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CHAPTER 1

The Problem and Its Setting


Introduction
Every day tens of thousands of free radicals are generated within the body,
causing cell damage that can lead to chronic and degenerative diseases if left
unchecked. Free radicals are unstable molecules that essentially feed off of
otherwise healthy molecules in order to survive. The body sometimes creates its
own free radicals in order to destroy viruses or bacteria. To balance out these
unruly molecules, the body also creates antioxidants, which have the sole purpose
of neutralizing free radicals.(www.perfectlyhealthy.com/ViewArticle.aspx?A=19)
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons or hydrogen from a
substance to an oxidizing agent. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals. In
turn, these radicals can start chain reactions. When the chain reaction occurs in a
cell, it can cause damage or death to the cell. Antioxidants terminate these chain
reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation
reactions. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antioxidant)
Slowing and preventing oxidative stress caused by free radicals are among
the roles of antioxidants. Antioxidants work to repair or prevent damage to your
body's cells. Fruits, vegetables, nuts and whole grains contain variable amounts of
antioxidants.(www.superfoods.gr/holistic_life.../antioxidant-level-inpomegranates/)

Eating fruits and vegetables can slow down the loss of muscle elasticity
that leads to wrinkles, boost your immunity making you less susceptible to illness,
and put the break on memory failure, as free radicals injure the brain cells
necessary for retaining information.
Antioxidants are also available in supplement form but are the most
powerful

when

found

in

whole

foods.

(www.antioxidantsnews.com/1017_antioxidants_fruits.html)
However, some fruits and vegetables may not provide a higher dose of
nutrients and has only limited number of nutrients present.
Pomegranate is an example of a super food, a nutrient-rich food
considered to be especially beneficial for health and well-being, foods recognized
for their excellent nutritional value as well as their potential for disease
prevention. Each pomegranate fruit contains hundreds of arils -- the sweet,
translucent red flesh covering each seed -- that contribute to your daily fruit
intake. Pomegranates boost your intake of essential vitamins, and might also
have a role in slowing the development of some types of cancer.

(healthyeating.sfgate.com Nutrition Amino Acids)


Systematic activities to prevent or cure health problems and promote good
health in humans are undertaken by health care providers. It is increasingly
recognized that health is maintained and improved not only through the
advancement and application of health science, but also through the efforts and
intelligent

lifestyle

choices

(en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health)

of

the

individual

and

society.

Background of the study


Punica granatum, commonly known as Pomegranate, is a small fruitbearing plant native to Iran. The name comes from French, pomme garnete,
literally translated to seeded apple. Traditionally the fruits and seeds were
valued for their culinary use by people from India to the Mediterranean region,
and they symbolize abundance, fertility and good luck. (Silje Mork Bjorndal).
According to Jurenka JS, the pomegranate is an ancient, mystical, unique fruit
borne on a small, long-living tree cultivated throughout the Mediterranean region,
as far north as the Himalayas, in Southeast Asia, and in California and Arizona in
the United States. In addition to its ancient historical uses, pomegranate is used in
several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. The synergistic action of the
pomegranate constituents appears to be superior to that of single constituents. In
the past decade, numerous studies on the antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and antiinflammatory properties of pomegranate constituents have been published,
focusing on treatment and prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes,
dental conditions, erectile dysfunction, bacterial infections and antibiotic
resistance, and ultraviolet radiation-induced skin damage. Other potential
applications include infant brain ischemia, male infertility, Alzheimer's disease,
arthritis, and obesity. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18590349)
Pomegranate was believed as one of the first cultivated fruits on the Early
Bronze age. It has been named in many ancient texts from the Book of Exodus in
the Torah, the Quran, the Homeric Hymns, and Mesopotamian records, to name a
few. They were highly valued in Ancient Egypt, and were part of the supply of

fruits

required

in

pharaoh's

residence

in

1600

BC

(http://www.foodreference.com/html/a-pomegranate-history.html)
Pomegranates are a so-called "super food". They are found in their raw
form, in juice and in a hundreds of products from candy to breakfast bars. The
health properties of pomegranates are studied for everything from cancer
prevention to skin care (Silje Mork Bjorndal). They are both nutritious and
delicious.
The edible parts of the fruit are the seeds and the red seed pulp
surrounding them. Pomegranate seeds are a great source of fiber, and the juice
contains vitamin C, potassium, iron, and polyphenol antioxidants. Three types of
polyphenols: tannins, anthocyanins, and ellagic acid are present in particularly
high levels in pomegranate juice, and have the most powerful health benefits.
(Silje Mork Bjorndal)
Dietary supplementation with nutrients rich in antioxidants is associated
with inhibition of atherogenic modifications to LDL, macrophage foam cell
formation, and atherosclerosis. Pomegranates are a source of polyphenols and
other antioxidants. (Aviram M, Dornfeld L, Rosenblat M, et. al).
Pomegranates supply a number of vitamins, including several recognized
for their antioxidant properties. One pomegranate supplies about 30 milligrams of
vitamin C, a vitamin needed for healthy skin and also a potent antioxidant. The
fruit also contains about 1.5 milligrams of vitamin E, another antioxidant vitamin
that supports immune function, communication between your cells, and helps

keep the lining of your blood vessels smooth. Antioxidant properties of these
vitamins also help reduce accumulation of free radicals in your body, naturallyoccurring chemicals that can raise your risk of chronic problems such as heart
disease and cancer. (Mar 13, 2014 | By Katie Kirkpatrick)
Pomegranates were also ranked high in terms of their antioxidant capacity.
How come? Well, according to Ms. Katie Kirkpatrick, author of Antioxidant
Level in Pomegranates,

It was when the U.S. Department of Agriculture

developed a database for the antioxidant capacity of fruits, vegetables, spices and
nuts, which ranks food in terms of its oxygen radical absorbance capacity, or
OTAC. It also says that one cup of pomegranate juice contains 5923 micromoles
of Trolox Equivalent, TE, per 100 grams. TE is a measurement of antioxidant
strength. Based on a typical serving size, pomegranate juice ranks fifth behind
baking chocolate, elderberry, Red Delicious apples and Granny Smith apples.
Thats why Pomegranate juice's antioxidant capacity is similar to prunes, dark
chocolate and red wine.
Pomegranate juice could reduce stress in the workplace, according to new
research. Pomegranate can also be use as antioxidant for some workers. To relief
their stress because some of them are too hardworking to the point that they even
dont have a time for their body to relax and rest. Study found that having the
drink every day resulted in lower stress hormones and a reduction in blood
pressure.

