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RECENT TRENDS IN COMMUNICATIONS

(INTEGRATED COMMUNICATION SYSTEM)


KOSHY ALEX (III-T.C)
P.V.SURENDRA BABU (III-EEE)
VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY.
VELLORE, TAMILNADU.
electro_babu@yahoo.co.in, alexkoshy16@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: Even as the age of nomadicity and air to ground two way half duplex voice
progressively made way for the age of neo- communication.
colonialism,even as the settlements and clans
metamorphosised into cosmopolitan nations - 2. SCOPE.
Defence has remained the progenitor of the good of
the masses and the development of the cult as a This technology offers a very wide scope not only in the
whole. National Defence and national security share defence systems but also in other areas where we require
an indispensable reliance on communications which high security and realibility.This Integrated
in turn calls for constant improvement, not Communication system is used in some of the planes such
compromising on discretion and advancement at the as MiG BIS (UPG), MiG – 27 (UPG),
same time. In this regard the latest and the most DONIER (N) & ADVANCED JET TRAINER (AJT)
sophisticated communication equipment being available in the armoury of INDIAN AIRFORCE.
developed by our country is the Integrated
Communication System or INCOM as it is mostly 3. BACKGROUND.
called. The INCOM system is an airborne V/UHF
transceiver intended for air to air & air to ground As per the proverb “Leap Before Sit Down”, we have to
two way half duplex voice communication. The see the previous technologies and the problems associated
equipment covered by this specification provides with them. There are at least two problems with
radio frequency reception & transmission of AM or conventional wireless communications that can occur
FM signals and also provides single wide band under certain circumstances. First, a signal whose
antenna for its operation. It is modularly frequency is constant is subject to catastrophic
constructed for easy serviceability and maintenance. interference. This occurs when another signal is
The unique feature of this INCOM set is that it has transmitted on, or very near, the frequency of the desired
got a Built In Test Equipment (BITE) facility and a signal. Catastrophic interference can be accidental (as in
MIL-STD (Military Standard)-1553 Bus amateur-radio communications) or it can be deliberate (as
compatibility. An additional feature of this set is its in wartime). Second, a constant-frequency signal is easy
Standby Intercom facility. to intercept, and is therefore not well suited to
applications in which information must be kept
1. INTRODUCTION. confidential between the source (transmitting party) and
destination (receiving party).
In the field of defence, communication plays a vital role
in deciding the defence strength of a country. In the In the view of developing and usage of this technology,
olden days fighting a war with out arms can prove to be we are equipped with different versions or sets, which
fatal, in the same way in the present scenario the differ from field and place of application. In this paper we
defence of a country can prove to be fatal without are presenting one of the versions which is being used for
sophisticated communication system. In this regard we communication in defence planes, which is INCOM
are witnessing many advanced technologies in the 1210A.
defence communication. In view of this we are
presenting the latest advancement in Integrated
Communications, which is INCOM. In this field we are
dealing with a particular set INCOM-1210A. INCOM
is an air borne V/UHF transceiver intended for air to air

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4. SALIENT FEATURES. Actually the set has a Duplexer, through which it can
select the receiver action or the transmitter action.
This technology offers a wide variety of unique features
which made this technology invariable and efficient. The signal is received from the antenna as the T/R switch
Some of them include: is switched to receive mode then it goes to the Main
• Facility to select AM or FM modes of Receiver RF input port which further sends it through the
operation. overload protection switch. The output obtained from the
• Remote Controller and Repeat Display. overload switch is amplified and sent to the 3dB splitter
• Facility to program 40 preset channels. which splits the output into two parts. One part of the
• Standby Intercom facility. output goes to the Guard Receiver input port. The other
• Single wide band antenna operation. part is amplified or attenuated depending on the signal
• Modular construction of the equipment makes strength and then filtered by UHF tuned filter (UTF) or
it easy for serviceability and maintenance. VHF tuned filter (VTF). This filtered output is mixed with
the 70MHz IF output of the locally generated crystal
• BITE (Built-In-Test Equipment) facility is
oscillator and filtered again to obtain 500 KHz IF output.
provided.
This 500 KHz output is further amplified by Gain
• A wide frequency range of 108MHz to Controlled amplifier and converted into digital form by
399.975MHz and a very good channel spacing using A/D converter. This digital output is passed to the
of 25 KHz are offered. DSP processor for demodulation.
5. MODULAR REPRESENTATION. Receiver Block Diagram

