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Zaman University

Department of Civil Engineering


No. 8, St. 315, 12151 Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Chapter 6

Energy Flows and Balances

Dr. BUNRITH SENG

Department of Civil Engineering, Zaman University

Mobile : +81 (0) 80 3259 9952

No. 8, St. 315, 12151 Phnom Penh, Cambodia

E-mail: seng.bunrith@gmail.com; bseng@itc.edu.kh

Unit of Measure
Unit of Energy

Joule (J)
Calorie (Cal)
Kilowatt-hour (kWh)

Energy Balances and Conversion


Energy Balance Equation
Rate of

Rate of

energy
energy

ACCUMULATED
IN

Rate of
energy

OUT

Rate of Rate of

energy energy

PRODUCED CONSUMED

At Steady State
Rate of energy
Rate of energy

IN
OUT

Energy Balances and Conversion (Cont.)


Energy out has two terms; energy wasted in
the conversion and useful energy.
Rate of
energy

IN

Rate of
Rate of

useful energy wasted energy

OUT
OUT

Efficiency
Efficiency (%)

Useful energy OUT


100
Energy IN

Energy Balances and Conversion (Cont.)


Example: A coal-fired power plant uses 1000 Mg of coal per day. The
energy value of the coal is 28,000 kJ/kg. The plant produces 2.8106
kWh of electricity each day. What is the efficiency of the power plant?

Solution:
Energy IN = (28,000 kJ/kg) (1000Mg/d) (1000 kg/Mg)
= 28109 kJ/d

A CMF reactor would require


44% more volume than a PFR

Useful energy output = (2.8106 kWh/d)(3.6106 J/kWh)(10-3 kJ/J)


= 10.1109 kJ/d

10.1109 kJ/d
Efficiency (%)
100 36%
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28 10 kJ/d
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Energy Balances and Conversion (Cont.)


Bomb Calorimeter

Results of a bomb calorimeter test

Simplified drawing of a bomb calorimeter

Note: 1 cal is defined as the amount of energy necessary to raise


the temperature of 1g of water 1oC.

Energy Balances and Conversion (Cont.)


Bomb Calorimeter at ITC

Energy Balances and Conversion (Cont.)


Example: A calorimeter holds 4L of water. Ignition of a 10g sample of

a waste-derived fuel of unknown energy value yields a temperature rise


of 12.5oC. What is the energy value of this fuel? Ignore the mass of the
bomb.

Solution:

Energy IN Energy OUT


Energy OUT SH O m T
Energy OUT 4.184 J/g.K .V T
Energy OUT 4.184 J/g.K 1 g/mL (4L)(103 mL/L)(12.5 o C)
Energy IN Energy OUT 209 103 J
2

Energy value of the fuel 290 103 J/10 g 20,900 J/g

Energy Balances and Conversion (Cont.)


Heat Energy
Heat
Mass of Absolute Temperature

Energy
material

of the material

Heat Energy Balance


Heat
Heat
Heat

Heat Heat

energy energy energy energy

energy

ACCUMULATED
IN OUT PRODUCED CONSUMED

At Steady state
Heat Heat
0 energy energy 0 0 Or
IN OUT

0 T1Q1 T2Q2 in T3Q3 out 0 0


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Energy Balances and Conversion (Cont.)


Example: A coal-fired power plant discharges 3 m3/s of cooling

water at 80 oC into a river that has a flow of 15 m3/s and a


temperature of 20 oC. What will be the temperature in the river
immediately below the discharge?

Solution:
0 T1Q1 T2Q2 in T3Q3 out 0 0

T3

T1Q1 T2Q2
Q3

80 273K 3 m / s 20 273K 15 m / s

303 K
3

T3

3 15 m3 / s

The temperature of the river water will be 30o C


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Energy Sources
Renewable Energy
Hydropower from rivers
Hydropower from tidal estuaries
Solar power
Refuse and other waste materials
Wind
Wood and other biomass, such as sugarcane and rice hulls

Nonrenewable Energy
Nuclear power
Coal, peat, and similar materials
Natural gas
Oil
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Energy Sources (Cont.)


Energy Flow in the United States

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Energy Equivalence
There are two important distinct energy equivalences:
Arithmetic energy equivalence
Conversion energy equivalence

Example: What are the arithmetic and conversion energy equivalents


between gasoline (20,000 kJ/kg) and refuse-derived fuel (5,000
kJ/kg)?

Solution:
Arithmetic energy equivalenc e

20,000 kJ/kg gasoline


5,000 kJ/kg refuse

4 kg refuse/1 kg gasoline
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Energy Equivalence (Cont.)


Solution:
But the processing of refuse to make the fuel also requires energy.
This can be estimated at perhaps 50% of the refuse-derived fuel
energy, so the actual net energy in the refuse is 2,500 kJ/kg.
Therefore,

20,000 kJ/kg gasoline


Conversion energy equivalenc e
2,500 kJ/kg refuse
8 kg refuse/1 kg gasoline

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Electric Power Production


Coal-fired Power plant

Simplified drawing of a coal-fired power plant


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Electric Power Production (Cont.)


Rate of

Rate of Rate of Rate of

energy useful energy wasted energy


energy

ACCUMULATED
IN

OUT
OUT

0 Q0 QU QW
Where,
Q0 = energy flow into the black box
QU = useful energy out of the black box
QW = wasted energy out of the black box

Efficiency

QU
Efficiency (%)
100
QW
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