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A lecture for synchronous machines. Helpful for 2nd year engineering students.

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HARSHITASHARMA

DepartmentofElectronicsand

Communication Engineering

CommunicationEngineering

JIIT,Sec128,Noida

INTRODUCTION

They are synchronized as rotor speed is exactly fixed by the supply

frequency.

The other type of ac machines are called asynchronous (or Induction).

When

Wh the

h rotor is

i rotated

d by

b a primemover,

i

i works

it

k as an alternator

l

(Synchronous generator).

To run it as a synchronous

y

motor:

Threephase supply is connected to the stator winding

(Armature), and

A dc

d supply

l (for

(f the

th field)

fi ld) to

t the

th rotor

t winding

i di

t produce

to

d

magnetic poles.

Important Parts of the Synchronous Machines are:

Stator (Armature windings)

Rotor ((Field windings)

g)

Damper windings (To prevent hunting in Generator and to provide

starting torque in Motors).

Machine:

The dc field circuit (on the rotor), is a rotating

electromagnet controlled by the dc exciting current.

The p

power supplied

pp

to the dc field circuit does not

enter directly into the energyconversion process.

The armature circuit is p

placed on the stator and

carries threephase currents.

The flow of real p

power through

g the system

y

is

determined by the mechanical input because the

mechanical system exchanges real power only.

The reactive power flow is controlled by the dc field

current. It is a surprising and extremely useful

property of the synchronous machines.

Synchronousspeed:

Synchronous speed:

One revolution of rotor represents 360 mechanical

degrees.

One cycle of emf represents 360 electrical degrees.

For 2

2pole

pole machine, mechanical and electrical degrees are

identical.

If the machine has 4 p

poles,, one cycle

y

of emf would be

generated when the field structure (on the rotor) rotates

through onehalf revolution only.

Thus, in a 4pole machine two cycles of emf is generated

when the rotor completes one revolution.

If the machine has P poles, the number of cycles of emf in

one revolution will be P/2.

In general,

general the electrical angle e and mechanical

angle m in a machine are related as:

P

e = ( ) m

2

frequency

q

y f of induced emf is:

P

f = ( ) ns

2

revolutions

l ti

per minute)

i t ) is

i given

i

as:

120 f

Ns =

P

in

synchronous

y

machine in India ?

Ans. 3000 rpm. A machine cannot have less

than 2 poles.

poles

What can be the maximum speed of a

synchronous machine in USA ?

Ans. 3600 rpm.

and producing voltage at a frequency of 60 Hz.

per minute of the

Calculate the revolutions p

generator. If the frequency of the generated

voltage is required to be decreased to 20 Hz,

Hz

how many poles would be needed on the

generator,

t if it still

till runs att the

th same speed

d?

Solution: N = 120 f = 120 60 = 1200 rpm

s

P

6

120 f 120 20

P=

=

=2

N

1200

SYNCHRONOUSGENERATOR

(ALTERNATOR)

The most commonly used machine for the

ggeneration of electric p

power is the

Synchronous generator called an alternator,

as it generates ac.

ac

The synchronous generator is the workhorse

off the

h electric

l

power industry.

The armature winding is placed on the stator

and the field poles on the rotor.

Construction:

1.. Stator:

Core made of CRGO (Cold Rolled Grain Oriented) sheet

steel or silicon steel.

Laminations in core to minimize eddycurrent losses.

Laminations are stamped

p

out in complete

p

rings

g or in

segments.

Stampings have uniformly distributed open or semiclosed

slots to accommodate armature conductors.

Whole structure held in cast iron frame.

From an electrical viewpoint, stator of synchronous

machine and induction machine are identical.

The windings are usually connected in yconfiguration.

Voltage per phase is 1/ 3or 58% of line voltage, permitting

a reduction

d i in

i the

h amount off dielectric

di l

i insulation.

i l i

2.Rotor:

Cylindrical structure which can rotate inside stator

leaving a very small air gap.

Consists of windings to produce dc magnetic field.

Windings are excited by a separate dc generator called

Exciter.

Exciting current supplied to rotor windings through

two slip rings and carbon brushes.

Depending on type of prime mover used to drive the

alternator, there are two types of rotors:

(i) Cylindrical/NonSalient type (slow speed)

(ii)Salient or Projectedpole type (high speed)

(i) Slip rings link the rotors field windings to external dc

source.

(ii) DC generator exciter:

i

A dc

d generator is

i built

b il off same shaft

h f

as the ac generators rotor. A commutator rectifies the

current sent to the field winding.

g

(iii) Brushless exciter: An ac generator with fixed field

windings and a rotor with a three phase circuit. Diode/ SCR

rectification supplies dc current to field winding.

