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SYNCHRONOUSMACHINES

HARSHITASHARMA
DepartmentofElectronicsand
Communication Engineering
CommunicationEngineering
JIIT,Sec128,Noida

INTRODUCTION
They are synchronized as rotor speed is exactly fixed by the supply
frequency.
The other type of ac machines are called asynchronous (or Induction).
When
Wh the
h rotor is
i rotated
d by
b a primemover,
i
i works
it
k as an alternator
l
(Synchronous generator).
To run it as a synchronous
y
motor:
Threephase supply is connected to the stator winding
(Armature), and
A dc
d supply
l (for
(f the
th field)
fi ld) to
t the
th rotor
t winding
i di
t produce
to
d
magnetic poles.
Important Parts of the Synchronous Machines are:
Stator (Armature windings)
Rotor ((Field windings)
g)
Damper windings (To prevent hunting in Generator and to provide
starting torque in Motors).

General Characteristics of the Synchronous


Machine:
The dc field circuit (on the rotor), is a rotating
electromagnet controlled by the dc exciting current.
The p
power supplied
pp
to the dc field circuit does not
enter directly into the energyconversion process.
The armature circuit is p
placed on the stator and
carries threephase currents.
The flow of real p
power through
g the system
y
is
determined by the mechanical input because the
mechanical system exchanges real power only.
The reactive power flow is controlled by the dc field
current. It is a surprising and extremely useful
property of the synchronous machines.

Synchronousspeed:
Synchronous speed:
One revolution of rotor represents 360 mechanical
degrees.
One cycle of emf represents 360 electrical degrees.
For 2
2pole
pole machine, mechanical and electrical degrees are
identical.
If the machine has 4 p
poles,, one cycle
y
of emf would be
generated when the field structure (on the rotor) rotates
through onehalf revolution only.
Thus, in a 4pole machine two cycles of emf is generated
when the rotor completes one revolution.
If the machine has P poles, the number of cycles of emf in
one revolution will be P/2.

In general,
general the electrical angle e and mechanical
angle m in a machine are related as:
P
e = ( ) m
2

If rotor has speed ns revolutions per second,


frequency
q
y f of induced emf is:
P
f = ( ) ns
2

The synchronous speed Ns (expressed


revolutions
l ti
per minute)
i t ) is
i given
i
as:
120 f
Ns =
P

in

What can be the maximum speed of a


synchronous
y
machine in India ?
Ans. 3000 rpm. A machine cannot have less
than 2 poles.
poles
What can be the maximum speed of a
synchronous machine in USA ?
Ans. 3600 rpm.

Example 1: A sixpole ac generator is running


and producing voltage at a frequency of 60 Hz.
per minute of the
Calculate the revolutions p
generator. If the frequency of the generated
voltage is required to be decreased to 20 Hz,
Hz
how many poles would be needed on the
generator,
t if it still
till runs att the
th same speed
d?
Solution: N = 120 f = 120 60 = 1200 rpm
s
P
6
120 f 120 20
P=
=
=2
N
1200

SYNCHRONOUSGENERATOR
(ALTERNATOR)
The most commonly used machine for the
ggeneration of electric p
power is the
Synchronous generator called an alternator,
as it generates ac.
ac
The synchronous generator is the workhorse
off the
h electric
l
power industry.
The armature winding is placed on the stator
and the field poles on the rotor.

Construction:
1.. Stator:
Core made of CRGO (Cold Rolled Grain Oriented) sheet
steel or silicon steel.
Laminations in core to minimize eddycurrent losses.
Laminations are stamped
p
out in complete
p
rings
g or in
segments.
Stampings have uniformly distributed open or semiclosed
slots to accommodate armature conductors.
Whole structure held in cast iron frame.
From an electrical viewpoint, stator of synchronous
machine and induction machine are identical.
The windings are usually connected in yconfiguration.
Voltage per phase is 1/ 3or 58% of line voltage, permitting
a reduction
d i in
i the
h amount off dielectric
di l
i insulation.
i l i