This set which is extensively using in various


planes as stated above for air to air and air to ground
communication will have a modular construction as
stated below. It contains 12 modules which are listed
below
¾ Synthesizer assembly
¾ Motherboard
¾ Receiver assembly(Main receiver)
¾ Guard receiver
¾ Interface assembly
¾ DSP assembly
¾ Modulator assembly
¾ Bus interface control card (BICC) assembly
¾ Data recovery card (DRC) assembly
¾ Delay locked Loop (DLL) assembly
¾ Power Amplifier
¾ Power Supply
Out of these 12 modules, the 2 modules which are
necessary for any communication and what makes this
type of communication different and superior to other
types of communication which are related to working of
this equipment as a communication unit have been
described below.

6. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS.
The DSP processor not only demodulates but also does
The working of this set is easily and clearly analyzed by audio Filtering, Digital Volume Control, Squelch
studying its receiver and transmitter function. Function, Synthesizer code for Local Oscillator
generation and BITE status of the system. This
6.1. Receiver Function (VHF/UHF): demodulated output from the DSP is sent to the D/A
converter to convert it into analog audio output and hence
The working of the set as a receiver is better explained it is mixed with audio output from the Guard receiver.
with the help of block diagram as shown in the figure.

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This mixer of audio outputs is then filtered by Audio 6.2.1 Amplitude Modulation:
Band pass filter and hence boosted to the required level For the purpose of transmitting a message signal and for
to drive the headset. The volume of the output is the conversion of these voice signals into electrical
adjusted or varied by using the control voltage signals, a microphone having not less than 250mV RMS
generated by the DSP module (based on the Digital is provided to the user. The microphone output is passed
Volume Control level set by the user through the through the Voice Operated Gain Controlled Device
Controller) (VOGCD), which generates constant audio output level
for modulation.
The 500 KHz IF output is generated in the same way
for both AM & FM signals in the Main Receiver The output obtained is then given to the Power amplifier
module except that the VHF tuned filter or UHF tuned module for Amplitude modulation. 70 MHz drive
filter is selected depending on the operating frequency required for Preamplifier (in Main Receiver) is generated
(VHF or UHF). The demodulation is carried out by in the Modulator module by a Voltage Controlled
different software algorithms, based on the AM or FM Oscillator (VCO). The VCO output is phase locked with
mode in the DSP module to generate the demodulated 10 MHz system reference by a Phase Locked Loops
audio in the Digital form. The further D/A conversion (PLL). 10 MHz system reference is generated by a high
and audio processing of this demodulated signal is stability Oven Controlled Crystal Oscillator (OCXO). The
carried out in the same way for AM & FM modes to phase locked 70 MHz output is passed through the DLL
drive the Headset. (Delay Locked Loop) module for filtering. The filtered
output is mixed with the Local Oscillator (LO) and sent to
the Main Receiver Module For UP conversion. The
6.2. Transmitter Function (VHF/UHF): obtained output is now passed through UTF or VTF
depending on the operating frequency. This filtered output
If transmitter mode is selected in the Duplexer of the set is amplified by the Pre-amplifier and hence given to the
then it will function as a transmitter, which helps to Power Amplifier for further amplification.
transmit the messages in air to air or in air to ground
mode of communication. As stated earlier that we can In the Power Amplifier module, the pre-amplifier output
select the mode of transmission either in AM or in FM, is sent to the PIN attenuator where the attenuation is
the working of the set in both the cases is explained controlled by Automatic level Control (ALC) voltage.
here. The block diagram showing the functioning of the The Voltage Operated gain Amplified Device (VOGAD)
set as a transmitter is as shown in the figure. output is super-imposed on this ALC voltage for
Amplitude Modulation. The Amplitude Modulation and
level controlled UP converted carrier is passed through
stages of amplifier chain to boost the power of the signal.
The final amplified output obtained is passed through the
T/R switch, filtered by the VHF or UHF low pass filter
depending on the operating frequency of the system. The
filtered output obtained is fed to the Antenna through the
directional coupler. Directional coupler couples the
portion of the RF power output to generate the ALC
voltage required for the level control. The coupled RF
output is detected & compared with the reference voltage
set for the rated power. The output of the comparator is
given as ALC voltage and it keeps the RF output power
within the limits.