3.DamperWinding:

In addition to dc field windings,

windings a squirrel cage winding is also added.

added

Under normal conditions, the winding doesnot carry any current.

When sharp changes in the loading occurs, the rotor speed begins to

fluctuate, producing momentary speed variations.

Hence, the rotor starts oscillating. The oscillation is called hunting.

During hunting,

hunting there is a relative motion between rotor (damper

winding) and synchronously rotating magnetic field. So large current

flows in damper winding and emf induces as per Faraday's law as long

as the

h relative

l i motion

i exists.

i

So induced torque in damper winding acts in opposition to

instantaneous relative motion.

ROTATINGMAGNETICFLUXDUETO

ROTATING

MAGNETIC FLUX DUE TO

THREEPHASECURRENTS

Consider a cylindrical magnetic structure with

one winding excited by a singlephase current.

If the current i is dc,

dc the flux density in the air

gap will also be dc and it will have a maximum

value along the horizontal plane. (Bm=Ki)

Flux density is a function of angle m given as:

B = Bm cos m

Therefore,

h f

the

h flux

fl density

d

along

l

the

h air gap is function

f

of time t as well as angle m,

B(t , m ) = Bm cos t cos m

Next, consider a twopole magnetic structure wound

with three coils separated by 120

120 in space.

space

These coils are supplied threephase (R Y B) currents.

Duetothreephasecurrentsin

three phase structure

threephasestructure

returns from the top.

The current iY enters in the first quadrant and current iB

enters in the second quadrant.

The coil mmfs are tapered sinusoidally.

The maximum flux density from coil R lies in the

horizontal plane.

The maxima from coils Y and B are displaced 120 and

240 in space, respectively.

Analysis of ThreePhase System:

The threephase currents supplied,

iR (t ) = I m cos (t )

iY (t ) = I m cos (t 120)

iB (t ) = I m cos (t 240) = I m cos (t + 120)

Thefluxdensityfromthethreecoils,

y

,

B R ( t , m ) = B m cos( t ) cos( m )

BY ( t , m ) = B m cos( t 120 ) cos( m 120 )

B ( t , m ) = B R ( t , m ) + BY ( t , m ) + B B ( t , m )

= B m cos( t ) cos( m ) + B m cos( t 120 ) cos( m 120 )

+ B m cos( t + 120 ) cos( m + 120 )

1

1

1

3 cos(t )

= Bm 2

+ 1 {cos(t + ) + cos(t + 240) + cos(t + + 240)}

m

m

m

Thethreebracketedtermsaddtozeroatalltimes.

Therefore,

B (t , m ) = Bm cos (t m ) = Br cos (t m )

3

2

Where:

Br = (3 / 2) Bm

PropertiesoftheFluxDensity:

Properties of the Flux Density :

1. The magnitude is 50 % greater.

2 If time

2.

i

i fixed,

is

fi d the

h flux

fl is

i sinusoidal

i

id l in

i space (air

( i gap))

with the maximum flux density at max = t, and if t = 0

the maximum flux occurs at m = 0.

3. At a fixed m, the flux density magnitude is sinusoidal in

time.

ARMATUREWINDING

Advantages of having armature winding on the

stator

t t and

d field

fi ld winding

i di on the

th Rotor

R t :

It is easier to provide insulation to armature winding for

hi h voltages,

high

lt

as the

th stationary

t ti

winding

i di is

i nott subjected

bj t d to

t

mechanical stress due to centrifugal forces and also more

space is available.

available

The external threephase circuit can directly be connected

with fixed terminals on the stator, without the need of slip

slip

rings.

For dc supply

pp y to the rotor field winding,

g, onlyy two sliprings,

p g,

each capable of handling much smaller current and

requiring insulation for much lower voltages, are needed.

The revolving field system is light in weight, and therefore

can run with high speed.

In p

practice,, the coils are short p

pitched and the

winding is distributed.

Hence,

Hence the rms value of the induced emf is

reduced by the pitch factor kp and distribution

factor kd, to give:

E = (2 f ) 1.11

1 11 2T k p kd = 44.44

44 f Tk p kd

Pitchfactororcoilspanfactor(k

Pitch factor or coil span factor (kp ):

In a full pitch coil AB, the EMFs induced in the two

coil sides Ea and Eb are in phase and resultant EMF

is:

Er=EEa+EEb=E+E=2E

E E 2E

In a short pitched coil, EMFs Ea and Eb induced are out of phase by angle .

The resultant EMF is given as:

Er=OQ=2OS=2OPcos/2=2Ecos/2

/

/

The factor by which emf per coil is reduced because of pitch being less than

full p

pitch is called p

pitch factor kp.