2.Rotor:
Cylindrical structure which can rotate inside stator
leaving a very small air gap.
Consists of windings to produce dc magnetic field.
Windings are excited by a separate dc generator called
Exciter.
Exciting current supplied to rotor windings through
two slip rings and carbon brushes.
Depending on type of prime mover used to drive the
alternator, there are two types of rotors:
(i) Cylindrical/NonSalient type (slow speed)
(ii)Salient or Projectedpole type (high speed)

Three methods of field excitation:


(i) Slip rings link the rotors field windings to external dc
source.
(ii) DC generator exciter:
i
A dc
d generator is
i built
b il off same shaft
h f
as the ac generators rotor. A commutator rectifies the
current sent to the field winding.
g
(iii) Brushless exciter: An ac generator with fixed field
windings and a rotor with a three phase circuit. Diode/ SCR
rectification supplies dc current to field winding.

3.DamperWinding:
In addition to dc field windings,
windings a squirrel cage winding is also added.
added
Under normal conditions, the winding doesnot carry any current.
When sharp changes in the loading occurs, the rotor speed begins to
fluctuate, producing momentary speed variations.
Hence, the rotor starts oscillating. The oscillation is called hunting.
During hunting,
hunting there is a relative motion between rotor (damper
winding) and synchronously rotating magnetic field. So large current
flows in damper winding and emf induces as per Faraday's law as long
as the
h relative
l i motion
i exists.
i
So induced torque in damper winding acts in opposition to
instantaneous relative motion.

ROTATINGMAGNETICFLUXDUETO
ROTATING
MAGNETIC FLUX DUE TO
THREEPHASECURRENTS
Consider a cylindrical magnetic structure with
one winding excited by a singlephase current.
If the current i is dc,
dc the flux density in the air
gap will also be dc and it will have a maximum
value along the horizontal plane. (Bm=Ki)
Flux density is a function of angle m given as:

B = Bm cos m

If the current is alternating, so will be the flux density.


Therefore,
h f
the
h flux
fl density
d
along
l
the
h air gap is function
f
of time t as well as angle m,
B(t , m ) = Bm cos t cos m
Next, consider a twopole magnetic structure wound
with three coils separated by 120
120 in space.
space
These coils are supplied threephase (R Y B) currents.

Duetothreephasecurrentsin
three phase structure
threephasestructure

The current iR enters into the bottom conductors and


returns from the top.
The current iY enters in the first quadrant and current iB
enters in the second quadrant.
The coil mmfs are tapered sinusoidally.
The maximum flux density from coil R lies in the
horizontal plane.
The maxima from coils Y and B are displaced 120 and
240 in space, respectively.
Analysis of ThreePhase System:
The threephase currents supplied,

iR (t ) = I m cos (t )
iY (t ) = I m cos (t 120)
iB (t ) = I m cos (t 240) = I m cos (t + 120)

Thefluxdensityfromthethreecoils,
y
,
B R ( t , m ) = B m cos( t ) cos( m )
BY ( t , m ) = B m cos( t 120 ) cos( m 120 )

B B ( t , m ) = B m cos( t + 120 ) cos( m + 120 )


B ( t , m ) = B R ( t , m ) + BY ( t , m ) + B B ( t , m )
= B m cos( t ) cos( m ) + B m cos( t 120 ) cos( m 120 )
+ B m cos( t + 120 ) cos( m + 120 )

B(t ,m ) = Bm{cos(t m ) + cos(t + m )}


1

+ Bm{cos(t m ) + cos(t + m 240)}


1

+ Bm{cos(t m ) + cos(t + m + 240)}


1

3 cos(t )

= Bm 2
+ 1 {cos(t + ) + cos(t + 240) + cos(t + + 240)}
m
m
m

Thethreebracketedtermsaddtozeroatalltimes.
Therefore,
B (t , m ) = Bm cos (t m ) = Br cos (t m )
3
2

Where:

Br = (3 / 2) Bm

PropertiesoftheFluxDensity:
Properties of the Flux Density :
1. The magnitude is 50 % greater.
2 If time
2.
i
i fixed,
is
fi d the
h flux
fl is
i sinusoidal
i
id l in
i space (air
( i gap))
with the maximum flux density at max = t, and if t = 0
the maximum flux occurs at m = 0.
3. At a fixed m, the flux density magnitude is sinusoidal in
time.

