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ABSTRACT

Three-phase DC-AC power converters suffer from power oscillation and over current problems in case of unbalanced AC source voltage that can be caused by grid/generator faults. The power converter can enable more flexible control targets, achieving better performances in the delivered power and load current when suffering from unbalanced AC voltage.

In this system embedded system plays a major role. Operator can control the conversion through the keypad. Embedded System is programmed to control the driver depends upon the input signal from a keypad. The signal strength from the Embedded System is given through driver. Driver is used to activate the inverter.

The input of the system is given as the single phase AC or DC line. Single phase AC is converted into DC through rectifier circuit. Filters are used to remove the noises. This supply is given to Inverter. Inverter is used to convert the DC supply to the AC output. The output from the Inverter, AC supply is given to the three phase Feeder Line.

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

In many important applications for power electronics such as renewable energy generation, motor drives, power quality, and micro grid etc. the three-phase DC-AC converters are critical components as the power flow interface of DC and AC electrical systems. A DC-AC voltage source converter with corresponding filter is typically used to convert the energy between the DC bus and the three phase AC sources, which could be the power grid, generation units or the electric machines depending on the applications and controls.

Since the power electronics are getting so widely used and becoming essential in the energy conversion technology, the failures or shutting down of these backbone DC-AC converters may result in serious problems and cost. It is becoming a need in many applications that the power converters should be reliable to withstand some faults or disturbances in order to ensure certain availability of the energy supply.

When the AC source shown in Fig.1 becomes distorted under faults or disturbances, the unbalanced AC voltages have been proven to be one of the greatest challenges for the control of DC-AC converter in order to keep them normally operating and connected to the AC source.

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1.1 EXISTING MODEL

The existing model of the converter has IGBT based power converters, which is costly on behalf of implementation and also the control circuitry is tedious in terms for gate supply. In this model the three phase unbalanced supply is directly converted to balanced three phase supply based on the symmetrical parameters of the supply such as positive, negative and zero sequence currents and voltages. Under this circumstance the reactive power is unbalanced due to harmonics.

1.1 EXISTING MODEL The existing model of the converter has IGBT based power converters, which is

Fig 1.1 Existing model

Here, there are six IGBT switch is used so that the cost of implementation of this model is very high and IGBT's have low switching frequency compared to MOSFET when switching frequency is increased to certain level the harmonics can be eliminated.

1.2 PROPOSED MODEL

The proposed model has a MOSFET instead of IGBT that is very comfortable in terms of economy of operation and the harmonics can be considerably reduced with high switching frequency and in order to handle more power, parallel or series combinations of the converters can be used.

Fig 1.2

Proposed

The proposed consists of MOSFET switches gate supply provided the help of

model model six and the with
model
model
six
and the
with

microcontrollers. According to the timing pulse produced by the controller actuates the switches and the output AC supply is obtained and variable frequency is also obtained by varying the output of the controller.

Low voltage power MOSFETs have achieved a significant cost advantage in terms of Rs/Amp over IGBTs due to their very widespread use in the automotive and power supply industries. This paper investigates the feasibility of a low power motor drive employing 150V MOSFETs. Since it requires twice as many switches, the cost savings afforded by using inexpensive

MOSFETs as the main switching devices can be eliminated by the extra gate drivers and clamping diodes. In an effort to overcome this problem, this paper proposes a gate driver circuit designed around inexpensive discrete components. It also proposes a four level charge pump scheme, which eliminates the need for isolated gate drive power supplies. It further proposes a this work made use of shared facilities supported by the Center for Power Electronics Systems (CPES). CPES is a National Science Center Engineering Research Center under Award EEC-9731677. New control method for the NPC inverter that allows for the clamping diodes to be rated at only a fraction of the current rating of the main switches. This combination results in a low power drive that can be competitive in terms of component cost when compared to an IGBT based drive. The concept has important commercial implications since cost has been the largest drawback to the widespread consumer adoption of low voltage drives.

