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Biology Investigatory Project

Kendriya Vidyalaya R.B.N.M. Salboni


Session- 2014-15

Effects of Fertilisers, Manure and Polythene


on the rate of elongation of the Hypocotyl

Made
ByVageesha Karn
Class- XI (Science)

Roll no. - 10

Certificate
This is to certify that the given project
report has been prepared by Vageesha
Karn of class 11th (Science) on the topic
Effects of Fertiliser, Manure and
Polythene on Growth of the Hypocotyl
of a seed under the guidance of PGT
(Biology), Dr. Debabrata Mukherjee and
has been completed successfully.

Signature:
Date:
(Dr. D Mukherjee)

PGT, Biology

Acknowledgment
I am extremely thankful to my teacher,
Dr. D. Mukherjee, and our Principle, Ms M.
Michael, for giving me this opportunity to
accomplish this important project on the
topic: Effects of Fertiliser, Manure and
Polythene on the growth of the hypocotyl
of a seed.I am highly obliged and
gratified for their continuous and undying
support
and
guidance
during
the
completion of this project. I extend my
hearty thanks to my parents and friends
for their support and encouragement
while this project was being made, and
who helped me to complete this
wonderful and challenging task in the
limited time period.
I have learnt a lot while researching on
the given topic for this project. I am
thankful to all those, because of whose

support, guidance and encouragement,


this project was possible to complete.

Selection
The given topic was selected by me as I
found this to be a challenging task to
complete and also very important
knowledge to gain from it. It is nowadays
noticed that in the pollution is increasing
in our environment, and it is extremely
important for all of us to know its effects
on
ourselves
and
the
natural
surroundings. Plants are the only source
to purify our atmosphere and provide
food to this world. Even the carnivorous
animals are indirectly dependent on
plants for their food.
It is very important for us to know the
best way of living in this universe without
harming
it
and
ultimately
living
peacefully. Therefore, I have selected this

topic as my project as it gives the


answers to my questions.

Contents
1)
Objective...................................................
.........
2)
Introduction...............................................
........
3) Materials
acquired.
4)
Methodology
.

5)
Observation
.
6)
Graph
..
7)
Results
.
8) Data
Analysis
..
9)
Conclusion
..
10)
Recommendation
..
11)
Bibliography

Objective
Main Objective: - To study the effect
of fertiliser, manure and polythene
on the growth of the hypocotyl of a
seed.
Specific
Objective:Through
continuous
observation
of
the
growth of plants in fertiliser, manure
and polythene the most suitable soil
conditions for a typical plant can be
observed. By observing such soil
conditions, the productivity and
growth of plants can be checked.

Introduction
Three anthocyanins were found in Vigna
radiata (greengram) accessions with
black seed coat, but were absent in
cultivars having green seed coat. Vigna
mungo (blackgram) had only one of them.
The same 3 anthocyanins were found in
cultivars with purple red hypocotyl of
Vigna radiata accessions but were absent
in the ones with green hypocotyls.Vigna
mungo with purple red hypocotyls
showed
the
presence
of
two
anthocyanins. One common to both was
identified as delphinidin-3-glucoside and
the
other
is
probably
cyanidin-3glucoside. Among the two accessions of
Vigna radiata varsublobata examined,

one was similar to Vigna radiata


accessions with black seed coat having
delphinidin-3-glucoside and two other
anthocyanins, while the other resembled
Vigna mungo having only delphinidin-3glucoside in seed coat and both
delphinidin and cyanidin-3-glucosides in
hypocotyl. Chlorophyll content of the seed
coats was in the following decreasing
order: green, black, brown and yellow.
Browning of the seed coat of cv TAP-7
after storage over a year was associated
with reduction in chlorophyll content.

Materials
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Pots- 3
Gram seeds 10-12
Fertiliser
Manure
Polythene
Beaker
Soil

Methodology
During the Making of this project, the
following steps were followed: Pots, gram seeds, along with fertiliser,
manure and polythene and other
materials were brought and the pots
were prepared to be sown.
Seeds were planted and watered.
Fertiliser was added to the first pot,
named as Pot A. Observations were
recorded for that day.
Manure was added to the second pot,
named as Pot B the next day.
Polythene was added to the third pot,
named as Pot C the following day,
and regular observations were made.
Watering and regular observation was
being taken for 27 days.
After the observation of plants and
their
growth,
observation
was
compiled and data analysis was made.
Conclusion was drawn from the data
analysis for the three cases of planted
gram seeds.

Observations
Observations were recorded regularly for
27 days and the following data was
gathered:Number of seeds planted in
1)
2)
3)
DAY 1
S. No.
1.

Pot A- 4
Pot B- 5
Pot C- 3
POT A
(Fertiliser)
3

Length of Hypocotyl (in cm)


POT B (Manure)
POT C (Polythene)
1

2.

3.

4.

(not germinated)

DAY 2
5.

6.

7.

8.

Not germinated

11

10.

11

11.

15

DAY 3
9.

4
4

12.

10
5
2
Died

20
18
16
20
11

23
24
25

12
5
2

22
20
18
14
23

25
17
25

15
6
2

23
22
20
15
25

25
29
24

18
15
Died

25
19
30
24
Died

24
Died
Died

18
16

25
20
25
32

25

16

20

Died

Died

32
Died
Died

17

21
35

Died

Died

37

Died

DAY 8

DAY 9

DAY
10

DAY
15

DAY
16

DAY
18

DAY
19

DAY
27


There are some gaps in the
observation as the school was closed
during that time and we were unable
to record our observations.

Graph
180

160

140

120
Day 27
Day 19
100

Day 18
Day 16
Day 15
Day 10

80

Day 9
Day 8
Day 3
Day 2

60

40

20

Day 1

Data Analysis
According to the above observations, the
following analysis was made:
Due to access of fertiliser, some
plants in POT A died.

Due to lack of water for some


continued days, some plants had
dried.

Seeds germinated in POT C died


soon because of polythene present in
the pot, which hampered their proper
absorption of nutrients.

Plants in POT B were best grown in


height and persisted for a long time.

Growth of plants planted in POT A


was medium all over and can be
considered as average.

Water consumption by the gram


seeds was considerably low.

Conclusion
From the above data analysis, following
conclusions can be drawn: Access of fertiliser can be harmful for
germinating seeds. However, if used in
an appropriate amount, fertilisers can
be beneficial for plants.
Growth of plants can be observed
best in manure, as it is a natural
extract, and can supply better quality
of nutrients to the plants.
Presence of polythene is harmful for
plants, and it hampers the pathway for
the plants absorption of nutrients.
Therefore, it can be concluded that
pollution can be very harmful to the
natural environment and, ultimately it
affects the humans.

Lack
of
water
is
extremely
undesirable when plants or trees are

growing, as water is an essential part


of their nutrition and is important in
the developmental process.

Recommendation
Through the observations recorded and
conclusion drawn from the collected data,
it is clear that, planters should use
manure the most in amount for the
proper growth of plants. Fertilizers are
also extremely useful for the growth of
plants, but, if used in excess amount,
then it can be harmful for the plants.
Therefore, the amount of fertilizers used
should be checked. Also pollutants, such
as polythene, should be removed from
the planting area, as these pollutants are
harmful for the growth of plants and
hampers their proper elongation. Also,
regular watering is an essential criterion
for growing plants, because this provides
them with necessary elements and

compounds for photosynthesis. At the


same time, excess of water should not be
provided to the plants, because of the
probability of contamination.

Bibliography
1) Ask.com
2) http://repository.ias.ac.in/
3) Class- 11th Biology Text
Book(NCERT)