ARMATUREWINDING
Advantages of having armature winding on the
stator
t t and
d field
fi ld winding
i di on the
th Rotor
R t :
It is easier to provide insulation to armature winding for
hi h voltages,
high
lt
as the
th stationary
t ti
winding
i di is
i nott subjected
bj t d to
t
mechanical stress due to centrifugal forces and also more
space is available.
available
The external threephase circuit can directly be connected
with fixed terminals on the stator, without the need of slip
slip
rings.
For dc supply
pp y to the rotor field winding,
g, onlyy two sliprings,
p g,
each capable of handling much smaller current and
requiring insulation for much lower voltages, are needed.
The revolving field system is light in weight, and therefore
can run with high speed.

In p
practice,, the coils are short p
pitched and the
winding is distributed.
Hence,
Hence the rms value of the induced emf is
reduced by the pitch factor kp and distribution
factor kd, to give:

E = (2 f ) 1.11
1 11 2T k p kd = 44.44
44 f Tk p kd
Pitchfactororcoilspanfactor(k
Pitch factor or coil span factor (kp ):
In a full pitch coil AB, the EMFs induced in the two
coil sides Ea and Eb are in phase and resultant EMF
is:
Er=EEa+EEb=E+E=2E
E E 2E

In a short pitched coil, EMFs Ea and Eb induced are out of phase by angle .
The resultant EMF is given as:
Er=OQ=2OS=2OPcos/2=2Ecos/2
/
/
The factor by which emf per coil is reduced because of pitch being less than
full p
pitch is called p
pitch factor kp.
It is given by: k = phasor sum of the coil-side emfs = cos ( / 2)
p
arithmetic sum of the coil-side emfs
where,
h
is
i the
th angle
l by
b which
hi h coilsare
il
short-pitched.
h t it h d
For nth harmonic, it is given as:

kpn = cos(n / 2)

Distributionfactororbreadthfactor(kd ):

Ifq (numberofslotsperpoleperphase)isverylarge,the
anglebecomesverysmall,then
Kd =

sin
i q / 2 sin
i /2
=
q / 2
/2

Th
Thetotalangleq
t t l
l
i
iscalledphasespread.
ll d h
d
Where,=phasespread=600 electricalfor3phaseand900
electrical for 2phase
electricalfor2
phasemachines.
machines
Fornthharmonic, K dn = sin n / 2
n / 2

Example1:
p

EExample
l 2:
2 A 3phase,
3 h
50 H 20pole,
50Hz,
20 l salient
li
pole alternator with starconnected stator
winding has 180 slots on the stator. There are
8 conductors per slot and the coils are full
full
pitch. The flux per pole is 25 mWb. Assuming
sinusoidally distributed flux,
flux calculate
(a) the speed,
(b) the generated emf per phase, and
(c) the line emf.
emf

Solution:
Totalnumberofarmatureconductors,

Z = 180 8 = 1440

Therefore,thenumberofturnsperphase, T =

1440 / 2
= 240
3

120 f 120 50
=
= 300rpm
(a) Thespeed, N s =
20
P
(b) Sincethecoilsarefullpitch,thepitchfactor,k
Since the coils are full pitch the pitch factor kp =1.Now,
= 1 Now
180
N o. of slots per pole =
=9
200

S lo t an g le, =

E lectrical an g le p er p o le
180
=
= 20
9
N u m b er o f slo ts p er p o le

Numberofslotsperpoleperphase,

9
q= =3
3

sin ( q / 2) sin (3 20 / 2)
kd =
=
= 0.960
q sin
i ( / 2) 3 sin
i (20 / 2)

Th f
Therefore,thermsvalueofthegeneratedemfperphase,
h
l
f h
d
f
h

E = 4.44 f Tkp kd
= 4.44 50 0.025 240 1 0.960 = 1278.7 V
(c) Since,thestatorwindingisstarconnected,thelineemf,

EL = 3 1278.7
1278 7 = 2214.8
2214 8 V

ARMATURE REACTION
ARMATUREREACTION
The generator is loaded , Ia flows in the armature winding.
The load current produces a rotating flux,a due to mmf Fa.
Fa is called armature reaction, which rotates at synchronous
speed and in the direction of the rotor.
Thus the resultant mmf will be Phasor sum Fr=Ff + Fa
This rotating flux a induces a ac three phase voltage in the
stator winding.
This voltage is
subtracted from the induced voltage.
represented by a voltage drop on the synchronous reactance.

