analogous to those described in the passage. or persuasive techniques. reasoning.e.新东方在线 [www. . and (6) the tone of the passage or the author’s attitude as it is revealed in the language used.

koolearn.新东方在线 [www.com]网络课堂电子教材系列 GRE 阅读 GRE 官方题型分析报告(胡楠) EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE   01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 1   主 态       主 主 构 主 主 主 主 主 主     构   主 构 构 主 主   主 主 主 主 主 主 主 推 态 主 主 类   态 2 推       推   推   推         推                 推           类   推   主 构 构   主   推 3 构       推     推   推 类     构 推 推   主 推 推       主 态       构   推 推 推         推   4       推       构   构 推 态   主     构 推 构     推 态   构         推   类 态         主   5 推 主       态 主       主 推       主   主   主   构     主 主   推 主     主 主 推 推 构 推 主 构 6               主 推 推   推   构         推   态     构       构   态 构   态       推     7 推     构   构 推       构     类 构   构   主         推     态 态     构 推       推 构     8       主       态   态   主         主 构 主 推       主       主   主 主 推   主 主 主 主   构 9 推   态 主 构   态 推       推 主             类   主     推 推     推 推           推   推   10     态     态   构 主       态           推   主     推 推     推 推     推 推 推     推     11       构     态 构       推   主           态     构 态   推     推   构 构 类   推 推 态 构 推 12   主             构             构       类   态                                   .

com]网络课堂电子教材系列 EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE EXERCISE 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66     主 主 主 主 主 主     构 主       推 主   主 主 主 主   推 主 主   推 推             推   类     推           推   构 类   推 推 推             推   构   推 推   推   构 推 类 构             推 推 构   类 类 推     推 推     类 推 主 推 主 类 构   构 态 类 推 推   构   主   主   主 推 主   推   主 主 推 主   主 构 构   构 类 构   推 主   态 GRE 阅读 推     推 推 态 主 推     类   构 推     推     推           构     主   推   推 推     类     推 主   类   类 推 推 构         构           态 主   主 主             推 主 推 主     主   主 推 主 推   推 推 构     推     构   推     主 推   构   构   推 构 推     推   推     构 推 推 构 推 推 构   推   推   构 推     类       推   类 推 构 构 推 推 构           推 主 构         推 构   主 类     态 态                                                       第 2 部分 案例分析 2901 (01) The common belief of some linguists that each language is a perfect vehicle for the thoughts of the nation speaking it is in some ways the exact counterpart of the conviction of the Manchester school of economics that supply and demand will regulate everything for the best.koolearn. (02) Just as economists were blind to the numerous cases in which the law of supply and demand left actual .新东方在线 [www.

not John’s.koolearn.” (A) I only (B) II only (C) III only (D) I and II only (E) II and III only 3. and if we admit this truth. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) analyze an interesting feature of the English language (B) refute a belief held by some linguists (C) show that economic theory is relevant to linguistic study (D) illustrate the confusion that can result from the improper use of language (E) suggest a way in which languages can be made more nearly perfect 2. we must also admit that it is not unreasonable to investigate the relative merits of different languages or of different details in languages. In presenting the argument. X uses the word “bachelor” to mean “unmarried man. X uses the word “you” to refer to a group. Which of the following contributes to the misunderstanding described by the author? (A) It is unclear whom the speaker of the sentence is addressing.” (03)No language is perfect.” but Y mistakenly thinks that bachelor means “unmarried woman. the author does all of the following EXCEPT: (A) give an example (B) draw a conclusion (C) make a generalization (D) make a comparison (E) present a paradox 4. but Y knows that “anomaly” means “exception. (B) It is unclear to whom the word “his” refers the first time it is used. 1. The misunderstanding presented by the author is similar to which of the following? I. consequently.com]网络课堂电子教材系列 GRE 阅读 wants unsatisfied. . and in which.新东方在线 [www. X mistakenly uses the word “anomaly” to refer to a typical example. a word has to be modified or defined in order to present the idea intended by the speaker: “He took his stick—no. but his own. so also many linguists are deaf to those instances in which the very nature of a language calls forth misunderstandings in everyday conversation. but Y thinks that X is referring to one person only.” III. II. (C) It is unclear to whom the word “his” refers the second time it is used.