CHAPTER 2 BLOCK DIAGRAM

Block diagram is a diagram of a system, in which the principle parts or functions are represented by blocks connected by lines that show the relationships of the blocks.

The Fig 3.1 shows that functional block diagram of our project which has nine major stages namely called as power supply stages, driver unit, inverter, High voltage power supply, Rectifier and filter, three phase feeder, embedded system, keyboard and display interfacing stages.

The Fig 3.1 shows that functional block diagram of our project which has nine major stages

Fig 3.1 Functional block diagram

The power supply is the first stage of our project which supplies necessary power to each block and three ranges of power supply are used in this project. The 5V power supply is used for embedded systems, display and keyboard and 12V is used for drivers.

The embedded system consist of microcontroller where the control pulse for the power converter is obtained by programming the controller.

The driver stage is the bridging between the embedded system and power system because the output pulse produced by the controller is not sufficient to drive the power converter switches so that driver amplifies the control pulse that required for the semiconductor switch and controls the power.

The high voltage power supply is the main power that are to be controlled form one level to another by various control strategies the high voltage dc obtained by the converting the single phase AC to DC by use of rectifier and the ripples are eliminated by the filters and pure dc supply is obtained and feed to the inverter, that converts the DC to AC at desired frequency by varying the controller output. The Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) displays the status of our project.

The keypad consist of various key that are required for the control of output by toggling the switches in keypad and also to turn on and off the system the final output of the system is three phase supply that are fed to the feeder line. The one end of switch is connected to the ground and the other end is being given to a 5V power supply. In normal condition the switch is in ground position i.e, the switch is in open condition. When the user presses the switch the interrupt in microcontroller is produces and changes the output of the ports which in turn converts the output power.

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LCD consists of rod-shaped tiny molecules sandwiched between a flat piece of glass and an opaque substrate. These rod-shaped molecules in between the plates align into two different physical positions based on the electric charge applied to them. When electric charge is applied they align to block the light entering through them, whereas when no-charge is applied they become transparent. Light passing through makes the desired images appear. This is the basic concept behind LCD displays. LCDs are most commonly used because of their advantages over other display technologies.

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CHAPTER 3 POWER SUPPLY

The power supply is the source used to deliver the necessary power in our project. Three ranges of power supplies are used in this project namely 5V/1A for embedded system, display interface and 12V/1A is used for driver circuits. The power supplies can be any one of the type given below

Constant-Voltage

Constant-Current

Constant-Voltage/Constant-Current

Constant voltage power supply is used to provide constant voltage output irrespective of the load variations. The voltage produced by an unregulated power supply will vary depending on the load and on variations in the supply voltage. For critical electronics applications a linear regulator may be used to set the voltage to a precise value, stabilized against fluctuations in input voltage and load. The regulator also greatly reduces the ripple and noise in the output direct current. A constant voltage supply provides a DC voltage that can be set to any desired value over a specified range. An ideal constant voltage supply has zero output impedance.

4.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM

A block diagram comprises of typical power supply and the voltage at

various points in

the

unit. The AC

voltage of 220V is

connected to

a

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transformer, which steps that AC voltage down to the level for the desired

  • DC output.

A diode rectifier then provides a full-wave rectified voltage is initially filtered by a simple capacitor filter to produce a DC voltage variation. This voltage is given to regulator circuit which provides a DC voltage that not only has much less ripple voltage but also remains the same DC value

even if the input DC voltage varies, or the load connected to the output

  • DC voltage changes. It consists of five stages namely transformer stage,

rectifier stage, filter or smoothing stage, regulator stage and load stage. The Fig 4.1 shows the block diagram of power supply unit.

