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Using the OpenModelica software to simulate a thermal network.
This is specially applied for the electric cars battery thermal management

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Publicat de

Universitatea Tehnic Gheorghe Asachi din Iai,

Tomul LVII (LXI), Fasc. 2, 2012

Secia

CONSTRUCII DE MAINI

ELECTRICAL VEHICLE BATTERY USING OPENMODELICA

SOFTWARE PACKAGE

BY

University Politehnica Timioara,

Department of Mechanical Engineering

2

RAAL S.A.,

Research and Development

1

Abstract. Increasing demand for clean energy consumptions, and also the continuously

rising of gasoline prices, forced the car manufacturers to consider the electric driven

cars (EV) and hybrid traction cars (HEV), as a solution to this problem. The main

challenge in this field is to develop new batteries that have high power and high storage

capabilities, but this comes at the price of increased heat generation in the battery, heat

that must be evacuated so the battery doesnt suffer any damage. The present article

presents the simulation of 1D thermal model of a battery using the OpenModelica

software package. The aim of this simulation is to develop the cooling system for an

electric vehicle.

Key words: heat transfer, electrical battery, electrical vehicles, hybrid vehicles,

simulation.

1. General Considerations

Electric energy seems to be the future of the vehicles driving power. Due

to continuously rising prices of petrol witch some forecast place a figure of 300

$/barrel in 2035 (Paier, 2011), and due to the growing need for a cleaner

electrical powered (EV) and hybrid (HEV) vehicles. The advantages of this type

of powered vehicle are obvious, and apart from the clean energy consumption

there is also the advantage of efficiency which for the electric engine is around

80% -90%.

The main obstacle in producing on a mass scale this type of vehicles is

represented by the storing capacity of the electrical energy i.e. the batteries.

Actually the storing capacity isnt enough, so one of the main directions of

research is to improve the storing capacity of the batteries. This increase in

energy density and also the need for drawing high powers form the batteries has

another side effect such as increasing the temperature of the battery. The

working temperature of the battery is a very important parameter, for example

for a Li-ion cell an increase in temperature of 15 C will reduce the life of the

cell by about 50% (Asakura, Shimomura, & Shodai, 2003). The temperature

has also another effect on the charge/discharge of the battery and also on the

storage capacity of the battery. These parameters i.e. charge/discharge and

storage capacity is quantified by using the term SOC (State of charge). In the

work of Zheng Popov and others (Zheng, Popov, & White, 1997) an optimum

temperature for a battery is around 25 C, even if now there are batteries that

can have a maximum temperature of 85 C (Winston, 2011). The current

discharge/charge rate grows as the temperature approaches the optimum due to

increased ion mobility and also due to modifications of internal resistance of the

battery, but after the optimum the current charge/discharge rate stats to decrease

due to oxidations that happen inside battery. Increasing the temperature over the

functioning domain make the batteries to have a catastrophic failure, and not

only the performance of the battery will be diminished but also irreversible

oxidations occur and the battery becomes useless (Jiangang, et. al., 2006).

For these reasons, toghether with RAAL S.A., we began to investigate the

necesity of a cooling system for batteries equiped in EV and HEV. This paper

presents the first step from many that includes battery modelling, the modelling

of cooling modules, the modelling of an automatic driver, experimental tests of

the cooling modules, and thermal test on the battery pack, etc.

2. Battery Models

The literature has many models which vary in complexity. There are

complex models that use quantum mechanics for describing the battery at

chemical reaction level (Parthasarathy M Gomadam, et. al. , 2002), (Aron,

Girban, & Pop, 2010), finite element models that describe the spatial dynamics

in the battery (Sievers, Sievers, & Mao, 2010),electrochemical models,

electrical equivalent circuit (Matthias, Andrew,et al., 2005), Dynamic Lumped

parameters models, tabulated battery data models.

To model the battery as close to the reality as possible every model has to

take into account the parameters on which the battery depends on, and these

parameters are a few. One of the most important parameter that the battery has

is the so called state of charge, SOC, or the electrical energy stored in the

battery. This parameter depends on other parameters of the battery as the

current drawn from the battery, the time that the current has been drawn, and the

capacity of battery, and can be express in mathematical form as:

SOC 1

I t

.