Thus the equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator is a


voltage source and a reactance connected in series.

Natureofarmaturereaction:
Assuming that the armature resistance and
leakage reactance are negligible so that:

V t = E r due to r
Case 1: When current and generated EMF are in
phase:

Case 2: When current lags generated EMF by 900:

Case 3: When current leads generated EMF by 900:

In motoring action cases will exactly reversed in all


the three cases as the direction of Ia is reversed.

EQUIVALENTCIRCUITOFALTERNATOR

E: Excitation emf induced in the stator winding due to flux


produced
d d by
b excitation
it ti currentt in
i field
fi ld winding
i di on rotor.
t
Xs: Synchronous reactance per phase
R: Resistance per phase
V: Terminal voltage
X1: Leakage reactance but X1<< Xs hence, ignored.
Hence for alternator, equivalent circuit (for one phase):

Synchronous impedance Zs:


Z s = R + jX s = R 2 + X s tan 1 ( X s / R) X s 900
2

Induced
Ind ced EMF E:
E
E = V + Vz = V + IZ s = V + I ( R + jX s )

Rotor power angle (R):


Phase angle between excitation EMF E and generated
voltage V.
Also called power angle or torque angle.
In generating action : the field poles are driven ahead
of the resultant field by an angle R by the prime
mover.
mover
In case of motor : the field poles lag behind the
resultant field by an angle R due to the load.
load

Phasor diagrams:
g
Inductiveload(laggingpf):

Capacitiveload(leadingpf):

VOLTAGE REGULATION
VOLTAGEREGULATION
It is
i the
h change
h
i the
in
h terminal
i l voltage
l
between noload and full load expressed as
perunit value or percentage of fullload
voltage.
Perunit voltage regulation: E V
V
E V
100 %
V

Percentage voltage regulation:


V is terminal voltage at full load and E is
terminal voltage when load is removed.

Example 3:A threephase, 600MVA alternator


has a rated terminal voltage of 22 kV (line).
The stator winding is starconnected and has a
resistance of 0.014 per phase and a
y
impedance
p
of 0.16 p
per p
phase.
synchronous
Calculate the voltage regulation for a load
power factor of 0.8 lagging.
gg g
havingg a p
Solution: The fullload
full load current for the stator
winding is the same irrespective of the power
f t off the
factor
th load
l d and
d is
i given
i
b
by:
600 106 = 3I L (22 103 )

I phh

600 106
= IL =
= 15.7 kA
3
3 22 10

Theterminalvoltageperphaseonfullload,
22 kV
V=
= 12.7 kV;
3
Vz = IZ s = (15.7 kA) (0.16 ) = 2.512 kV

cos =

OC 0.014
0 014
=
= 0.0875
OG 0.16

and

= cos 1 0.0875 = 84.98

For pf = 0.8
0 8 lagging:
lagging :

= cos 1 0.8 = 36.87


= ( ) = 84.98 36.87 = 48.11

and

cos = 0.6677

Putting all the voltages in kV we get


PuttingallthevoltagesinkV,weget

E = V 2 + Vz2 + 2V Vz cos
= (12.7) 2 + (2.512) 2 + 2 12.7 2.512 0.6677 = 14.5 kV
Thevoltageregulationis

E V 14.5 12.7
=
= 0.1417 per unit = 14.17 per cent
V
12.7

MEASUREMENT OF SYNCHRONOUS IMPEDANCE


MEASUREMENTOFSYNCHRONOUSIMPEDANCE
The synchronous impedance Zs of an
plottingg its
alternator can be determined byy p
opencircuit and shortcircuit characteristics.