(http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-

news/pomegranate-juice-could-reduce-workplace-stress-2293638.html)

Setting of the Study


This study will be conducted in Centro Escolar University Mendiola,
Manila. Centro Escolar University is a private, nonsectarian higher education
institution with an enrollment of over 20,000 students in its three campuses: Manila,
Makati and Malolos. Established in June 3, 1907 by Doa Librada Avelino and Doa
Carmen de Luna, Centro Escolar de Seoritas, has grown to become one of the top
universities in the country today.
The Centro Escolar University Manila Campus is 3.8 hectares composed
of 14 buildings that house around 25,000 students a year. Known for its pink
buildings, the campus is located in the western side of Mendiola Street in Manila, the
heart of Manila's "University Belt."

Centro Escolar University Manila Campus

Figure 1
Map of CEU Manila
9 Mendiola, San Miguel, Manila, Metro Manila

Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework is composed of three parts, namely: Input,
Process and Output.
INPUT

PROCESS

Profile of the
respondents included
in the study

Collection and
extraction of
pomegranates

Responses of the
respondents on
pomegranate extracts

Determine the
perceptions of the
respondents on
pomegranate extracts

OUTPUT
Effect of the
antioxidant properties
of pomegranate extract
as a relief of stress and
improving the
workers health
Perceptions of the
respondents on fruit
extracts as a stress
reliever

Figure 2
The figure shows the processes done in the study. Using the IPO approach,
the input includes the profile of the respondents included in the study as well as
the responses from the respondents regarding pomegranate extracts. Meanwhile,
the process includes the collection of the pomegranate extract as well as
determining the perceptions of the respondents on the extract. Lastly, the output
will be the antioxidant properties of pomegranate extract as an efficient relief of
stress and improving the workers health and finding out their perception of the
extract.

Statement of the Problem


The purpose of the study is to know the components of the fruit extract as
an efficient relief in stress among adult workers in CEU, Manila.
Specifically, it will seek to answer the following questions:
1. What were the components of the pomegranate fruit?
2. How can the antioxidant properties of pomegranate extract relieve the stress
among adult workers?
3. Was the pomegranate extract safe to use and economically feasible to the
respondents?

Hypothesis
These are statements drawn regarding the outcome of the study before the
conclusion is reached.
1. Pomegranate plant contains alkaloid, mannite, ellagic acis and gallic acid. It
also contains polyphenol that provide the antioxidant activity.
2. The antioxidant properties of the pomegranate extract can kill the free radicals
that cause stress in the body.
3. The pomegranate extract is safe and economically feasible.
Assumptions
The research study assumes that the respondents will cooperate with the
study, they will be honest in expressing their feedback about the research, and
they are willing to volunteer with no doubts about this study. The researchers are
assuming that their study will help those people especially those who are busy
working people to relieve their stress. And also, researchers assume that their
study will be 100% effective in their respondents.

Scope, Delimitations, and Limitations


This study will be focusing on Pomegranate (Punica granatum) to be made
an extract for relieving stress. It will only cover the properties of the Pomegranate
fruit as an efficient antioxidant which is a helpful way to cope up with stress
problems. The study will not consider any type of fruit which has the same effect
that will be needed in the research and will not further discuss more of the effects
of Pomegranate fruit that is not merely included in this study.
Significance of the Study
The study will benefit the health of the workers, relieving stress, boosting
their immune system and fighting off the free radicals caused by stress and
informing them on the capabilities of the pomegranate extract. The pomegranate
extract is high in antioxidants and because of this,
it will help improve the physical endurance, increase the energy, can prevent the
damaging of cells and can prevent cancer. The study could provide information
not only to the workers, but also to students and to the future researchers of
Centro Escolar University.
Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined according to the context in which they
will be used in the study for a clearer understanding of what they mean:
Antioxidant. It minimizes the damage of the cell from free radicals by
neutralizing them.

Drug. It is a medicine or other substance which has a physiological effect


when ingested or otherwise introduced into the body.
Extract. It is a juice or ingredient obtained from a mixture by pressure,
distillation, treatment with solvents.
Free Radicals. These are molecules with unpaired electrons and can
trigger disease.
Oxidative Stress. This is the disturbance in the balance between the
production of ROS, and leads to many pathological disease.
Pomegranate. This is an orange-sized fruit with a tough reddish outer
skin and sweet red gelatinous flesh containing many seeds.
Polyphenols. This is a type of antioxidant, instrumental in combating
oxidative stress.
Stress. This is the condition wherein the body is not able to function well
due to external factors such as environment and peers.

CHAPTER 2
Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter presents the review of related literature and related studies
about the antioxidant properties of pomegranate extracts in the relief of many
ailments.
In this chapter, the researchers included the different foreign and local
literatures that aid and inform the researchers and also the readers to further
understand its origin in a particular country, not only in the Philippines but also in
other countries. It also includes the different beliefs that this fruit was involved in.
This chapter also includes the different foreign and local study which relates it to
the research. It gives information based on the results on how the pomegranate
was used and studied in many ways.
Foreign Literature
According to a study led by Dr. Emad Al-Dujaili, 60 volunteers-different
employment background, he said that the juice can aid the busy workers to reduce
stress and maintain good health. The study found that the juice can lower stress
and reduction in blood pressure.
An article by Dr. Joseph Mercola (2014) "What are Pomegranates Good
For?" stated that Pomegranates contains three types of Antioxidant polyphenols,
such as tannis, anthocyanins, and ellagic acid. It provides your cell sufficient
protection against attack by reactive oxygen species. Dr. Mercola also mentioned
other benefits in drinking pomegranates extract, the antioxidants in it may reduce
arthritis symptoms, or inflammation in your joints. Pomegranates are also good
for the heart, improves blood flow and keeping the arteries from becoming thick.