C

(1)

I (t )dt

SOC (t ) 1

0

(2)

where I the current drawn (A), t time (s), C the battery capacity (A.s)

Other parameters of the battery include the temperature of the battery, the

internal resistance and the open circuit voltage.

In the remaining paper I will only describe the electrical circuit models

which are the base for the model in this article, for other model types you can

see (Gomadam, Weidner, Dougal, & White, 2002).

2.1. Simple model

The simplest model used consists of a constant resistance Rb in series

with an ideal voltage source E0, sketched in Fig. 1.

Even this is very simple form electrical point of view; this model doesnt

take into account the true internal resistance of the battery, which is highly

related to the state of charge (SOC). In this case the draw of energy is unlimited.

Another drawback of this model is that it doesnt take into account the thermal

energy generated during discharge.

There are other, improved, electrical models, some of which modify the

internal resistance according to the SOC, and also include other parameters that

take into account the dynamics of the electrical current during discharge. One of

this improved a model that is worth mentioning it is the Thervein model.

2.2. Thervein model

This is another basic battery model which describes a battery with an

ideal voltage source (E0), internal resistance R and a capacitance C0 which

represents the actual capacitance of the battery, and also an over-voltage

resistance R0 (Ziyad & Salameh, 1992). The main disatvantage of this model is

that all the components are constant, whereas in reality all these characteristics

are dependent of the SOC, and the dicharge current. The circuit diagram can be

seen in the Fig. 2. below:

2.2. Non linear Dynamic model

A more realistic model has been created by extending the Thervein

model. This new model takes into account the nonlinearities in the components

of the Thervein model. As I said earlier the internal resistance of the battery

R+R0 and the open circuit voltage E0 are dependent on the SOC of the battery,

and also on the temperature T of the battery.

Since we are interested in how the temperature of the battery changes in

time I will use a modification of this later model, which can be seen in a

simplified version in Fig. 3.

In this model different form Thervein model I have included the internal

resistance in the overvoltage resistance, for simplification purpose, and the

internal resistance R and the open circuit voltage E0 are dependent on some

function of SOC.

3. Modeling Implementation

If we want to know how the current and the voltage in the battery are

modified in time we have to solve a system of equations that include first order

differential equations and also algebraic equations. Doing it by hand it takes a

long time, and if one of the parameter is changed we will have to do it again.

There is a faster and error free method anyway doing this with the help of the

computer.

In the following I will present the modeling implementation steps with

the help of the OpenModelica (OpenModelica, 2012) software package.

The first step in modeling the battery was to model the equivalent electric

circuit of tha battery. Since OpenModelica has a diagram development

interface, and because the Modelica language (Modelica, 2012) is an equation

based language, the implementation of the electrical model was straithforward.

In the Fig. 4 can be seen the end result of the model.

The battery model is composed from different components, which are

electrical components represented by:

battery

components such as:

open circuit voltage and respectively for internal rezistor of the

battery

The battery model is linked with the rest of the circuit by three

connectors: a positive (p) and negative (n) electric connectors, and a heat

connector (heatPort)

Let us explain the thermal part of the battery:

It is well known that the energy conservation law stipulates that the

energy that is stored in a domain must equal the energy that comes in minus the

energy that goes out plus the energy generated inside the domain. The equation

form per unit time, of this law can take the form:

dt

dt

dt

dt

(3)

And in the case of a solid domain as the battery, and where we do not have

phase change the equation (3) becomes:

m Cp

dT

Rint i 2 (t ) hA[T Tamb ]

dt

(4)

battery temperature, Rint internal battery resistance, h thermal convection

coefficient with the outside medium, A exchange surface of the battery, and

i(t) the current intensity.

The equation (4) is implemented in the battery model as in Fig. 5, except the

Temp sensor, which it is used for linking the temperature to the other

components

4. Simulations

For simulations we have choose a Winston Li-ion battery (Winston,

2011) with a capacity of 60 Ah. The internal resistances and the open circuit

voltage where determined by fitting the charts form the manufacturers data. The

capacitor value was taken to be 4.047kF (Valerie, Ahmad, & Thomas, 2000).