Open
OpenCircuit
Circuitcharacteristics:
characteristics:

ShortCircuitcharacteristics:

Synchronousimpedance:
Synchronous impedance:

Zpu=Z/ZB

Example4:

ALTERNATOR CHARACTERISTICS
ALTERNATORCHARACTERISTICS
Terminal voltage Vs field current: The
field current equivalent to OF is required to
compensate Fa and Fal i.e.
i e armature reaction
mmf and leakage flux equivalent mmf .
O F = F a + F al

Terminal Voltage Vs Load current (Effect of


armature reaction on terminal voltage):
Vt = E IR jIXs

SYNCHRONISATION OF GENERATOR
SYNCHRONISATIONOFGENERATOR

POWER DELIVERED BY ALTERNATOR


POWERDELIVEREDBYALTERNATOR
Operation in large system Infinite bus:
The power system is modelled as an infinite bus which
maintains constant frequency and constant voltage.
Here, if we increase the mechanical drive, we do not
increase the frequency as in standalone system; rather,
we contribute larger real power to the grid.
grid
Likewise, if we increase the dc field current, we do not
increase the output voltage as in standalone
stand alone system;
rather, we change the reactive power contributed to the
system.
y

If we increase the mechanical drive to the


alternator, the rotor power angle R increases
aand
d as a result
esu t tthee real
ea po
power,
e , de
delivered
e ed to tthee
infinite bus increases.
The reactive power delivered by the alternator
can be controlled by controlling the dc exciting
current If.
If we increase If, the magnitude of excitation
voltage E increases.
increases If we keep the mechanical
drive constant (i.e., the angle R unaltered), three
conditions by just varying the dc excitation
current If.

SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
SYNCHRONOUSMOTORS
HowitisdifferentfromanInductionMotor?
i i diff
f
d i
?
A synchronous motor always runs at synchronous
speed, whereas an induction motor runs at a
speed slightly less than the synchronous speed.
Th it is
Thus,
i constant
t t speed
d motor
t in
i true
t
sense.
In synchronous motor, there are magnetic poles
on the
th rotor.
t
I d ti motor
Induction
t has
h no magnetic
ti
poles on the rotor instead it has short circuited
windings.
windings
Induction motors are self starting but synchronous
motors are not self starting.
starting

EquivalentCircuitofsynchronousmotor:
q
y

The starting torque of synchronous motor is zero:


This is because,
because the rotor poles are stationary with N & Spoles
on it. Stator poles with N & S poles on it are rotating with
synchronous speed.
When the Npole
N pole of stator comes near to Spole
S pole of the rotor,
rotor
rotor experiences the maximum torque and when the Spole of
the stator comes to Spole of the rotor, experiences the
maximum torque in the opposite direction due to repulsion.
Thus , the average value of the torque is zero.
When a 3 balanced voltage is applied to a 3 balanced
winding of synchronous motor,
motor a rotating magnetic field with
synchronous speed is produced.
If rotor is stationary (at starting), then stator field is equal to a
stator field rotating at a synchronous speed w.
w r.r to the rotor
field. Thus the angle between the two fields = st is a
function of time.
the average value of this torque is Zero,
Zero as the average value of
sinst is zero.

Startingasynchronousmotor:

(a) Starting by Using Damper Winding

(b) Starting as an Induction Motor by short circuiting the


rotor
t winding
i di dc
d supply
l and
d when
h it is
i accelerated
l t d near
to synchronous speed dc supply is provided
(c) Starting By Using small DC Motor (Pony Motors)

OPERATION OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR


OPERATIONOFSYNCHRONOUSMOTOR

Phasor Diagrams
g
for a Synchronous
y
Motor
driving a constant load for:
(a) Under excitation
(b) Normal excitation
(c) Over excitation
(c)

(a)

(b)

Effect of Excitation on Power Factor and


Armature Current(VCurves):

SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSER
SYNCHRONOUSCONDENSER

An overexcited synchronous motor is used as a phase modifier


or compensator.

Employing
Employingsynchronouscondensertocorrect
synchronous condenser to correct
theloadpowerfactor: