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In linear algebra and related elds of mathematics, a linear subspace (or vector subspace) is a vector space that

is a subset of some other (higher-dimension) vector space.

A linear subspace is usually called simply a subspace when

the context serves to distinguish it from other kinds of

subspaces.

whenever w is, and it follows that W is closed under subtraction as well. Since W is nonempty, there is an element

x in W, and x x = 0 is in W, so property 1 is satised.

One can also argue that since W is nonempty, there is an

element x in W, and 0 is in the eld K so 0x = 0 and

therefore property 1 is satised.

zation of subspace

let the vector space V be the real coordinate space

Let K be a eld (such as the real numbers), and let V be and

3

R

.

Take W to be the set of all vectors in V whose last

a vector space over K. As usual, we call elements of V

component

is 0. Then W is a subspace of V.

vectors and call elements of K scalars. Ignoring the full

extent of mathematical generalization, scalars can be un- Proof:

derstood simply as numbers. Suppose that W is a subset

of V. If W is a vector space itself (which means that it is

1. Given u and v in W, then they can be expressed as

closed under operations of addition and scalar multipliu = (u1 , u2 , 0) and v = (v1 , v2 , 0). Then u + v =

cation), with the same vector space operations as V has,

(u1 +v1 , u2 +v2 , 0+0) = (u1 +v1 , u2 +v2 , 0). Thus, u

then W is a subspace of V.

+ v is an element of W, too.

To use this denition, we don't have to prove that all the

2. Given u in W and a scalar c in R, if u = (u1 , u2 , 0)

properties of a vector space hold for W. Instead, we can

again, then cu = (cu1 , cu2 , c0) = (cu1 , cu2 ,0). Thus,

prove a theorem that gives us an easier way to show that

cu is an element of W too.

a subset of a vector space is a subspace.

Theorem: Let V be a vector space over the eld K, and

let W be a subset of V. Then W is a subspace if and only Example II: Let the eld be R again, but now let the

vector space be the Cartesian plane R2 . Take W to be

if W satises the following three conditions:

the set of points (x, y) of R2 such that x = y. Then W is

a subspace of R2 .

1. The zero vector, 0, is in W.

Proof:

an element of W;

that is, points in the plane such that p1 = p2 and q1

= q2 . Then p + q = (p1 +q1 , p2 +q2 ); since p1 = p2

and q1 = q2 , then p1 + q1 = p2 + q2 , so p + q is an

element of W.

the product cu is an element of W.

Proof: Firstly, property 1 ensures W is nonempty. Looking at the denition of a vector space, we see that properties 2 and 3 above assure closure of W under addition

2. Let p = (p1 , p2 ) be an element of W, that is, a point

and scalar multiplication, so the vector space operations

in the plane such that p1 = p2 , and let c be a scalar

are well dened. Since elements of W are necessarily elin R. Then cp = (cp1 , cp2 ); since p1 = p2 , then cp1

ements of V, axioms 1, 2 and 58 of a vector space are

= cp2 , so cp is an element of W.

satised. By the closure of W under scalar multiplication

(specically by 0 and 1), the vector spaces denitional In general, any subset of the real coordinate space Rn that

axiom identity element of addition and axiom inverse el- is dened by a system of homogeneous linear equations

ement of addition are satised.

will yield a subspace. (The equation in example I was z =

Conversely, if W is a subspace of V, then W is itself a 0, and the equation in example II was x = y.) Geometrivector space under the operations induced by V, so prop- cally, these subspaces are points, lines, planes, and so on,

erties 2 and 3 are satised. By property 3, w is in W that pass through the point 0.

1

4 DESCRIPTIONS

2.1

span, but criteria for equality of k-spaces specied by sets

Example III: Again take the eld to be R, but now let of k vectors are not so simple.

the vector space V be the set RR of all functions from

A dual description is provided with linear functionals

R to R. Let C(R) be the subset consisting of continuous

(usually implemented as linear equations). One non-zero

functions. Then C(R) is a subspace of RR .

linear functional F species its kernel subspace F = 0 of

Proof:

codimension 1. Subspaces of codimension 1 specied by

two linear functionals are equal if and only if one func1. We know from calculus that 0 C(R) RR .

tional can be obtained from another with scalar multipli2. We know from calculus that the sum of continuous cation (in the dual space):

functions is continuous.