Because we wanted only to test the model, first we have simulated the model

without any cooling and with a constant resistor taken to be the load on the

battery. You can see the modeling in the Fig. 6

The simulation was done for a time of 1 hour in which the battery has

been drained for almost the entire energy. In the following charts you can see

the most important parameters of the battery function of time:

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

0

10

20

30

40

Time [min]

50

60

70

80

4.5

70

60

3.5

3

50

2.5

40

30

1.5

20

10

0.5

of using the battery with a constant load the temperature rises with almost 40

o

C.

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Time [min]

Current Intensity

Battery Voltage

4

0.09

3.5

0.08

0.07

0.06

2.5

0.05

0.04

1.5

Rint []

Eoc [V]

0.03

0.02

0.5

0.01

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

SOC

Open circuit voltage

1.2

Internal Resistance

Chart in Fig. 8 show the current intensity and voltage evolution in time

and Fig. 9 show the battery parameters, Open Voltage Eoc and internal

resistance Rint function of the battery state SOC.

Another simulation done was with a simple cooling of the battery, and

with a variable load resistor which changes the current drawn over time

30

1.2

25

20

0.8

15

0.6

10

0.4

0.2

SOC

Temperature [ C]

Here we used a convection model to remove the heat from the battery and

an ambient temperature of 20 oC.

0

0

10

20

30

Time [min]

40

50

Temperature

60

SOC

30

120

25

100

20

80

15

60

10

40

20

Temperature [ C]

0

0

10

20

30

Time [min]

40

50

Tempera ture

60

Intens i ty

In Fig. 12 can be seen that the temperature and the current intensity are

connected but there is a slight shift between the current maximum and the

temperature maximum, this can be explained if we look at Fig. 11 and Fig. 9. In

Fig. 11 can be observed that the maximum temperature is near a SOC of 0 and

from Fig. 9 we can see that at SOC near 0 the internal resistance rises so more

heat will be generated.

Another fact that can be observed is that due to current intensity the

battery drains out more rapidly, which is in concordance with the reality.

5. Conclusions and Future work

This researchs main objective was to model the battery to include the

heat generated and to extract information from it.

As can be seen in the first simulation in Fig. 7 the Li-ion battery will need

a cooling system to maintain its temperature at an optimal value. Without it the

batterys temperature can raise above the maximum temperature and it will

damage the battery

The OpenModelica is a great tool that can help us in creating what if

scenarios and we rapidly can take decisions about the dynamics of any physical

system.

the battery we still need to do experiment and to determine if we took all the

parameters in this model, so the next phase will be to determine experimentally

the batterys coefficients and to validate the model.

Acknowledgements. The authors would like to thank University

Politehnica of Timisoara, and also to RAAL S.A. Company for the support in

this endeavor.

REFERENCES

Aron, A., Girban, G., & Pop, C. (2010). About the solution of a battery

mathematical model. Int. Conf. of Diff. Geom. and Dynamical Systems

(p. 10). Bucharest: Balkan Society of Geometers, Geometry Balkan

Press.

Asakura, K., Shimomura, M., & Shodai, T. (2003, June). Study of life

evaluation methods for Li-ion batteries for backup application. Journal

of Power Sources, Volumes 119-121 , 902-905.

Gomadam, P. M., Weidner, J. W., Dougal, R. A., & White, R. E. (2002).

Mathematical modeling of lithium-ion and nikel battery systems.

Journal of Power Sources , 110, 267-284.

Jiangang, L., Xiangming, H., Maosong, F., hunrong, W., Changin, J., &

Shichao, Z. (2006). Capacity fading of LiCr0.1Mn1.9O4/MPCF cells at

elevated temperature. Ionics , 12, 153-157.

Matthias, D., Andrew, C., Sinclair, G., & McDonald, J. (2005). Dynamic model

of a lead acid battery for use in. Journal of Power Sources , 161 (2),

1400-1411.

Modelica, A. (2012). Modelica. Retrieved May 5, 2012, from Modelica:

www.modelica.org

OpenModelica. (2012). OpenModelica. Retrieved April 5, 2012, from

OpenModelica: www.openmodelica.org

Paier, O. (2011). The E-Car Challenge. Kuli User Meeting. Steyr, Austria.