6.2.2. Frequency Modulation:

The microphone output is passed through the Voice


Operated Gain Controlled Device (VOGCD), which
generates constant audio output level for modulation.70
MHz drive required for Preamplifier (in Main Receiver) is
generated in the Modulator module by a Voltage
Controlled Oscillator (VCO). The VCO output is phase
locked with 10 MHz system reference by a Phase Locked

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Loops (PLL). 10 MHz system reference is generated by The filtered output is now DOWN converted to 21.4 MHz
a high stability Oven Controlled Crystal Oscillator Intermediate Frequency (IF) and filtered by a selectivity
(OXCO). crystal filter and amplified by Gain Controlled amplifier.
The amplified output is mixed with 20.945 MHz to
The phase locked 70 MHz output is passed through the generate 455 KHz second IF and amplified by Gain
DLL (Delay Locked Loop) module for filtering. The Controlled amplifier and sent to Demodulator hardware.
filtered is mixed with the Local Oscillator (LO) and The demodulated audio is passed to the Interface Module
sent to the Main Receiver Module For UP conversion. where the main audio is added to it. It is then filtered by
The obtained output is now passed VTF. This filtered Band Pass Filter and hence boosted to the required level
output is amplified by the Pre-amplifier and hence to drive the Headset.
given to the Power Amplifier for Further Amplification. The volume of the output audio is varied by using control
voltage generated by the DSP module based on the
In the power amplifier module, the pre-amplifier output Digital Volume Control level set by the user. Depending
is sent to the PIN attenuator where the attenuation is on the operating frequency bands of the system the Guard
controlled by Automatic level Control (ALC) voltage. Receiver is tuned to one of the Guard frequencies.
The Voltage Operated gain Amplified Device
(VOGAD) output is superimposed on this ALC voltage Frequency Guard
for Amplitude Modulation. The Amplitude Modulation Band Frequency
& level controlled UP converted carrier is passed
through stages of amplifier chain to boost the power of VHF
the signal. The final amplified output obtained is passed (108-155.975 MHz)(AM) Æ121.5 MHz
through the T/R switch, filtered by the VHF. The VHF
filtered output obtained is fed to the Antenna through (156-173.975 MHz)(FM) Æ156.8 MHz
the directional coupler. Directional coupler couples the UHF
portion of the RF power output to generate the ALC (225-399.975 MHz)(AM) Æ243.0 MHz
voltage required for the level control. The coupled RF
output is detected & compared with the reference 8. CONTROLLER.
voltage set for the rated power. The output of the
comparator is given as ALC voltage and it keeps the RF The controller is used to select the modes and operating
output power within the limits. frequencies of this transceiver. It makes use of state-of-
the-art, all solid state, high reliability circuits using 87C51
7. GUARD RECEIVER Microcontroller system. This Microcontroller processes
the received information and updates the display. The
The guard frequency corresponding to the band of controller can be located in the cockpit to facilitate the
operation is monitored continuously for reception by an user (Pilot) to have remote access to the system and is
independent guard receiver. The guard receiver output interfaced with the transceiver through MIL-STD
audio is added to the final audio of the output of the (Military Standard) 1553 Bus. The Controller front panel
system whenever the GUARD ON (GRDÆ ON) displays the mode and the preset channel number selected
command is selected through the controller. The by the Pilot.
received Guard RF from the antenna port is passed
through the T/R switch located in the power amplifier. 9. REPEAT DISPLAY.

