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Diploma in Civil Engineering

CC604 Environmental Pollution & Control

December 2012

Diploma in Civil Engineering

CC604 Environmental Pollution & Control

CLO1: Discover correctly the


knowledge related to public
health and environmental pollution

December 2012

Diploma in Civil Engineering

CC604 Environmental Pollution & Control

1.0 PUBLIC HEALTH


1.1 Understand the types of diseases
1.1.1 Classify the two types of diseases:
a. communicable
b. non-communicable
1.1.2 Explain the types of communicable diseases caused by
pollution:
a. water borne diseases
b. food borne diseases
c. insect borne diseases
d. rodent borne diseases
1.1.3 Explain the types of non-communicable diseases
caused by pollution:
a. lead (plumbum)
e. cadmium
b. mercury
f. nitrate particulate
c. insecticides
g. dioxin
d. asbestos
December 2012

Diploma in Civil Engineering

CC604 Environmental Pollution & Control

December 2012

Diploma in Civil Engineering

CC604 Environmental Pollution & Control

An abnormal condition
affecting the body of an
individual
When the immune system
becomes weak, individual
may fall sick

December 2012

Diploma in Civil Engineering

CC604 Environmental Pollution & Control

COMMUNICABLE DISEASE
refers to infectious or transmissible diseases from infection
that may cause illness

NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASE
defined as non-infectious or non-transmissible disease
NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASE = also known as chronic disease, not
passed from person to person
Example: stroke, asthma, diabetes, heart disease, cancer

December 2012

Diploma in Civil Engineering

CC604 Environmental Pollution & Control

December 2012

Diploma in Civil Engineering

CC604 Environmental Pollution & Control

TYPES OF
COMMUNICABLE DISEASE
communicable disease caused by pollution are :

Water Borne Diseases (PENYAKIT BAWAAN AIR)

Food Borne Diseases (PENYAKIT BAWAAN MAKANAN))

Insect Borne Diseases (PENYAKIT BAWAAN SERANGGA)

Rodent Borne Diseases (PENYAKIT BAWAAN TIKUS)

December 2012

Diploma in Civil Engineering

CC604 Environmental Pollution & Control

Water Borne Diseases


caused by pathogenic microorganisms and chemicals
transmitted through contaminated fresh water
disease caused by microorganisms include:

i.) Protozoa : Amoebiasis (hand-to-mouth)


Giardiasis
(hand-to-mouth)
ii.) Bacteria : Cholera
E. coli diarrhea
iii.) Virus : Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
Hepatitis A
Polio

December 2012

Diploma in Civil Engineering

CC604 Environmental Pollution & Control

Food Borne Diseases


any illness resulting from the consumption of contaminated
food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses or parasites that
contaminate food
as well as chemical or natural toxins such as poisonous
mushrooms
common causes of food borne illness : bacterial foodborne pathogen
Bacillus cereus

Escherichia coli

Drinking contaminated water


Uncooked food

Campylobacter jejuni

Improper food preparation, lack


of hygiene

Clostridium perfringens

Contaminated food

Salmonella spp

Consumption of egg, poultry


December 2012

Diploma in Civil Engineering

CC604 Environmental Pollution & Control

Insect Borne Diseases


infections transmitted by the bite of infected insects such as

mosquitoes, spider & other insects


also known as vector-borne disease
Type of disease:

1.) Dengue fever


2.) Chikungunya fever is caused by a virus of the genus Alphavirus,
transmitted to human beings by the bite of infected

mosquitoes such as A aegypti, and A albopictus

December 2012

Diploma in Civil Engineering

CC604 Environmental Pollution & Control

Rodent Borne Diseases

The disease is caused by virus transmitted by rats through


contact with the urine, droppings or saliva of infected rodents
In one weeks time rodents produce hundreds of fecal
pellets and deposit urine in thousands of areas.
The pathogens may also be deposited via saliva and blood
spewed during rodent fights.
In this way, millions of rodent hairs and hair fragments, possibly

containing pathogens, are deposited into our environment.

December 2012

Diploma in Civil Engineering

CC604 Environmental Pollution & Control

December 2012

Diploma in Civil Engineering

CC604 Environmental Pollution & Control

Dioxin

Nitrate particulate

Lead (Plumbum)

NON-COMMUNICABLE
DISEASE

Cadmium

Mercury

Insecticides
Asbestos

December 2012

Diploma in Civil Engineering

Dioxin

CC604 Environmental Pollution & Control

environmental pollutants
accumulate mainly in fatty tissue of animals

effects of dioxin on human health:


result in skin lesions, such as chloracne
and patchy darkening of skin

liver failure
impairment of the immune system and
nervous system

Lead (Plumbum)

a chemical element in carbon group, symbol Pb


poisonous substance to humans (neurotoxin)
damages the nervous system and causes brain

disorders
excessive lead also causes blood disorders
December 2012

Diploma in Civil Engineering

Mercury

CC604 Environmental Pollution & Control

a chemical element with the symbol Hg


cause damage to the brain and kidneys

Insecticides

a chemical that is used to control a pest


highly toxic to humans
headaches, dizziness, stomach and intestinal
upset, numbness and heart attacks

Asbestos

a fibrous mineral occurring in natural deposits


contains carcinogens which can cause cancer

Cadmium

chemical element with the symbol Cd


high blood pressure

Nitrate particulate

mainly used as fertilizer


carcinogen ; causes cancer
December 2012