Sievers, M., Sievers, U., & Mao, S. (2010). Thermal modelling of new Li-ion

cell design modifications. Forschung im Ingenieurwesen , 74 (4), 215231.

Valerie, H. J., Ahmad, A. P., & Thomas, S. (2000). Temperature-Dependent

Battery Models for. 17th Electric Vehicle Simposium (p. 15).

Montreal,Canada: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Winston. (2011, May 5). GWL Power. Retrieved May 5, 2012, from GWL

Power: http://www.ev-power.eu/docs/GWL-LFP-Product-Spec-260AH7000AH.pdf

performance of LaNi4.76Sn0.24. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry ,

12, 1328-1332.

Ziyad, M., & Salameh, M. A. (1992). A mathematical model for lead-acid

batteries. IEEE Trans. Energy Convers , 7, 93-97.

SIMULARI 1D ASUPRA SCHIMBULUI TERMIC AL BATERIILOR

VEHICULELOR ELECTRICE FOLOSIND PACHETUL SOFTWARE

OPENMODELICA

Datorit creterii nevoii de energie cu emisii zero, productorii de

vehicule au fost forai s caute soluii ctre zona vehiculelor electrice (EV) i a

vehiculelor hibride (HEV). Acestea folosesc pentru propulsie energie electric,

energie cu emisii zero. Dei acest tip de locomoie nu este unul nou, ncercri de

a realiza maini electrice datnd de la nceputul secolului XX, realizarea

acestora fiind temperat de dificultile stocrii acestei energi. Totui pe la

mijlocul secolului trecut, datorit nevoii de mobilitate au fost dezvoltate baterii

solide care pot stoca o densitate mai mare de energie, ceea ce a ajutat si la

dezvoltarea vehiculelor electrice.

Recunoscnd importana mare a acestui tip de locomie, RAAL S.A. a

iniiat un studiu aspura necesitii rciri acestor baterii, aceast lucrare

reprezentnd un prim pas in realizarea unor sisteme de rcire pentru bateriile

vehiculelor electrice.

n lucrarea de fata este prezentata o modalitate de realizare a unui model

de baterie, care s includ si influena temperaturii bateriei n performantele

acesteia, ct si pentru a vedea necesitatea unui astfel de sistem de rcire.

Modelul teoretic este implementat folosind pachetul software gratuit

OpenModelica. Avantajul acestui pachet software fa de altele cum ar fi

Mathlab si Mathematica, in afara gratuitii acestuia, este limbajul de

programare, care este un limbaj bazat pe rezolvarea ecuaiilor ceea ce ne

permite modelarea sistemelor fizice in limajul stiinific, fra ajutor din partea

unor specialiti in programare structurat.

Pentru exemplificarea avantajelor oferite, lucrarea prezint rezultatele a

dou simulari:

Prima simulare este realizat pe o celul a bateriei folosind o ncrcare

constant, rezistor1 n Fig. 6, i fr o rcire a bateriei. Dup cum se poate

observa din rezltatele acestei simulari Fig. 7, Fig. 8 i Fig. 9, n funcie de

curentul extras temperatura bateriei crete cu 40 oC n timp de 1 or. Scopul

acestei simulri a fost de a derermina necesitatea de rcire a unei astfel de

baterii.

Cel de al doi-lea exemplu este o simulare m care se ia in considerare i o

rcire a bateriei prin convectie i o ncarcare variabil Fig. 13. Rezultatele

acestei simulri sunt prezentate n figurile Fig. 12 i Fig. 11, aici se poate

observa termostatarea bateriei dar si a variaiei temperaturii n funcie de

puterea extras din baterie, putere reprezentat de curentul extras.

n concluzie se poate afirma c bateriile solide de tipul Li-ion necesit o

rcire, iar aceasta depinde de puterea extras.

Pachetul OpenModelica este un mediu de simulare util, care permite

crearea i simularea, n diferite condiii, a modelelor fizice uor si cu evitarea

erorilor de calcul.

n continuare se va ncerca dezvoltarea unor modele de rcire mai

complicate si care s reflecte ct mai aproape de adevr realitatea.

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