They may even act as natural treatment for erectile dysfunction. She also
presented some simple steps on how people can create their own juice.
Pomegranates are full of nutrients, that protect body from oxidative stress,
reduce LDL cholesterol and blood pressure. The juice can reduces stress hormone;
cortisol, to a great extent. (mywellness.in/pomegranate-powerful-anti-oxidant/).
Cortisol has been associated to heart disease and drinking the pomegranate juice
has

shown

health

benefits.

(http://www.timeforwellness.org/blog-

view/pomegranate-lowers-stress-hormone-cortisol-294)
According to the book Cardiovascular Diseases: Nutritional and
Therapeutic Interventions by NilanjanaMaulik Ph.D. Pomegranate is a in vitro
antioxidant fruit, this has been attributed to ellagitannins, such as punicalgin that
are in this fruit. The antioxidant property and punicalagin content of Pomegranate
protects our body against CVDs (decrease in atherosclerosis risk factors such as
hypertension, platelet aggregation, oxidative stress, and blood lipid profile).
In another study by David Heber, Risa N. Schulman, Navindra P. Seeram
(2006) Pomegranate juice contains highest concentration of total polyphenols in
comparison to other fruit juices, Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants against
LDL oxidation. They are also capable protecting cell from free-radical-induced
oxidation. Pomegranate juice contains high polyphenolic flavonoids content.
Consumption of Pomegranate juice a glass per day for a year helped reduce the
oxidation of both LDL and HDL by up to 60%. The juice did not only inhibit LDL
oxidation but also was able to reduce macrophage oxidative stress

Pomegranates contain great amount of pinucalagin, responsible for half of


the antioxidant activity in the fruit. Drinking the juice can reduce oxidative stress,
the antioxidant capacity provides protection against heart disease, cancer, and
cognitive

impairment.

(http://m.theepochtimes.com/n3/1028791-powerful-

disease-protection-from-pomegranate/)
According to Mark S. Meskin, Wayne R. Bidlack, R. and Keith Randolph
(2008), they stated that pomegranates polyphenols, can protect LDL against cell
mediated oxidation at least two pathways: direct interaction with polyphenols and
or indirect effect through polyphenol accumulation. It can reduce accumulation of
cholesterol.
Dr. Ferreira of University of Maryland Medical Center said pomegranates
grew in the garden of Eden, and the fruit has been used as a folk medicine for
thousands of years. More recently, it has been promoted as a "superfood" that can
relieve symptoms of many diseases. In laboratory tests, pomegranate shows
antiviral, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties. But there is not yet strong
evidence that it works in humans to treat or prevent any condition. In addition,
there is some concern that pomegranate juice might interact with medications -much like grapefruit juice does -- making some less effective. Pomegranate fruit
extract is a rich source of polyphenols, chemicals in plants that provide their
flavor and color. Polyphenols are also antioxidants, meaning they help protect
cells from damage and may lower inflammation in the body. Pomegranate fruit is
also high in vitamin C. One pomegranate provides about 40% of the daily
requirement of this vitamin. The bark, fruit, root, and rind of the pomegranate tree

are used as medicine in Asia and the Middle East, but in the West the fruit and its
juice are usually the parts being studied. The juice and rind have antioxidant
properties, while the juice, rind, and oil from seeds contain isoflavones similar to
the

ones

in

soy.

(http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/herb/pomegranate#ixzz3LPP5os2v
University of Maryland Medical Center)
Because it is high in antioxidants and other nutrients, some people think
that drinking pomegranate juice regularly may help prevent cancer. There is no
specific evidence of that, however. In test tubes, pomegranate extracts made from
juice, rind, and oil slow down the reproduction of cancer cells and may hasten
their death. Some extracts also help reduce blood supply to tumors, starving them
and making them smaller. Most studies have focused on breast and prostate
cancer cells. In one other study, pomegranate juice extract given to mice slowed
down the growth of lung tumors. However, most of these studies have been in test
tubes

or

in

animals,

not

humans.

(http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/herb/pomegranate#ixzz3LPP5os2v
University of Maryland Medical Center )
In one human study, men who had surgery or radiation for prostate cancer
lengthened the amount of time it took for their PSA levels to double by drinking 8
oz. of pomegranate juice each day. Men whose PSA levels double in a short
period of time are more at risk for death from prostate cancer. Those who drank
pomegranate juice increased the time it took for their PSA levels to double from
about 15 months to 54 months, a significant increase. If you are being treated for

any cancer, be sure to ask your oncologist before you take pomegranate or any
herb or supplement. Some may interact with cancer medications, making the
medications less effective. Pomegranates high antioxidant content has also made
researchers wonder if it could treat heart disease. So far, the scientific studies have
been small and mostly done either in test tubes or animals. Pomegranate juice
seems to protect LDL (bad) cholesterol from damage. Some scientists think that
damage to LDL cholesterol causes plaque to build up in arteries, so stopping the
damage might help keep arteries clear. One study of mice with atherosclerosis
found that pomegranate juice slowed the growth of plaque formation. And a few
small studies in people found that pomegranate juice improved blood flow and
kept arteries from becoming thick and stiff. However, more and better studies are
needed to see exactly what benefit pomegranate juice might offer. There is some
preliminary evidence that drinking pomegranate juice every day may help lower
systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading) but not
diastolic blood pressure. (Source: Pomegranate | University of Maryland Medical
Center http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/herb/pomegranate#ixzz3LPP5os2v
University of Maryland Medical Center )
According to F. Benzer et. al (2011), antioxidants scavenge and suppress
formation of ROS, when there is insufficient amount of antioxidant, oxidative
stress may produce DNA damage. Antioxidant property of Pomegranates is due to
its high polyphenolics content. Their study concluded that Pomegranate possess a
potent free radical scavenging, antioxidant. The extract is capable of protecting
against oxidative damage to lipids.