The switched output is fed into the main receiver RF A separate Repeat Display Unit is provided which can be
input port which further sends it through the overload located in the cockpit. Any information sent to the
protection switch. The output obtained from the controller for display is also sent to the Repeat Display
overload switch is amplified and sent to the 3dB splitter Unit. The Repeat Display converts these signals to the
which splits the output into two parts. One part is use to format required for alphanumeric display by using the
process the main signals an the other part is sent to the interface, decoder and driver hard wares.
guard receiver input port (to process guard signal) The
guard signal is now filtered by a crystal filter which 10. SOFTWARE DETAILS
selects one of the three frequencies 121.5 MHz or 156.8
MHz or 243 MHz. INCOM-1210A transceiver can be restricted to work
with limited performance by different software versions.
As per the user requirement, corresponding software
version is loaded in INCOM transceiver. Controller

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transceiver software is updated, when the selected ™ This INCOM set can be equipped with
software is loaded. The version number is set on the dip Electronic Counter Counter Measures
switch in INCOM transceiver. Dip switch is available (ECCM) features which hence enhances the
in the transceiver in the BICC module. This information perform ability and security of the data
is sent to the controller on MIL-STD (Military transmitted through this set.
Standard) 1553 Bus. Controller reads this data and ™ These INCOM sets can be linked up with
accordingly applicable portion of the software is the satellite for communication when the
activated. The most commonly used software is plane is out of range of the Air Control
VERSION 4: CONV-AM & FM- VOICE- NORMAL. Tower (ATC)
™ Only the same transceiver set can receive
11. FREQUENCY HOPPING. the information sent from the plane (as the
software version differs in each variant of
If we adopt this technology in fields like defence, where these sets)
high security and reliable communication systems is ™ These sets have an Erase All (EA) switch.
needed then Frequency Hopping technique is added to This switch automatically erases the
this set. Frequency hopping is one of two basic software from these sets when the plane
modulation techniques used in Spread Spectrum Signal crashes. Hence the knowledge of the
transmission. It is the repeated switching of frequencies software is kept safe.
during radio transmission, often to minimize the ™ Due to its modular construction the software
effectiveness of "electronic warfare" - that is, the contained in these sets are not affected by
unauthorized interception or jamming of the Ultra Violet radiations of the higher
telecommunications. It also is known as Frequency atmosphere.
Hopping Code Division Multiple Access (FH-CDMA). ™ These sets have a Remote Controller and a
Benefits include improved privacy, decreased Repeat display.
narrowband interference, and increased signal capacity. ™ Facility to program 40 preset channels.
™ Power output is 20Watts. Provision to select
In an FH-CDMA system, a transmitter "hops" between High/Low (20/10 watts) power
available frequencies according to a specified ™ Extensive BITE facility provided.
algorithm, which can be either random or preplanned.
The transmitter operates in synchronization with a
receiver, which remains tuned to the same center 13. CONCLUSION.
frequency as the transmitter. A short burst of data is
transmitted on a narrowband. Then, the transmitter Due to the multiple advantages which have been
tunes to another frequency and transmits again. The described above, these sets prove their mark in defence
receiver thus is capable of hopping its frequency over a communication with its versatile functional and technical
given bandwidth several times a second, transmitting on features by keeping up all the security measures required
one frequency for a certain period of time, then hopping for data and voice transmission. Additional features like
to another frequency and transmitting again. The length frequency hopping further increase the security of these
of time that the transmitter remains on a given INCOM sets, hence not compromising on discretion and
frequency between "hops" is known as the Dwell time. advancement at the same time.
A few spread-spectrum circuits employ continuous
frequency variation, which is an analog scheme. 14. REFERENCES.
[1] Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Avionics Division,
As a coin has two sides, the disadvantage of this Hyderabad.
hopping technique is that it requires a much wider
bandwidth than is needed to transmit the same [2] http: // cas.et.tudelft.nl
information using only one carrier frequency.

12. ADVANTAGES.

This technology offers a wide range of advantages due


to its unique features and efficient functionality. Some
of them include