3. Again, we know from calculus that the product of a

continuous function and a number is continuous.

c K : F = cF (or F =

1

F)

c

Example IV: Keep the same eld and vector space as be- of equations. The following two subsections will present

fore, but now consider the set Di(R) of all dierentiable this latter description in details, and the remaining four

functions. The same sort of argument as before shows subsections further describe the idea of liner span.

that this is a subspace too.

Examples that extend these themes are common in

4.1

functional analysis.

Properties of subspaces

under linear combinations. That is, a nonempty set W

is a subspace if and only if every linear combination of

(nitely many) elements of W also belongs to W. Conditions 2 and 3 for a subspace are simply the most basic

kinds of linear combinations.

equations with n variables is a subspace in the coordinate

space K n :

x2

n

.

.. K :

.

.

.

.

.

..

..

..

..

xn

For example (over real or rational numbers), the set of all

be closed in general, but a nite-dimensional subspace is

vectors (x, y, z) satisfying the equations

[1]

always closed. The same is true for subspaces of nite

codimension, i.e. determined by a nite number of continuous linear functionals.

x + 3y + 2z = 0 and 2x 4y + 5z = 0

is a one-dimensional subspace. More generally, that is to

say that given a set of n independent functions, the dimension of the subspace in K k will be the dimension of

Descriptions of subspaces include the solution set to a the null set of A, the composite matrix of the n functions.

homogeneous system of linear equations, the subset of

Euclidean space described by a system of homogeneous

4.2 Null space of a matrix

linear parametric equations, the span of a collection of

vectors, and the null space, column space, and row space

Main article: Null space

of a matrix. Geometrically (especially, over the eld of

real numbers and its subelds), a subspace is a at in an

In a nite-dimensional space, a homogeneous system of

n-space that passes through the origin.

linear equations can be written as a single matrix equaA natural description of an 1-subspace is the scalar multion:

tiplication of one non-zero vector v to all possible scalar

values. 1-subspaces specied by two vectors are equal if

and only if one vector can be obtained from another with

Ax = 0.

scalar multiplication:

The set of solutions to this equation is known as the null

space of the matrix. For example, the subspace described

1

c K : v = cv (or v = v )

above is the null space of the matrix

c

Descriptions

4.5

[

A=

3

Example The xz-plane in R3 can be parameterized by

the equations

1 3

2 4

2

.

5

x = t1 , y = 0, z = t2 .

of some matrix (see algorithms, below).

4.3

vectors (1, 0, 0) and (0, 0, 1). Every vector in

the xz-plane can be written as a linear combination of these two:

linear parametric equations is a subspace:

(t1 , 0, t2 ) = t1 (1, 0, 0) + t2 (0, 0, 1).

1

Geometrically, this

corresponds to the fact that

x 2

every point on the xz-plane can be reached

n

t1 , . . . , t m K .

.. K : .

..

..

.. some for

from

the origin by

rst moving some distance

.

..

.

.

.

in the direction of

(1, 0, 0) and then moving

xn

some distance in the direction of (0, 0, 1).

For example, the set of all vectors (x, y, z) parameterized

by the equations

x = 2t1 +3t2 ,

y = 5t1 4t2 ,

and

z = t1 +2t2

A system of linear parametric equations in a niteeld (such as real or rational numbers).[2]

dimensional space can also be written as a single matrix

equation:

4.4

Span of vectors

x = At

In linear algebra, the system of parametric equations can

be written as a single vector equation:

x

y

z

2

3

= t1 5 + t24

1

2

where

A = 5 4 .

1 2

of the vector x. In linear algebra, this subspace is known

as the column space (or image) of the matrix A. It is precisely the subspace of K n spanned by the column vectors

of A.

The expression on the right is called a linear combination The row space of a matrix is the subspace spanned by its

of the vectors (2, 5, 1) and (3, 4, 2). These two vectors row vectors. The row space is interesting because it is the

are said to span the resulting subspace.

orthogonal complement of the null space (see below).