A team of scientists at UCLA A number of different beverage products


claim to

have antioxidant potency due to their perceived high content of

polyphenols. Basic and applied research indicates that pomegranate juice (PJ),
produced from the Wonderful variety of Punica granatum fruits, has strong
antioxidant activity and related health benefits Although consumers are familiar
with the concept of free radicals and antioxidants, they are often misled by claims
of superior antioxidant activity of different beverages, which are usually based
only on testing of a limited spectrum of antioxidant activities. There is no
available direct comparison of Pomegranate juice's antioxidant activity to those of
other widely available polyphenol-rich beverage products using a comprehensive
variety of antioxidant tests. (http://nutritionaloncology.org/pomegranate.html)
Local Literature
In the article written by Daryl Lou A. Battad, she stated that With all of
the qualities and valued health benefits of the granada fruit, this commodity surely
deserves priority attention. In the Philippines, which has rich, vast soil and natural
resources and the weather conditions fit for growing pomegranates, it can be a
good move to start its commercial planting. (http://www.bar.gov.ph/digesthome/digest-archives/368-2012-4th-quarter/4936-oct-dec2012-appreciatinggranada-a-bombastic-fruit)
Pomegranates (Punica granatum), also referred to as granada or Chinese
apple, are believed to have originated in and around Persia (known today as Iran).
Their English name is derived from the French word pomme for apple, and

grenate for many seeds, hence the many seeded apple. There are several
varieties from blush pink to deep red, from tart to super sweet.
(http://hubpages.com/hub/The-Fascinating-Pomegranate-Its-History-andHealth-Benefits)
According to Asian legend, the pomegranate was the 'tree of life' in the
Garden of Eden, and from this belief it became the symbol of hope and eternal life
in early Christian arts. The many seeds of Pomegranate are supposed to be a
symbol of fertility. (http://www.stuartxchange.com/Granada.html)
The pomegranate fruit has a history that is rich and fascinating. The fruit
dates back to ancient times and originated in the Middle East. It was first
cultivated in Persia. Today pomegranates are cultivated throughout the Middle
East, Mediterranean and South East Asia. (http://hubpages.com/hub/TheFascinating-Pomegranate-Its-History-and-Health-Benefits)
The pomegranate fruit is round with what appears to be a crown at the top.
Its skin is thick and deep red in color. It is categorized as a berry and the edible
seeds can be eaten raw or made into juice. The seeds can range from ruby red to
reddish purple and are both sweet and tart in taste. In the northern hemisphere,
pomegranates

are

in

season

from

September

through

February.

(http://hubpages.com/hub/The-Fascinating-Pomegranate-Its-History-and-Health-

Benefits)
The fruit was always held in high regard and represented fertility, life,
good health and resurrection to the ancient Middle Eastern people. Pomegranates

also have a negative connotation. A pomegranate has often symbolized death. This
is because the juice of the pomegranate looks similar to blood. Cut a pomegranate
in half and you will see the fruit "bleed". (http://hubpages.com/hub/TheFascinating-Pomegranate-Its-History-and-Health-Benefits)
Nevertheless, there is so much hype about pomegranates and the health
benefits from adding this exotic fruit to your diet. Pomegranates contain an
unusually high level of flavanoids, which is a powerful antioxidant that protects
against

many

cancers

including

breast

and

prostate

cancer.

(http://hubpages.com/hub/The-Fascinating-Pomegranate-Its-History-and-HealthBenefits)
Pomegranates are high in Vitamins A, C, E, B and K. It is also rich in
minerals, such as potassium, zinc and calcium. (http://hubpages.com/hub/TheFascinating-Pomegranate-Its-History-and-Health-Benefits)
Pomegranates keep the heart healthy, lowering LDL levels (the bad
cholesterol) and blood pressure, hence, reducing the risk of heart attack and
stroke. The calcium in pomegrantes will keep your bones and joints strong, thus
preventing osteoporosis, arthritis and osteoarthritis. This miracle fruit strengthens
the immune system and keeps your body healthy. Studies have shown that eating
pomegranates

regularly

can

even

prevent

Alzheimers

Disease.

(http://hubpages.com/hub/The-Fascinating-Pomegranate-Its-History-and-HealthBenefits)

The pomegranate fruit can actually slow down the aging process, help you
slim

down

and

keep

your

skin

look

young

and

vibrant.

(http://hubpages.com/hub/The-Fascinating-Pomegranate-Its-History-and-HealthBenefits)
The fruit can be eaten out of hand by deeply scoring several times
vertically and then breaking it apart. The decision is up to the consumer, whether
to suck the pulp from the seeds and then spit them out, or eat the seeds along with
the pulp. Pomegranate fruits are most often consumed as juice. The juice can be
used in a variety of ways: as a fresh juice, to make jellies, sorbets or cold or hot
sauces as well as to flavor cakes, baked apples, etc. (http://www.bar.gov.ph/digesthome/digest-archives/368-2012-4th-quarter/4936-oct-dec2012-appreciatinggranada-a-bombastic-fruit)
Pomegranates have many culinary uses in the Middle East and Asia.
Before the tomato arrived to the Middle East, grenadine was widely used in many
Persian foods; it can still be found in traditional recipes. The juice is used also in
traditional Caucasian, and Indian cooking. Grenadine is a concentrated
pomegranate syrup used to flavor drinks. The juice can also be made into a wine.
Pomegranate seeds are sometimes used as a spice. (http://www.bar.gov.ph/digesthome/digest-archives/368-2012-4th-quarter/4936-oct-dec2012-appreciatinggranada-a-bombastic-fruit)
The pomegranate fruit is equal to the apple in having a long storage life
and can be kept for a period of 7 months at cool temperature without shrinking or