It is given by: k = phasor sum of the coil-side emfs = cos ( / 2)

p

arithmetic sum of the coil-side emfs

where,

h

is

i the

th angle

l by

b which

hi h coilsare

il

short-pitched.

h t it h d

For nth harmonic, it is given as:

kpn = cos(n / 2)

Distributionfactororbreadthfactor(kd ):

Ifq (numberofslotsperpoleperphase)isverylarge,the

anglebecomesverysmall,then

Kd =

sin

i q / 2 sin

i /2

=

q / 2

/2

Th

Thetotalangleq

t t l

l

i

iscalledphasespread.

ll d h

d

Where,=phasespread=600 electricalfor3phaseand900

electrical for 2phase

electricalfor2

phasemachines.

machines

Fornthharmonic, K dn = sin n / 2

n / 2

Example1:

p

EExample

l 2:

2 A 3phase,

3 h

50 H 20pole,

50Hz,

20 l salient

li

pole alternator with starconnected stator

winding has 180 slots on the stator. There are

8 conductors per slot and the coils are full

full

pitch. The flux per pole is 25 mWb. Assuming

sinusoidally distributed flux,

flux calculate

(a) the speed,

(b) the generated emf per phase, and

(c) the line emf.

emf

Solution:

Totalnumberofarmatureconductors,

Z = 180 8 = 1440

Therefore,thenumberofturnsperphase, T =

1440 / 2

= 240

3

120 f 120 50

=

= 300rpm

(a) Thespeed, N s =

20

P

(b) Sincethecoilsarefullpitch,thepitchfactor,k

Since the coils are full pitch the pitch factor kp =1.Now,

= 1 Now

180

N o. of slots per pole =

=9

200

S lo t an g le, =

E lectrical an g le p er p o le

180

=

= 20

9

N u m b er o f slo ts p er p o le

Numberofslotsperpoleperphase,

9

q= =3

3

sin ( q / 2) sin (3 20 / 2)

kd =

=

= 0.960

q sin

i ( / 2) 3 sin

i (20 / 2)

Th f

Therefore,thermsvalueofthegeneratedemfperphase,

h

l

f h

d

f

h

E = 4.44 f Tkp kd

= 4.44 50 0.025 240 1 0.960 = 1278.7 V

(c) Since,thestatorwindingisstarconnected,thelineemf,

EL = 3 1278.7

1278 7 = 2214.8

2214 8 V

ARMATURE REACTION

ARMATUREREACTION

The generator is loaded , Ia flows in the armature winding.

The load current produces a rotating flux,a due to mmf Fa.

Fa is called armature reaction, which rotates at synchronous

speed and in the direction of the rotor.

Thus the resultant mmf will be Phasor sum Fr=Ff + Fa

This rotating flux a induces a ac three phase voltage in the

stator winding.

This voltage is

subtracted from the induced voltage.

represented by a voltage drop on the synchronous reactance.

voltage source and a reactance connected in series.

Natureofarmaturereaction:

Assuming that the armature resistance and

leakage reactance are negligible so that:

V t = E r due to r

Case 1: When current and generated EMF are in

phase:

the three cases as the direction of Ia is reversed.

EQUIVALENTCIRCUITOFALTERNATOR

produced

d d by

b excitation

it ti currentt in

i field

fi ld winding

i di on rotor.

t

Xs: Synchronous reactance per phase

R: Resistance per phase

V: Terminal voltage

X1: Leakage reactance but X1<< Xs hence, ignored.

Hence for alternator, equivalent circuit (for one phase):

Z s = R + jX s = R 2 + X s tan 1 ( X s / R) X s 900

2

Induced

Ind ced EMF E:

E

E = V + Vz = V + IZ s = V + I ( R + jX s )

Phase angle between excitation EMF E and generated

voltage V.

Also called power angle or torque angle.

In generating action : the field poles are driven ahead

of the resultant field by an angle R by the prime

mover.

mover

In case of motor : the field poles lag behind the

resultant field by an angle R due to the load.

load

Phasor diagrams:

g

Inductiveload(laggingpf):

Capacitiveload(leadingpf):

VOLTAGE REGULATION

VOLTAGEREGULATION

It is

i the

h change

h

i the

in

h terminal

i l voltage

l

between noload and full load expressed as

perunit value or percentage of fullload

voltage.

Perunit voltage regulation: E V

V

E V

100 %

V

V is terminal voltage at full load and E is

terminal voltage when load is removed.

has a rated terminal voltage of 22 kV (line).