 
TRANSFORMER

TRANSFORMER

   
RECTIFIER
RECTIFIER
transformer, which steps that AC voltage down to the level for the desired DC output. A

Fig 4.1 Block diagram of power supply unit

transformer, which steps that AC voltage down to the level for the desired DC output. A
FILTER
FILTER

4.1.1 TRANSFORMER

A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled wires. A changing current in the first circuit (the primary) creates a changing magnetic field in turn, this magnetic field induces a changing voltage in the second circuit (the secondary). By adding a load to the secondary circuit, one can make current flow in the transformer, thus transferring energy from one circuit to the other. The secondary induced voltage VS is scaled from the primary VP by a factor ideally equal to the ratio of the number of turns of wire in their respective windings:

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Vs Ns

=

Vp Np

A key application of the transformer is to reduce the current before transmitting electrical energy over long distances through wires. Most of the wires have resistance and so dissipate electrical energy at a rate proportional to the square of current through the wire. By transforming electrical power to a high voltage and therefore low current form for transmission and back again afterwards, transformers enable the economic transmission of power over long distances. Consequently, transformers have shaped the electricity supply industry, permitting generation to be located remotely from points of demand.

The transformer is based on two principles: First, that an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism) and Second that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). By changing the current in the primary coil, one changes the strength of its magnetic field since the secondary coil is wrapped around the same magnetic field, a voltage is induced across the secondary.

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Fig 4.2 Core type transformer A current passing through the primary coil creates a magnetic field.

Fig 4.2 Core type transformer

A current passing through the primary coil creates a magnetic field. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability, such as iron this ensures that most of the magnetic field lines are produced by the primary current are within the iron and pass through the secondary coil as well as the primary coil.

In this project, core type step down transformer of 230/(0-12)V, 1A rating is used and as shown in Fig 4.2. As the load requirement is not so high so core type transformer with natural air cooling is will be an inexpensive one and it also holds good for medium load of several amperes.

The iron core is laminated to prevent eddy currents flowing in the core. These are currents produced by the alternating magnetic field inducing a small voltage in the core, just like that induced in the

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secondary coil. Eddy currents waste power by needlessly heating up the core but they are reduced to a negligible amount by laminating the iron because this increases the electrical resistance of the core without affecting its magnetic properties.

  • 4.1.2 RECTIFIER

A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current to direct current or at least to current with only positive value, a process known as rectification. Rectifiers are used as components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals.

A bridge rectifier is an arrangement of four diodes as shown in Fig 4.2 that carries more current than the center tapped type full wave rectifier. A bridge rectifier provides full-wave rectification from a two- wire AC input, resulting in lower cost and weight as compared to a rectifier with a 3-wire input from a transformer with a center-tapped secondary winding. One advantage of a bridge rectifier over a conventional full-wave rectifier is that with a given transformer the bridge rectifier produces a voltage output that is nearly twice that of the conventional full wave circuit.

  • 4.1.3 FILTER

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The output of rectifier stage is pulsating DC and found that the voltage is far from steady, quite unlike the steady DC from a battery. For crude applications such as running a motor or lighting a bulb, this is quite adequate. Electronic circuits need to have steady voltages. The ripple supplied by unsmoothed DC can have an adverse effect on the function of electronic circuits. This can be an intrusive mains hum or the inability of the circuit to function properly at all.

The raw DC supplied by a rectifier on its own would consist of a series of half sine waves with the voltage varying between zero and √2 times the RMS voltage (ignoring any diode and other losses). A supply of this nature would not be of any use for powering circuits because any analogue circuits would have the huge level of ripple superimposed on the output and any digital circuits would not function because the power would be removed every half cycle.

To smooth the output of the rectifier a reservoir capacitor is used placed across the output of the rectifier and in parallel with the load. This capacitor charges up when the voltage from the rectifier rises above that of the capacitor and then as the rectifier voltage falls, the capacitor provides the required current from its stored charge, Fig 4.3 shows the smoothening action of a reservoir capacitor.

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Fig 4.3 Smoothening action of a reservoir capacitor It should be remembered that the only way

Fig 4.3 Smoothening action of a reservoir capacitor

It should be remembered that the only way discharge path for the capacitor, apart from internal leakage is through the load to the rectifier/smoothing system. The diodes prevent backflow through the transformer.