and only one percent from factors varying with density. the population would. The task for ecologists is to untangle the environmental and biological factors that hold this intrinsic capacity for population growth in check over the long run. and others observed long ago. The great variety of dynamic behaviors exhibited by different populations makes this task more difficult: some populations remain roughly constant from year to year. The factors making up the one percent may seem unimportant. and in other cases not. rates of birth. death and migration rates may be fluctuating around their long-term averages. all species appear to have the innate capacity to increase their numbers from generation to generation. Yet. and migration which depend strongly on population density. This dichotomy has its uses. with outbreaks and crashes that are in some cases plainly correlated with the weather.新东方在线 [www. The highly varying populations have “density-independent” growth parameters. no population can be driven entirely by density-independent factors all the time. death. it may be that on average 99 percent of all deaths in a population arise from density-independent causes. with vital rates buffeted by environmental events. still others vary wildly. or that . others exhibit regular cycles of abundance and scarcity. In order to understand the nature of the ecologist’s investigation. either increase or decrease without bound (barring a miracle by which gains and losses canceled exactly). one that tends to make the population increase from relatively low values or decrease from relatively high ones. These ecologists posit that the relatively steady populations have “density-dependent” growth parameters. that is. we may think of the density-dependent effects on growth parameters as the “signal” ecologists are trying to isolate and interpret. these rates fluctuate in a way that is wholly independent of population density. (E) It is unclear to whom “He” refers. Put another way. in the long run.com]网络课堂电子教材系列 GRE 阅读 (D) The meaning of “took” is ambiguous.koolearn. if there were no density-dependent effects. whether recognized or not. they will usually determine the long-term average population density. Darwin. 3101 As Gilbert White. but it can cause problems if taken too literally. For populations that remain relatively constant. For one thing. and their cause may be correspondingly hard to determine. No matter how severely or unpredictably birth. To impose some order on this kaleidoscope of patterns. while the density-independent effects act to produce “noise” in the population dynamics. one school of thought proposes dividing populations into two groups.

新东方在线 [www. doubling the number of observations made will probably result in the isolation of density-dependent effects. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with (A) discussing two categories of factors that control population growth and assessing their relative importance (B) describing how growth rates in natural populations fluctuate over time and explaining why these changes occur (C) proposing a hypothesis concerning population sizes and suggesting ways to test it (D) posing a fundamental question about environmental factors in population growth and presenting some currently accepted answers (E) refuting a commonly accepted theory about population density and offering a new alternative 2. but only if its limitations are recognized (C) dangerously misleading in most circumstances (D) a complete and sufficient way to account for observed phenomena (E) conceptually valid. . (C) At present. even though the causative biological mechanism may remain unknown. (D) Density-dependent effects on growth parameters are thought to be caused by some sort of biochemical “signaling” that ecologists hope eventually to understand. But it now seems clear that all populations are regulated by a mixture of density-dependent and density-independent effects in varying proportions.com]网络课堂电子教材系列 GRE 阅读 oscillate around repeated cycles. (B) Density-dependent effects on population dynamics do not occur as frequently as do density-independent effects. For irregularly fluctuating populations. 1. but too confusing to apply on a practical basis 3. the signal can be fairly easily characterized and its effects described. we are likely to have too few observations to have any hope of extracting the signal from the overwhelming noise. ecologists do not understand any of the underlying causes of the density-dependent effects they observe in population dynamics. It can be inferred from the passage that the author considers the dichotomy discussed in the second paragraph to be (A) applicable only to erratically fluctuating populations (B) useful.koolearn. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the last paragraph? (A) For irregularly fluctuating populations. (E) It is sometimes possible to infer the existence of a density-dependent factor controlling population growth without understanding its causative mechanism.

