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Arithmetic Circuits:

Other Number Representations

• Previously, we dealt with binary integers

(signed or unsigned) in a positional number

representation

• Other number representations are also

commonly used :

– Fixed-point: allows for fractional representation

– Floating-point: allows for high precision, very

large and/or very small numbers

– Binary-coded decimal (BCD): another form for

integer representation

1

Fixed-point numbers

• A fixed-point number consists of integer

and fraction parts

• In positional notation, it is written as

B=bn-1bn-2. . .b1b0.b-1b-2…b-k

• With a corresponding value of

n−1

V (B) = ∑ b × 2i

i=−k i

be fixed

Fixed-point numbers

• For example,

B=(01001010.10101)2

B=1x26+1x23+1x21+1x2-1+1x2-3+1x2-5

B=64+8+2+.5+.125+.03125

B=(74.65625)10

B=(8A.A8)16

numbers are essentially the same as those

used for integers

2

Floating-point numbers

• Fixed-point numbers have a range that is limited by

the significant digits used to represent the number

• For some applications, it is often necessary to deal

with numbers that are very large (or very small)

• For these cases, it is better to use a floating-point

representation in which numbers are represented by

a mantissa comprising the significant digits and an

exponent of the radix R

• The format is

Mantissa x R Exponent

radix point is placed to the right of the first non-zero

digit (for example, 5.234x1043 or 3.75x10-35)

Electrical & Computer Engineering Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 20-5

• The IEEE defines a 32-bit (single precision) format

for floating point values

– Sign bit (S): most significant bit

– 8-bit exponent field (E): excess-127 exponent

• True exponent = E-127

• E=0 -> 32-bit value=0

• E=255 -> 32-bit value=∞

– 23-bit mantissa (M)

S E M

Sign 8-bit

0 denotes + 23-bit

excess-127

1 denotes - mantissa

exponent

3

IEEE single precision format

• The IEEE standard calls for a normalized

mantissa, which means that the most-

significant bit is always set to 1.

• It is not necessary to include this bit explicitly

in the mantissa field

– If M is the value in the 23-bit mantissa field, the

true (24-bit) mantissa is actually 1.M

• The value of the floating point number is

then

– Value = (-1)S.M x 2E-127

Floating-point example

• For example,

01000000011000000000000000000000

=+(1.11)2x2(128-127)

=+(1.11)2x21

=+(11.1)2

=+(1x21+1x20+1x2-1)=(3.5)10

00111111011000000000000000000000

4

Binary-coded-decimal numbers

• It is possible to represent decimal numbers simply

by encoding each decimal digit in binary form

– Called binary-coded-decimal (BCD)

• Because there are 10 digits to represent, it is

necessary to use four bits per digit

– From 0=0000 to 9=1001

– (01111000)BCD=(78)10

• BCD representation was used in some early

computers and many handheld calculators

– Provides a format that is convenient when numerical

information is to be displayed on a simple digit-oriented

display

• The most popular code for representing information

in computers is used for both numbers and letters

and some control codes

• It is the American Standard Code for

Information Interchange (ASCII) code

• ASCII code uses seven-bit patterns to represent 128

different symbols including

– Digits (0-9)

– Lowercase (a-z) and uppercase (A-Z) characters

– Punctuation marks and other commonly used symbols

– Control codes

• The 8-bit extended ASCII code is used to represent

all of the above and another 128 graphics characters

5

Example ASCII character codes

• (1000001)ASCII=(41H)=‘A’

• (1000010)ASCII=(42H)=‘B’

• (1100001)ASCII=(61H)=‘a’

• (1100010)ASCII=(62H)=‘b’

• (0110000)ASCII=(30H)=‘0’

• (0111001)ASCII=(39H)=‘9’

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