Two of the major specifications of a capacitor are its capacitance and working voltage. The ripple current is not just equal to the supply current. There are two scenarios:

4.1.3.1 CAPACITOR DISCHARGE CURRENT

On the discharge cycle, the maximum current supplied by the capacitor occurs as the output from the rectifier circuit falls to zero. At this point all the current from the circuit is supplied by the capacitor. This is equal to the full current of the circuit.

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4.1.3.2 CAPACITOR CHARGING CURRENT

On the charge cycle of the smoothing capacitor, the capacitor needs to replace all the lost charge, but it can only achieve this when the voltage from the rectifier exceeds that from the smoothing capacitor. This only occurs over a short period of the cycle. Consequently the current during this period is much higher.

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The large the capacitor, the better it reduces the ripple and the shorter the charge period.

In this project, capacitor filters where used. An inexpensive filter for light loads is the capacitor filter. During the first positive half cycle the diode is forward biased then, the capacitor charges up to the peak value of the input voltage and maximum its value. During second positive half cycle, the full wave input drops to zero; now the capacitor discharges through the load resistor. As the load increases the discharge of the capacitor will be greater, results in low ripple. In our circuit 1000µF/25V capacitor is used for smoothening.

4.1.4 REGULATOR

A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A voltage regulator may be a simple feed- forward design or may include negative feedback control loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.

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Fig 4.4 Pin diagram of IC78XX 23

Fig 4.4 Pin diagram of IC78XX

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Electronic voltage regulators are found in devices such as computer power supplies where they stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements. LM78XX and LM79XX series regulator IC is available in the market at low cost and LM78XX series have three terminals for positive regulators with TO-220 package. The several voltages can be taken as output such as +5V and +12V and LM79XX is also have three terminals for negative regulators with same magnitudes. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1A output current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents. The rectified voltage is applied between pin no 1 and 2, and regulated output is obtained between pin 2 and 3 of LM78XX. Same input pin and output pin is also used for LM79XX series.

4.1.5 LOAD STAGE

If an electric circuit has a well-defined output terminal, the circuit connected to this terminal (or its input impedance) is the load. Load affects the performance of circuits that output voltages or currents, such as sensors, voltage sources and amplifiers. Mains power outlets provide an easy example: they supply power at constant voltage with electrical appliances connected to the power circuit collectively making

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up the load. When a high-power appliance switches on, it dramatically reduces the load impedance.

If the load impedance is not very much higher than the power supply impedance, the voltage will drop. In a domestic environment, switching on a heating appliance may cause incandescent lights to dim noticeably.

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4.2 5V/1A POWER SUPPLY

The input AC voltage of 230V, 50Hz is applied

to primary of

230V/12V transformer and step down output of 12V is obtained at secondary. During the positive half cycle, diode D1 and D4 conducts and diode D2 and D3 conducts for negative half cycle and produces a

rippled DC as output as shown in Fig 4.6.

4.2 5V/1A POWER SUPPLY The input AC voltage of 230V, 50Hz is applied to primary of

Fig 4.5 Circuit diagram of 5V/1A power supply unit

In order to remove the ripples a capacitor of 1000µF is being used. The output of this capacitor is 12V DC and applied to regulator IC7805 for obtaining 5V DC supply. This 5V power supply delivers necessary power to sensor and FPGA.

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Fig 4.6 Waveforms of various stages of power supply unit 27

Fig 4.6 Waveforms of various stages of power supply unit

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12V/1A POWER SUPPLY

Our project is also required +12V which is used for operating the two DC motors and one servo motor. The operation of 12V/1A power supply is very much similar to that of 5V/1A power supply, with a minute changes. The regulator IC7812 is being replaced instead of IC7805 .The Fig 4.7 shows the complete circuit diagram of 12V/1A power supply unit.

12V/1A POWER SUPPLY Our project is also required +12V which is used for operating the two

Fig 4.7 Circuit diagram of 12V/1A pow

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