(D) They include random environmental events.com]网络课堂电子教材系列 4. According to the passage. GRE 阅读 According to the passage. The discussion concerning population in paragraph 3 serves primarily to (A) demonstrate the difficulties ecologists face in studying density-dependent factors limiting population growth (B) advocate more rigorous study of density-dependent factors in population growth (C) prove that the death rates of any population are never entirely densityindependent (D) give an example of how death rates function to limit population densities in typical populations (E) underline the importance of even small density-dependent factors in regulating long-term population densities 7. (C) They are always more easily isolated and described than those that are density-independent. (E) They contradict current ecological assumptions about population dynamics. In the passage. which of the following is a true statement about density-dependent factors in population growth? (A) They ultimately account for long-term population levels.koolearn. (B) They have little to do with long-term population dynamics. 5.新东方在线 [www. all of the following behaviors have been exhibited by different populations EXCEPT: (A) roughly constant population levels from year to year (B) regular cycles of increases and decreases in numbers (C) erratic increases in numbers correlated with the weather (D) unchecked increases in numbers over many generations (E) sudden declines in numbers from time to time 6. the author does all of the following EXCEPT: (A) cite the views of other biologists (B) define a basic problem that the passage addresses (C) present conceptual categories used by other biologists (D) describe the results of a particular study (E) draw a conclusion .

child psychologists supported pioneer developmentalist Jean. which is characterized by moral absolutism (rules made by authorities must be obeyed) and imminent justice (if rules are broken. but also judge intentional harm as naughtier.com]网络课堂电子教材系列 GRE 阅读 6402 The age at which young children begin to make moral discriminations about harmful actions committed against themselves or others has been the focus of recent research into the moral development of children. at an earlier age than Piaget claimed. Keasey’s research raises two key questions for developmental psychologists about children under age seven: do they recognize justifications for harmful actions. and provocation. and thus preventable. in recent research. Until recently. Darley found that these same children could make both distinctions. advance into the second stage of moral development. regardless of the amount of damage produced. though intentional. children under age seven do not take into account the intentions of a person committing accidental or deliberate harm. thus demonstrating that they had become morally autonomous. six-year-old children just entering kindergarten could not differentiate between foreseeable. Both of these findings seem to indicate that children. . Nesdale and Rule concluded that children were capable of considering whether or not an aggressor’s action was justified by public duty: five year olds reacted very differently to “Bonnie wrecks Ann’s pretend house” depending on whether Bonnie did it “so somebody won’t fall over it” or because Bonnie wanted “to make Ann feel bad. can be justified. however. in which they accept social rules but view them as more arbitrary than do children in the first stage. However.新东方在线 [www. the constraints of moral absolutism no longer solely guide their judgments.” Thus. a child of five begins to understand that certain harmful actions. moral autonomy.koolearn. self-defense. their moral judgments are based entirely on the effect rather than the cause of a transgression. but rather simply assign punishment for transgressions on the basis of the magnitude of the negative consequences caused. harm and unforeseeable harm for which the perpetrator cannot be blamed. Until young children mature. Piaget in his hypothesis that because of their immaturity. According to Piaget. Seven months later. children under age seven occupy the first stage of moral development. For example. punishment will be meted out). and do they make distinctions between harmful acts that are preventable and those acts that have unforeseen harmful consequences? Studies indicate that justifications excusing harmful actions might include public duty. Darley observed that among acts involving unintentional harm. Keasey found that six-yearold children not only distinguish between accidental and intentional harm. Psychologists have determined that during kindergarten children learn to make subtle distinctions involving harm.

com]网络课堂电子教材系列 5. According to the passage. (B) They regard moral absolutism as a threat to their moral autonomy.koolearn. According to the passage. Darley found that after seven months of kindergarten six year olds acquired which of the following abilities? (A) Differentiating between foreseeable and unforeseeable harm (B) Identifying with the perpetrator of a harmful action (C) Justifying harmful actions that result from provocation (D) Evaluating the magnitude of negative consequences resulting from the breaking of rules (E) Recognizing the difference between moral absolutism and moral autonomy 7. Piaget and Keasey would not have agreed on which of the following points? (A) The kinds of excuses children give for harmful acts they commit (B) The age at which children begin to discriminate between intentional and unintentional harm (C) The intentions children have in perpetrating harm (D) The circumstances under which children punish harmful acts (E) The justifications children recognize for mitigating punishment for harmful acts 8.新东方在线 [www. . Keasey’s findings support which of the following conclusions about six-year-old children? (A) They have the ability to make autonomous moral judgments. (C) They do not understand the concept of public duty. (B) The responsibility to punish transgressors (C) An obligation to prevent harm to another (D) The assignment of punishment for harmful action (E) A justification for punishing transgressions 9. It can be inferred that the term “public duty” in the context of the passage means which of the following? (A) The necessity to apprehend perpetrators. According to the passage. GRE 阅读 Which of the following best describes the passage as a whole? (A) An outline for future research (B) An expanded definition of commonly misunderstood terms (C) An analysis of a dispute between two theorists (D) A discussion of research findings in an ongoing inquiry (E) A confirmation of an established authority’s theory 6. (D) They accept moral judgment made by their peers more easily than do older children.