spoiling. One of the best varieties is 'Wonderful', which, if picked and aged at
room temperature for a month or two, will develop the rich, sweet taste
characteristic of better-quality fruit varieties. (http://www.bar.gov.ph/digesthome/digest-archives/368-2012-4th-quarter/4936-oct-dec2012-appreciatinggranada-a-bombastic-fruit)
Now hyped as the new superfruit, pomegranates are rich in the nutrients
and antioxidants that carry potentials benefiting the overall health by targeting the
cellular and molecular structures of the body. Recent studies show that
pomegranates may be effective in fighting cancer proliferation. Pomegranatetreated tumor cells are said to increase cell adhesion and decrease cell migration.
This simply means that the disease is prevented from spreading to different parts
of the body, reducing the risk of cancer. (http://www.bar.gov.ph/digesthome/digest-archives/368-2012-4th-quarter/4936-oct-dec2012-appreciatinggranada-a-bombastic-fruit)
The tiny beads of fruit, full of precious oil and juice, are brilliant as drops
of blood or rubies. These "drops of blood" from the pomegranate when consumed
will help to build healthy red blood cells, according to the ancients who wrote the
"Law of Similars". (http://hubpages.com/hub/The-Fascinating-Pomegranate-ItsHistory-and-Health-Benefits)
Pomegranates have been consumed by man since before recorded history.
There is a saying in Hindi - "Ek anaar sau bemaar" - meaning one pomegranate
can serve one hundred sick people. From antient times, the fruit was valued for its

medicinal properties. According to Ayurveda obese persons should consume the


pomegranate fruit as it will improve metabolism and assist in the weight
loosening.

(http://hubpages.com/hub/The-Fascinating-Pomegranate-Its-History-

and-Health-Benefits)
Pomegranate juice has been scientifically shown to help the body, as it is
rich in antioxidants, the molecules that protect the body from heart disease,
premature aging, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. It is a good antioxidant, greatly
improves blood quality, enriches blood (red blood cells count), contains lots of
iron, and increases hemoglobin. Pomegranate juice is excellently assimilated,
excites appetite, regulates stomach activity; it has diuretic, antiphlogistic,
antiseptic effects, and has a substance called a sterol that blocks the absorption of
cholesterol.

(http://www.bar.gov.ph/digest-home/digest-archives/368-2012-4th-

quarter/4936-oct-dec2012-appreciating-granada-a-bombastic-fruit)
Amongst its many uses, pomegranate juice is good for heart patients and
improves blood circulation. Because of its rich content of flavonoids and
antioxidant, which halt the processes of arterial aging, the pomegranate seed oil is
recommended in cases of reduced arterial blood flow. It is very beneficial in heart
attack prevention and cardiac health in general. Because pomegranates are rich in
potassium, they are appropriate for those suffering from hypertension. They help
avoid

excessive

numbers

of

both

systolic

and

diastolic

pressure.

(http://www.bar.gov.ph/digest-home/digest-archives/368-2012-4th-quarter/4936oct-dec2012-appreciating-granada-a-bombastic-fruit)

Pomegranates are of value in cases of gout, excess uric acid, and acid
causing obesity because of its alkalizing effect. Pomegranates are loaded with
Omega 5 CLA oils which have been found to neutralize acids associated with
arteriosclerosis,

breast

cancer,

prostate

cancer

and

especially

obesity.

(http://hubpages.com/hub/The-Fascinating-Pomegranate-Its-History-and-HealthBenefits)
The juice can also be used as an antiseptic when applied to cuts. Because
of their tannin content, extracts of the bark, leaves, immature fruit and fruit rind
have been given as astringents to halt diarrhea and dysentery and hemorrhages.
(http://hubpages.com/hub/The-Fascinating-Pomegranate-Its-History-and-HealthBenefits)
In 2008, the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry ranked
pomegranate juice as the healthiest of all fruit juices. It is claimed to have higher
antioxidant potency than red wine, grape, cranberry, and apple juices.
(http://www.bar.gov.ph/digest-home/digest-archives/368-2012-4th-quarter/4936oct-dec2012-appreciating-granada-a-bombastic-fruit)
Here in the Philippines, although pomegranates are not given much
priority, some medical doctors are already prescribing pomegranate juice as food
supplement to their patients, particularly as an aid in lowering cholesterol levels
and other cardiac risk factors, and maintaining a healthy prostate in males.
(http://www.bar.gov.ph/digest-home/digest-archives/368-2012-4th-quarter/4936oct-dec2012-appreciating-granada-a-bombastic-fruit)

In promoting "Pinoy Fruits", the Department of Agriculture (DA) is


raising awareness and interest of the public in the consumption of fruits especially
the indigenous kind available in our native land. There are still hundreds of
thousands of underutilized fruits that do not only serve as food for wildlife, but
also stands to be beneficial to man with their food and medicinal potentials,
associated

commercial

opportunities,

and

other

benefits.

(http://www.bar.gov.ph/digest-home/digest-archives/368-2012-4th-quarter/4936oct-dec2012-appreciating-granada-a-bombastic-fruit)
While there are research efforts for the local fruit industry in general, there
is a felt lack of support for the cultivation, management, harvesting and
postharvest handling of underutilized fruit crops. Comprehensive studies on their
marketability are needed to spur interest in these crops. Likewise, the nutritional
status has to be established and recognized by concerned public and private health
entities. And, finally, there must be existing policies and legal frameworks in
place regulating the use of the underutilized fruits-in this case, granada our fruit of
interest.

(http://www.bar.gov.ph/digest-home/digest-archives/368-2012-4th-

quarter/4936-oct-dec2012-appreciating-granada-a-bombastic-fruit)
Foreign Studies
Several studies stated the antioxidant properties of pomegranate. The two
of them are, First, it was said that pomegranate has 3 times the antioxidant
capacity of either wine or green tea. And the second study suggested that among
of the food materials chosen, pomegranate peel gave the maximum antioxidant
activity due to the presence of its high polyphenolic content. At a concentration of

60 ppm, pomegranate peel powder reduced lipid peroxidation by 65% in an in


vitro assay. (http://nutritionaloncology.org/pomegranate.html)
According to Natural News, Pomegranate juice has the highest antioxidant
content, activity and protective benefits of eight different beverages tested, this
study was conducted by researchers from Center for Human Nutrition at the
University of California-Los Angeles' David Geffen School of Medicine, and
published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. This happened when
the researchers conducted a total of seven tests on 100 percent pomegranate juice,
red wine, orange juice, blueberry juice, Concord grape juice, acai berry juice,
white tea and green tea. Four of these tests evaluated the antioxidant strength of
the

beverages.