In general, a linear combination of vectors v1 , v2 , ... ,

vk is any vector of the form

Main articles: Linear independence, Basis (linear algebra) and Dimension (vector space)

The set of all possible linear combinations is called the In general, a subspace of K n determined by k paramespan:

ters (or spanned by k vectors) has dimension k. However,

there are exceptions to this rule. For example, the subspace of K 3 spanned by the three vectors (1, 0, 0), (0, 0,

Span{v1 , . . . , vk } = {t1 v1 + + tk vk : t1 , . . . , tk K}1),

. and (2, 0, 3) is just the xz-plane, with each point on

the

plane described by innitely many dierent values of

If the vectors v1 , ... , vk have n components, then their

t

n

1, t2, t3.

span is a subspace of K . Geometrically, the span is the

t1 v1 + + tk vk .

at through the origin in n-dimensional space determined In general, vectors v1 , ... , vk are called linearly indeby the points v1 , ... , vk.

pendent if

5.2 Intersection

v

0

of R3 .

t1 v1 + + tk vk = u1 v1 + + uk vk

for (t 1 , t 2 , ... , tk) (u1 , u2 , ... , uk).[3] If v1 , ..., vk are

linearly independent, then the coordinates t 1 , ..., tk for a

vector in the span are uniquely determined.

A basis for a subspace S is a set of linearly independent vectors whose span is S. The number of elements

in a basis is always equal to the geometric dimension of

the subspace. Any spanning set for a subspace can be

changed into a basis by removing redundant vectors (see

algorithms, below).

Example Let S be the subspace of R4 dened by the

equations

x1 = 2x2

and

x3 = 5x4 .

Then the vectors (2, 1, 0, 0) and (0, 0, 5, 1) are a basis for S. In particular, every vector that satises the

above equations can be written uniquely as a linear

combination of the two basis vectors:

The subspace S is two-dimensional. Geometrically, it is the plane in R4 passing through the

points (0, 0, 0, 0), (2, 1, 0, 0), and (0, 0, 5, 1).

5

5.1

Inclusion

intersection U W := {v V : v is an element of both U

and W} is also a subspace of V.

Proof:

1. Let v and w be elements of U W. Then v and w

belong to both U and W. Because U is a subspace,

then v + w belongs to U. Similarly, since W is a subspace, then v + w belongs to W. Thus, v + w belongs

to U W.

2. Let v belong to U W, and let c be a scalar. Then v

belongs to both U and W. Since U and W are subspaces, cv belongs to both U and W.

3. Since U and W are vector spaces, then 0 belongs to

both sets. Thus, 0 belongs to U W.

For every vector space V, the set {0} and V itself are

subspaces of V.

5.3 Sum

If U and W are subspaces, their sum is the subspace

U + W = {u + w : u U, w W } .

The set-theoretical inclusion binary relation specied a For example, the sum of two lines is the plane that conpartial order on the set of all subspaces (of any dimen- tains them both. The dimension of the sum satises the

sion).

inequality

A subspace cannot lie in any subspace of lesser dimension. If dim U = k, a nite number, and U W, then dim

max(dim U, dim W ) dim(U +W ) dim(U )+dim(W ).

W = k if and only if U = W.

6.2

Subspace membership

Here the minimum only occurs if one subspace is contained in the other, while the maximum is the most general case. The dimension of the intersection and the sum

are related:

5.4

Lattice of subspaces

5

See the article on row space for an example.

If we instead put the matrix A into reduced row echelon form, then the resulting basis for the row space is

uniquely determined. This provides an algorithm for

checking whether two row spaces are equal and, by extension, whether two subspaces of K n are equal.

Aforementioned two operations make the set of all subspaces a bounded distributive lattice, where the {0} subspace, the least element, is an identity element of the sum

operation, and the identical subspace V, the greatest element, is an identity element of the intersection operation.

5.5

Other

If V is an inner product space, then the orthogonal complement of any subspace of V is again a subspace. This

operation, understood as negation (), makes the lattice

of subspaces a (possibly innite) Boolean algebra.

S of K n , and a vector v with n components.

Output Determines whether v is an element of

S

1. Create a (k + 1) n matrix A whose rows

are the vectors b1 , ... , bk and v.

2. Use elementary row operations to put A

into row echelon form.

3. If the echelon form has a row of zeroes,

then the vectors {b1 , ..., bk, v} are linearly dependent, and therefore v S .

In a pseudo-Euclidean space there are orthogonal complements too, but such operation does not form a Boolean 6.3 Basis for a column space

algebra (nor a Heyting algebra) because of null subspaces,

Input An m n matrix A

for which N N = N {0}. The same case presents the

Output A basis for the column space of A

Algorithms

into row echelon form.

2. Determine which columns of the echeMost algorithms for dealing with subspaces involve row

lon form have pivots. The corresponding

reduction. This is the process of applying elementary row

columns of the original matrix are a basis

operations to a matrix until it reaches either row echelon

for the column space.

form or reduced row echelon form. Row reduction has

the following important properties:

See the article on column space for an example.