4601 (01)It is now established that the Milky Way is far more extended and of much greater mass than was hitherto thought. where much of the galaxy’s mass must be located.新东方在线 [www. According to the passage. disregard the feelings of the children they harm. 10. all that is visible of the constituents of the Milky Way’s corona (outer edge).koolearn. (D) The punishment for acts of unintentional harm is less severe than it is for acts involving accidental harm. consist mainly of old stars. It can be inferred from the passage that Piaget would be likely to agree with which of the following statements about the punishment that children under seven assign to wrongdoing? (A) The severity of the assigned punishment is determined by the perceived magnitude of negative consequences more than by any other factor. (C) The children assign punishment less arbitrarily than they do when they reach the age of moral autonomy. (B) The punishment is to be administered immediately following the transgression. 11. dwarf galaxies and globular clusters. (08)Third. (C) They take into account the motivations of actions when judging the behavior of other children. no one has detected in the corona the clouds of gaseous matter such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide that are characteristic of the . (E) The more developmentally immature a child. into which most of the stars of the Milky Way’s corona are probably bound. (B) They.com]网络课堂电子教材系列 GRE 阅读 (E) They make arbitrary moral judgments. but not intentional. the more severe the punishment that the child will assign. (06)First. (07)Second. (03)Thus. old stars are not highly luminous. is a tiny fraction of the corona’s mass. (02)However. as perpetrators of harmful acts. the research of Nesdale and Rule suggests which of the following about five-year-old children? (A) Their reactions to intentional and accidental harm determine the severity of the punishments they assign. (E) They justify any action that protects them from harm. (D) They view public duty as a justification for accidental. (04)Why? (05)Three facts are salient. most of the Milky Way’s outlying matter must be dark. harm.

The passage as a whole is primarily concerned with (A) analyzing a current debate (B) criticizing a well-established theory (C) showing how new facts support a previously dismissed hypothesis (D) stating a conclusion and adducing evidence that may justify it (E) contrasting two types of phenomena and showing how they are related 2. (09)At present. It can be inferred from the passage that. II. until fairly recently astronomers believed that the Milky Way (A) was much darker (B) was much smaller (C) was moving much more slowly (D) had a much larger corona (E) had much less gaseous matter 4. therefore. The predominance of globular clusters and dwarf galaxies in the corona of the Milky Way (A) I only (B) III only (C) I and II only (D) II and III only (E) I. compared with what they now think. a bright part of a galaxy typically includes (A) dwarf galaxies and clusters of stars (B) a balanced mixture of old and new stars (C) a large portion of the galaxy’s mass (D) part of the corona of the galaxy (E) gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide 3. burned-out stars. The passage presents which of the following as incontrovertible? I. the best explanation—though still quite tentative—for the darkness of the corona is that the corona is composed mainly of old.koolearn. According to the passage. The absence of clouds of gaseous matter from the corona of the Milky Way III. and III 5101 .com]网络课堂电子教材系列 GRE 阅读 bright parts of a galaxy. 1. The low luminosity of old stars II.新东方在线 [www.