(http://www.naturalnews.com/024623_juice_antioxidant_pomegranate.html)
Pomegranate has this Amazing extract which improves the heart health,
reduces blood pressure, treats inflammation, reduces risk of cancers and tackles
sexual dysfunction. This extract from pomegranates promises to be a major multipurpose in all-natural pharmaceutical medicine which is being hailed by medical
experts as the biggest discovery in natural medicine since the discovery of Aspirin
in Willow trees in 1829. (http://www.pomegreat.com/press-area/article/newpomegranate-extract-could-be-the-biggest-breakthrough-in-natural-pharma)
The extract was tested in a 1.2 million research programme in UK, which
unlocks for the first time the beneficial properties of the skin and the pith of the
fruit, which have been too bitter for human consumption. Thats why scientists
estimated that more than 75% of the beneficial properties of the pomegranate is

already recognized by many experts and it was said, that one of the most
medicinal fruits in the world, are locked up in the skin and pith.
The new extract contains concentrated punicalagins, a beneficial phytonutrient
that is virtually unique to pomegranates. Punicalagins are found in the inedible
husk, rind and the inner yellow membranes surrounding the juice arils of the fruit.
Some punicalagins are found in the juice, but concentrations are low and
processing

methods

frequently

remove

the

benefits.

(http://www.pomegreat.com/press-area/article/new-pomegranate-extract-couldbe-the-biggest-breakthrough-in-natural-pharma)
Pomegranates are also the source of polyphenols and other antioxidants.
The dietary supplementation with nutrients rich in antioxidants is associated with
inhibition of atherogenic modifications to LDL, macrophage foam cell formation,
and atherosclerosis. (Michael Aviram, Leslie Dornfeld, et. al).
When they say polyphenols, these are a naturally occurring family of plant
chemicals that are known to function as antioxidants in the body. They are also
believed to help reduce the risks of cancer and cardiovascular disease and the
effects of aging. In addition to polyphenol content, the researchers also tested how
well the various beverages performed at scavenging free radicals and preventing
oxidation (decay) of LDL ("good") cholesterol. Once again, the pomegranate juice
outperformed all competitors, with an antioxidant potency composite index 20
percent

higher

than

any

other

beverage

tested.

(http://www.naturalnews.com/024623_juice_antioxidant_pomegranate.html)

Pomegranate juice can be a relief of stress for some workers. It was


proven in UK, they said that pomegranate juice was recently found to reduce
stress levels in busy executives, and is to be made available in offices throughout
the UK via vending machines. Research recently found out that drinking
pomegranate juice causes a measurable drop in stress hormone levels. According
to the study of 60 volunteers by Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, daily
consumption of 500ml of pomegreat Pure, caused a significant reduction in the
level of the stress hormone cortisol in saliva. It also led to a significant reduction
in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in all volunteers. Research Scientist,
Dr Emad Al-Dujaili who led the study said: On the basis of these

there is a

justified argument for busy workers to drink pomegranate juice to help alleviate
chronic stress and maintain good health. There is a growing body of evidence that
pomegranate juice delivers wide-ranging health benefits that merit further
research. It is very rare indeed for an all-natural juice to offer the range of health
benefits

that

we

are

seeing

in

pomegranate

juice.

(http://www.pomegreat.com/press-area/article/workers-feel-less-stressed-thanksto-pomegranate-juice)
According to Dr. Kristal "Considering the expected epidemic of Chronic
Kidney Disease in the next decade, further clinical trials using pomegranate juice
aimed at reducing the high cardiovascular morbidity of Chronic Kidney Disease
patients and their deterioration to end-stage renal disease should be conducted"
Studies in recent years have claimed multiple use of pomegranate
including good source of antioxidants and lowers both cholesterol and blood

pressure. In both laboratory and clinical studies in America, pomegranate shows


great promise in averting the numerous pathologic changes associated in
cardiovascular disease. Scientists believes through several mechanism to fight
cardiovascular disease by reducing oxidative stress, supporting the synthesis and
activity of nitric oxide and inhibiting the oxidation of potentially harmful LDL
(low-density

lipoprotein).

Pomegranate

offers

abundant

benefits

for

cardiovascular system by preventing damage to arterial walls, promoting healthy


blood pressure levels, improving blood flow to the heart and preventing or
reversing atherosclerosis. Pomegranate may benefit people with diabetes and
those at risk for the disease. It also helps lower after-meal blood sugar levels and
protects the cardiovascular system. Pomegranate also shows in killing prostate
cancer whether the cells are hormone-sensitive or not. Pomegranate may also
fight the degeneration of joint tissue that leads to painful osteoarthritis and protect
the brain against oxidative stress-induced changes that can lead to Alzheimers.
(http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/11/101119083126.htmhttp://www.sci
encedaily.com/releases/2010/11/101119083126.htm)
A study from the California-based medicine research institute examine the
effects of pomegranate in human with established coronary heart disease, Fortyfive patients with coronary heart disease and cardiac ischemia were assigned to
drink 8 ounce of pomegranate. After a three month-study the scientist were
measured that the participants blood flow to the heart both at rest and during
stress. At the end of the three months, it showed a significant improvement in
stress-related ischemia, indicating more optimal blood flow to the heart muscle. It

appears that daily consumpotion of pomegranate juice alone improved stressinduces ischemia in those patients.
The Israeli researchers proceeded to examine the effects of pomegranate
juice on the blood and the macrophages of human diabetics. The subjects received
50 milliliter of pomegranate juices daily. After three months, their blood and
macrophages status waf compared to controls. Pomegranate helped reduces
cellular oxygen radicals by 71% while increasing cellular antioxidants by 141%
Iranian researchers also evaluated the effect of pomegranate juice in the
mix of blood fats and cholesterol in diabetic patient. Twenty-two diabetics with
elevated blood lipids consumed 40 grams per day of cencentrated pomegranate
juices for eight weeks. Total cholesterol and LDL level decreased substantiallt,
demonstrating that pomegranate juices rmarkedly reduces cardiac risk factors in
diabetic patients. (http://www.lef.org/magazine/2007/5/report_pomegranate/Page01)

Local Studies
According to Soledad; Martnez, et. al. In their study, The
potent in vitro antioxidant ellagitannins from pomegranate juice
are metabolised into bioavailable but poor antioxidant hydroxy,
the antiatherogenic activity of pomegranate juice has been
attributed to its antioxidant polyphenols. The most potent in vitro

antioxidant polyphenol from


punicalagin.