The stator winding is starconnected and has a

resistance of 0.014 per phase and a

y

impedance

p

of 0.16 p

per p

phase.

synchronous

Calculate the voltage regulation for a load

power factor of 0.8 lagging.

gg g

havingg a p

Solution: The fullload

full load current for the stator

winding is the same irrespective of the power

f t off the

factor

th load

l d and

d is

i given

i

b

by:

600 106 = 3I L (22 103 )

I phh

600 106

= IL =

= 15.7 kA

3

3 22 10

Theterminalvoltageperphaseonfullload,

22 kV

V=

= 12.7 kV;

3

Vz = IZ s = (15.7 kA) (0.16 ) = 2.512 kV

cos =

OC 0.014

0 014

=

= 0.0875

OG 0.16

and

For pf = 0.8

0 8 lagging:

lagging :

= ( ) = 84.98 36.87 = 48.11

and

cos = 0.6677

PuttingallthevoltagesinkV,weget

E = V 2 + Vz2 + 2V Vz cos

= (12.7) 2 + (2.512) 2 + 2 12.7 2.512 0.6677 = 14.5 kV

Thevoltageregulationis

E V 14.5 12.7

=

= 0.1417 per unit = 14.17 per cent

V

12.7

MEASUREMENTOFSYNCHRONOUSIMPEDANCE

The synchronous impedance Zs of an

plottingg its

alternator can be determined byy p

opencircuit and shortcircuit characteristics.

Open

OpenCircuit

Circuitcharacteristics:

characteristics:

ShortCircuitcharacteristics:

Synchronousimpedance:

Synchronous impedance:

Zpu=Z/ZB

Example4:

ALTERNATOR CHARACTERISTICS

ALTERNATORCHARACTERISTICS

Terminal voltage Vs field current: The

field current equivalent to OF is required to

compensate Fa and Fal i.e.

i e armature reaction

mmf and leakage flux equivalent mmf .

O F = F a + F al

armature reaction on terminal voltage):

Vt = E IR jIXs

SYNCHRONISATION OF GENERATOR

SYNCHRONISATIONOFGENERATOR

POWERDELIVEREDBYALTERNATOR

Operation in large system Infinite bus:

The power system is modelled as an infinite bus which

maintains constant frequency and constant voltage.

Here, if we increase the mechanical drive, we do not

increase the frequency as in standalone system; rather,

we contribute larger real power to the grid.

grid

Likewise, if we increase the dc field current, we do not

increase the output voltage as in standalone

stand alone system;

rather, we change the reactive power contributed to the

system.

y

alternator, the rotor power angle R increases

aand

d as a result

esu t tthee real

ea po

power,

e , de

delivered

e ed to tthee

infinite bus increases.

The reactive power delivered by the alternator

can be controlled by controlling the dc exciting

current If.

If we increase If, the magnitude of excitation

voltage E increases.

increases If we keep the mechanical

drive constant (i.e., the angle R unaltered), three

conditions by just varying the dc excitation

current If.

SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS

SYNCHRONOUSMOTORS

HowitisdifferentfromanInductionMotor?

i i diff

f

d i

?

A synchronous motor always runs at synchronous

speed, whereas an induction motor runs at a

speed slightly less than the synchronous speed.

Th it is

Thus,

i constant

t t speed

d motor

t in

i true

t

sense.

In synchronous motor, there are magnetic poles

on the

th rotor.

t

I d ti motor

Induction

t has

h no magnetic

ti

poles on the rotor instead it has short circuited

windings.

windings

Induction motors are self starting but synchronous

motors are not self starting.

starting

EquivalentCircuitofsynchronousmotor:

q

y

This is because,

because the rotor poles are stationary with N & Spoles

on it. Stator poles with N & S poles on it are rotating with

synchronous speed.

When the Npole

N pole of stator comes near to Spole

S pole of the rotor,

rotor

rotor experiences the maximum torque and when the Spole of

the stator comes to Spole of the rotor, experiences the

maximum torque in the opposite direction due to repulsion.

Thus , the average value of the torque is zero.

When a 3 balanced voltage is applied to a 3 balanced

winding of synchronous motor,

motor a rotating magnetic field with

synchronous speed is produced.

If rotor is stationary (at starting), then stator field is equal to a

stator field rotating at a synchronous speed w.

w r.r to the rotor

field. Thus the angle between the two fields = st is a

function of time.

the average value of this torque is Zero,

Zero as the average value of

sinst is zero.

Startingasynchronousmotor:

rotor

t winding

i di dc

d supply

l and

d when

h it is

i accelerated

l t d near

to synchronous speed dc supply is provided

(c) Starting By Using small DC Motor (Pony Motors)

OPERATIONOFSYNCHRONOUSMOTOR

Phasor Diagrams

g

for a Synchronous

y

Motor

driving a constant load for:

(a) Under excitation

(b) Normal excitation

(c) Over excitation

(c)

(a)

(b)

Armature Current(VCurves):

SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSER

SYNCHRONOUSCONDENSER

or compensator.

Employing

Employingsynchronouscondensertocorrect

synchronous condenser to correct

theloadpowerfactor:

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