1. The reduced matrix has the same null space as the This produces a basis for the column space that is a subset of the original column vectors. It works because the

original.

columns with pivots are a basis for the column space of

2. Row reduction does not change the span of the row the echelon form, and row reduction does not change the

vectors, i.e. the reduced matrix has the same row linear dependence relationships between the columns.

space as the original.

3. Row reduction does not aect the linear dependence 6.4

of the column vectors.

6.1

Input An m n matrix A.

Output A basis for the row space of A.

Input A basis {b1 , b2 , ..., bk} for a subspace

S of K n , and a vector v S

Output Numbers t 1 , t 2 , ..., tk such that v =

t 1 b1 + + tkbk

into row echelon form.

columns are b1 ,...,bk , with the last column being v.

a basis for the row space of A.

into reduced row echelon form.

8 TEXTBOOKS

3. Express the nal column of the reduced

echelon form as a linear combination of

the rst k columns. The coecients used

are the desired numbers t 1 , t 2 , ..., tk.

(These should be precisely the rst k entries in the nal column of the reduced

echelon form.)

If the nal column of the reduced row echelon form contains a pivot, then the input vector v does not lie in S.

6.5

Input An m n matrix A.

Output A basis for the null space of A

1. Use elementary row operations to put A

in reduced row echelon form.

2. Using the reduced row echelon form, determine which of the variables x1 , x2 ,

..., xn are free. Write equations for the

dependent variables in terms of the free

variables.

3. For each free variable xi, choose a vector

in the null space for which xi = 1 and the

remaining free variables are zero. The resulting collection of vectors is a basis for

the null space of A.

k linear equations involving the variables

c1 ,...,cn. The (n k) n matrix corresponding to this system is the desired matrix with

nullspace S.

Example If the reduced row echelon form of A is

1

0

0

0

0 3

1 5

0 0

0 2 0

0 1 4

1 7 9

equations

c3 = 3c1 + 5c2

c5 = 2c1 c2 + 7c4

c6 = 4c2 9c4

It follows that the row vectors of A satisfy the

equations

x3 = 3x1 + 5x2

x5 = 2x1 x2 + 7x4

x6 = 4x2 9x4 .

6.6

two subspaces

U + W and the intersection U W can be calculated

using the Zassenhaus algorithm

6.7

Output An (n k) n matrix whose null space is S.

1. Create a matrix A whose rows are b1 , b2 , ...,

bk.

2. Use elementary row operations to put A into

reduced row echelon form.

3. Let c1 , c2 , ..., cn be the columns of the reduced

row echelon form. For each column without a

pivot, write an equation expressing the column

as a linear combination of the columns with

pivots.

for the null space of the corresponding matrix.

7 See also

Signal subspace

Multilinear subspace learning

Cyclic subspace

8 Textbooks

Axler, Sheldon Jay (1997), Linear Algebra Done

Right (2nd ed.), Springer-Verlag, ISBN 0-38798259-0

Lay, David C. (August 22, 2005), Linear Algebra and Its Applications (3rd ed.), Addison Wesley,

ISBN 978-0-321-28713-7

7

Meyer, Carl D. (February 15, 2001), Matrix Analysis and Applied Linear Algebra, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM), ISBN 9780-89871-454-8

Poole, David (2006), Linear Algebra: A Modern

Introduction (2nd ed.), Brooks/Cole, ISBN 0-53499845-3

Anton, Howard (2005), Elementary Linear Algebra

(Applications Version) (9th ed.), Wiley International

Leon, Steven J. (2006), Linear Algebra With Applications (7th ed.), Pearson Prentice Hall

External links

Vector subspace at PlanetMath.org. .

Gilbert Strang, MIT Linear Algebra Lecture on the

Four Fundamental Subspaces at Google Video, from

MIT OpenCourseWare

10

References

(pdf). Retrieved September 17, 2012. for Hilbert spaces

[2] Generally, K can be any eld of such characteristic that

the given integer matrix has the appropriate rank in it. All

elds include integers, but some integers may equal to zero

in some elds.

[3] This denition is often stated dierently: vectors v1 , ..., vk

are linearly independent if t 1 v1 + + tkvk 0 for (t 1 , t 2 ,

..., tk) (0, 0, ..., 0). The two denitions are equivalent.

11

11

11.1

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