However,

the

this

juice

is

bioavailability

the ellagitannin
of

ellagitannins,

including punicalagin, has not been previously described in


humans. Aim of the study. The present work aims to evaluate, in
healthy

humans,

the

bioavailability

and

metabolism

of

pomegranate juice ellagitannins, to assess their effect on several


blood parameters (including cardiovascular risk disease markers)
and to compare the antioxidant activity of punicalagin with that
of the in vivo generated metabolites.
Viva Sarah Press also stated that pomegranates also keep the persons
body young. Because of the antioxidant property of pomegranate fruit it helps to
remove the toxics in the body thats why it is youthful in appearance.
Different studies and literature are very important as references in a
particular research. These helps to further understand the principles of the study.
It is beneficial to the researcher and to the student to help them a lot in different
ways. It helps to discover new things that werent known before.
First, the origin, unknown to the researchers that the study has a religious
background like the thought that it was included in bible which says that
pomegranate was believed as the symbol of hope and eternal life in early
Christian arts.
Second, the researchers were informed that the pomegranate was not only
an anti-oxidant for stress but it can also be use for the treatment of different

diseases like cancer, cardiac disease and also in diabetes. It was already proven by
the different researchers and scientists around the world.
Lastly, pomegranate can be found here in the Philippines which the
researchers thought that it can only be found in other countries. In the article
written by Daryl Lou A. Battad, she stated that With all of the qualities and
valued health benefits of the granada fruit, this commodity surely deserves
priority attention. In the Philippines, which has rich, vast soil and natural
resources and the weather conditions fit for growing pomegranates, it can be a
good move to start its commercial planting. In the Philippines, the pomegranate
is commonly known as granada which is mostly found in the Divisoria market
in Manila.

CHAPTER 3
Method and Procedures

This chapter explains the methodology used or how the research was
conducted its subsequent sections are the methods of research, subjects of the
study, sampling technique, research and validation of instruments, procedure of
data gathering and statistical treatment.
It will provide information about the research method used in the study. It
includes the methods of research used to gather data and information to aid the
researchers in conducting the study. In the study, the researchers use the descriptive and
experimental method. The subject/respondents of the study are randomly selected
employees of Centro Escolar University Manila.
The research instruments are by the use of tests to gather information. It also
describes the procedures done by the researchers in obtaining the results and how it is
constructed.
After collecting the data, the researchers used a statistical treatment to organize
the data, and to interpret the data verbally and in digits with the aid of graphs, or charts.

Methods of Research
The descriptive and experimental methods of research will be used in the
study. Descriptive because this method seeks to find what is. It is used to
produce information about prevailing situations, or what is or has been happening
or the nature of things ((Cruz, C.U (2001), Principle Methods of Research: A
Simplified Approach p. 51)). The main objective of this type of research is to
explain the data and the results of the topic. Experimental because it is an
investigation, which uses manipulation and controlled testing to understand causal
processes ((Opina, Arlene S. et. al (2014), Business and Research Writing Manual

with Introduction to Technical Writing p.23)). The two sets of subjects


(experimental and control) will be compared in terms of the perceptions and of
the effects of the product. The quantitative and qualitative method shall be
observed as the researches gather data and draw out conclusions from the
experimental results.
Prospect Subjects of the Study
In this experimental study, 15 adult workers from Centro Escolar
University in Manila Campus were selected to participate in the process. Seven of
them will be our experimental group, while the other eight will serve as our
control group.
Selected workers who receive the product and the questionnaire will be
the experimental group of the study.

While the latter who receive the

questionnaires only will be the control group of the study.


The subject and the respondents of this study were the non-teaching
employees of Centro Escolar University, Manila. It is assumed that the office
workers are more stressed than other non-teaching employees. Since the age gap
of each employees in CEU Manila were almost different, it is decided to divide it
into two groups which will serves as the bases to determine the experimental
group and the control group.
Workers aged 21 to 29 will be the control group of the study and workers
aged 30 and above will be the experimental group. Each of them will receive a
questionnaire. But for the experimental group workers, they will receive both the

product and the questionnaire. This is to examine if the product will be effective
and to prove that the research about pomegranates were true. The control group
will be the bases if there are changes in the experimental group and it will also be
a guide to know if the result is either positive or negative.
Sampling Technique
Simple Random Sampling was used in this research since all of the adult
workers in CEU Manila have an equal chance of being included in the samples.
Simple Random Sampling is randomly selecting a sample from a larger
population, giving all the individuals in the sample an equal chance to be chosen.
In this technique, individuals with the ages of 21-29 and 30-60 are chosen at
random and not more than once to prevent a bias that would negatively affect
the validity of the result of the experiment.
Using the lottery method, a complete list of the CEU adult workers in a
selected department is acquired. The names of all employees are written on paper
cards and placed in a container. Then the researchers draw 15 names from the
container. The chosen names will be the sample of population; the selected sample
will be the subjects included in our study.
Research Instruments
The following instruments will be used in the conduct of the research:
1. References. These are references from books and the internet that
provides ideas and information related to the study.

2. Reading of Documents. These are public documents such as


newspapers and magazines featuring topics or ideas related and in
significant to the study.
Procedure of Data Gathering
The researchers were tasked to think of a certain topic that is new and
rarely studied about. Past research projects helped a lot in giving ideas on what to
focus on the topic. The antioxidant properties of pomegranate extracts were
chosen to know how it affects the health of adult workers. The university library
was the source of books and magazines. Magazines, books, and the internet were
used for related studies and literature. The researchers also discussed the
significance of the study especially to the workers that are dealing with stress. The
scope and delimitation, and technical words, specifically the meaning of terms
were used in the study.
The population of the study was stated who in the respondents or
subject of the study. A tool which enabled us to gather the data needed for the
study was stated in the research instruments. Data provide the basis for the
observations and there must be instruments which the researcher must employ.
The survey questionnaires, which were based from the statement of the problem,
letter of approval from proper authorities for conducting this research problem
and the tools were processed for validation and drafting. The results of the survey
questionnaire were presented in tabulated forms in order that may be subjected to
statistical computations and analysis. The choice of the statistical tools used in

this study depends on the nature of data and was stated in statistical tools in
research.