the law of conservation of angular momentum absolutely prevents such a movement. (02)Although dancers seldom see themselves totally in physical terms—as body mass moving through space under the influence of well-known forces and obeying physical laws—neither can they afford to ignore the physics of movement. (03)For example. (04)Some movements involving primarily vertical or horizontal motions of the body as a whole. (05)However. the axes of rotation involved in different types of movement. 1. in which rotations can be ignored. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) initiate a debate over two approaches to analyzing a field of study (B) describe how one field of knowledge can be applied to another field (C) point out the contradictions between two distinct theories (D) define and elaborate on an accepted scientific principle (E) discuss the application of a new theory within a new setting 2. Analysis of which of the following would require the kind of complex approach? (A) A long leap across space (B) A short jump upward with a return to the same place (C) A sustained and controlled turn in place .com]网络课堂电子教材系列 GRE 阅读 (01)Analyzing the physics of dance can add fundamentally to a dancer’s skill. rotational motions require more complex approaches that involve analyses of the way the body’s mass is distributed. The author mentions all of the following as contributing to an understanding of the physics of dance EXCEPT: (A) the law of conservation of angular momentum (B) analyses of the way in which the body’s mass is distributed (C) equations of linear motion in three dimensions (D) analyses of the sources that produce rotational motions (E) the technical terms for movements such as leaps and turns 3. and the sources of the forces that produce the rotational movement.新东方在线 [www.koolearn. The author implies that dancers can become more skilled by doing which of the following? (A) Ignoring rotational movements (B) Understanding the forces that permit various movements (C) Solving simple linear equations (D) Learning the technical terms utilized by choreographers (E) Circumventing the law of conservation of angular momentum 4. can be studied using simple equations of linear motion in three dimensions. no matter how much a dancer wishes to leap off the floor and then start turning.

com]网络课堂电子教材系列 GRE 阅读 (D) Short.) (01)Warm-blooded animals have elaborate physiological controls to maintain constant body temperature (in humans. The passage implies that the “governmental planning” may lead to which of the following problems? (A) Improper use of profits derived from user fees (B) Unduly slow development of necessary new infrastructure (C) Unrealistic decisions about developing new infrastructure (D) Incorrect predictions about profits to be gained from user fees (E) Obstruction of private financing for the development of new infrastructure 3201 (This passage is excerpted from an article that was published in 1982. 1. but by 1993 they still had not raised the necessary financing. (02)Such profits can contribute to the financing of more infrastructure if demand proves great enough. schools. (06)Thus. whereas the reluctance of developers to invest in such projects can signal that additional infrastructure is not needed.新东方在线 [www. and bridges) is usually determined by governmental planning. rather. (06)If a road appears unlikely to attract enough future traffic to pay for the road.koolearn. for example. (02)Why then during sickness should temperature rise. rapid steps forward and then backward without turning (E) Quick sidesteps in a diagonal line 6401 (01)Although the development of new infrastructure (such public facilities as power plants. apparently increasing stress on the infected organism? (03)It has long been known that the level of serum iron in animals falls during infection. sometimes this development can be planned more flexibly and realistically by private investors who anticipate profit from the collection of user fees. (05)He found that microbial synthesis of siderophores—substances that bind iron—in bacteria of the genus Salmonella declined at environmental temperatures above 37℃ and stopped at 40.3℃. it illustrates a virtue of private financing. 37℃). (03)During the economic boom of the 1980’s. fever would make it more difficult for an infecting . (05)The unwillingness of investors to finance this project does not negate the viability of privately financed roads. (04)These developers obtained the needed right-of-way from property owners. the state of Virginia authorized private developers to build a $300 million toll road. then it should not be built. (04)Garibaldi first suggested a relationship between fever and iron.

make iron available to the animal. even though healthy animals prefer the lower temperature. which. (D) In warm-blooded animals.koolearn. more survived at temperatures of 42℃ than at 37℃. infections that lead to fever are usually traceable to bacteria. (10)Research to determine whether similar phenomena occur in warm-blooded animals is sorely needed. (09)When animals at 42℃ were injected with an iron solution. (C) Warm-blooded animals are more comfortable at an environmental temperature of 37℃ than they are at a temperature of 42℃.com]网络课堂电子教材系列 GRE 阅读 bacterium to acquire iron and thus to multiply. in turn. mortality rates increased significantly. (08)Kluger reported that of iguanas infected with the potentially lethal bacterium A. . hydrophilia. bacteria are responsible for the production of siderophores. (07)Cold-blooded animals were used to test this hypothesis because their body temperature can be controlled in the laboratory. (B) Warm-blooded animals require more iron in periods of stress than they do at other times. however. (E) In warm-blooded animals.新东方在线 [www. Which of the following can be inferred about warm-blooded animals solely on the basis of information in the passage? (A) The body temperatures of warm-blooded animals cannot be easily controlled in the laboratory. 1.