CHAPTER 4
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

This chapter includes the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data


that have been gathered from the available resource materials. This chapter also
contains the presentation of data in tabular and graphical form including their
corresponding interpretation.
I.

T
Table 1
Age of the

Age of the Respondent

%
Workers in

20-30

Centro
University

Escolar
31-40

32

49.23

41-50

25

38.46

51-60

12.31

Total

65

100

Table 1 Shows that the majority of the workers age with a Frequency and
percentage of (F=32, %= 32%) is ages 31-40.

Table 2

Respondents According to Gender


Gender
Female
Male
Total

F
30
35
65

%
46.15
53.85
100

Table 2 shows that the majority of the respondents were male with a frequency of
35 or 35 while the 30 or 35% of the respondents were female.
Table 3
Antioxidant Properties in the Subjects
Subject
Mouse peritoneal macrophages
Cellular lipid peroxide
Glutathione levels
Total

Percentage
15
32
53
100

Table 3 shows that the majority of the subject that has the greatest antioxidant
property is Glutathione levels with a percentage of 53%.
Table 4
Nutrition value of Pomegranate (per 100mg edible portion)
Compositions
Water

Units
gm

Quantity
80-82.3

Energy

kcal

63-78

Protein

gm

0.5-0.95

Fat

gm

0.3-0.9

Carbohydrate

gm

16.4

Fiber

gm

0.2-0.6

Ash

gm

0.5

II.

Phosphorus

mg

8.0

Iron

mg

0.3

Potassium

mg

259

Calcium

mg

3.0

Sodium

mg

3.0

Manganese

mg

3.0

Zinc

mg

0.12

Magnesium

mg

0.15

Copper

mg

0.07

Selenium

mg

0.6

Panthothenic Acid

mg

0.596

Vitamin B1

mg

0.03

Vitamin B2

mg

0.03

Vitamin B3

mg

0.03

Vitamin C

mg

4-6

Graphical Presentation
Graph 1
Age of the workers in Centro Escolar University

total
51-60
F

41-50

31-40
20-30
0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Graph 2

Total

Male

Female

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90 100

Responden
ts According To Gender
Graph 3
Antioxidant Properties in the Subjects

Percentage
Total
Glutathione levels

Percentage

Cellular lipid peroxide


Mouse peritoneal macrophages
0%

50%

100%

Graph 4
Nutrition value of Pomegranate (per 100mg edible portion)

Quantity

50

100

150

200

250

Quantity 80-82.3 63-78 0.5-0.95 0.3-0.9 16.4 0.2-0.6

300

CHAPTER 5
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
This study seeks to explore some phenomenon why pomegranate extract is
efficient as a relief of stress among workers. The purpose of this study is to know
how important the extraction of pomegranate to our respondents. How the extract
is useful to the body aside from relieving of stress. In this chapter we will know
the different conclusions, summary and recommendations for this study to our
respondents.
Summary of Findings
Based on the results of findings, the following are enumerated:
1. Workers of Centro Escolar University
There were 65 respondents with most of them belonged to the 31-40 age
bracket with 49.23%. Meanwhile majority of the respondents were male with a
percentage of 35%, while the 30% of the respondents were female.
2.

Antioxidant Properties of the Subject


The study in rats and mice confirms the antioxidant by product of the juice

such as; mouse peritoneal macrophages, cellular lipid peroxide, glutathione levels.
Majority of the subject has the antioxidant property of glutathione levels with a
percentage of 53%.
3.

Nutritional Value of Pomegranate

This food is very low in Saturated Fat, Cholesterol and Sodium. It is also a
good source of Dietary Fiber and Folate, and a very good source of Vitamin C and
Vitamin K.
4. Antioxidant properties
In currents studies it shows that pomegranate shows the most
therapeutically beneficial antioxidants such as; ellagic acid (including
punnicalagin), gallic acid, brevifolin, corilagin. Some manufactured pomegranate
juice are made to contain 40% more of ellagic acid, due to its anticarcinogenic
and antioxidant properties.
5.

Feasibilty and effectiveness in humans

In both laboratory and clinical studies, pomegranate shows great promise in


averting the numerous pathological changes. Scientists believe pomegranate
works through several mechanisms to fight certain diseases by: reducing oxidative
stress, supporting the synthesis and activity of nitric oxide, inhibiting the
oxidation of potentially harmful LDL (low-density lipoprotein).
Conclusions
Based on the foregoing, the following conclusions were drawn:
1. The pomegrante main antioxidants compounds ; anthocyanins, ellaginic acid,
gallic acid, brevifolin, corilagin. Ellagic as the main component responsible for
the effects.

2. Pomegranate is rich source of compounds such as; polyphenols, tannins,


anthocyanins, including vitamin C, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10, and lipoic acid.
3. The antioxidants in pomegranate, and particularly ellagitanin compounds like
punicalagins and punicalins, which accounts for about half of the fruits
antioxidant ability are behind the proposed health benefits.
4. Daily consumption can cause a significant reduction in the level of stress
hormone cortisol in saliva and a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic
blood pressure in all volunteers.
5. Pomegranate extract comes in s really affordable price provides an added
benefit.
Recommendations

Based on the result of the study, the researchers would like to recommend
the following:
1. To conduct instrumental analysis to have more accurate list of the components
present in the pomegranate extract that exhibited the antioxidant property.
2. To design and formulate an appropriate dosage form.
3. To use pomegranate juice as an alternative food supplement.
4. To encourage adult workers to use pomegranate as a daily supplement.
5. The food establishment should produce more pomegranate juice in the
Philippine market.