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statistics and probability

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When a coin is tossed, there are two possible outcomes:

heads (H) or

tails (T)

Probability of an event happening =

Total number of outcomes

Statistics : The study of data: how to collect, summarize and present it.

Or

1.

and organization of data.

MEAN, MEDIAN, MODE

Mean: Average.

The sum of a set of data divided by the number of data.

(Do not round your answer unless directed to do so.)

Median:

The middle value, or the mean of the middle two values, when the data is

arranged in numerical order. Think of a "median" being in the middle of a

highway.

Mode:

It is possible to have more than one mode, and it is possible to have no mode. If

there is no mode-write "no mode", do not write zero (0)

The two sets of scores above are identical except for the first score. The set on the left shows

the actual scores. The set on the right shows what would happen if one of the scores was

WAY out of range in regard to the other scores. Such a term is called an outlier.

With the outlier, the mean changed.

With the outlier, the median did NOT change.

MEDIAN

MEAN

Use the mean to describe the middle of a set

of data that does not have an outlier.

Advantages:

Most popular measure in fields such as

business, engineering and computer science.

Disadvantages:

Affected by extreme values (outliers)

of data that does have an outlier.

Advantages:

Extreme values (outliers) do not affect the

median as strongly as they do the mean.

Disadvantages:

Not as popular as mean.

we add the same amount to all data values, or multiply

each data value by the same amount?

Data

Mean

Mode

Median

Original Data

Set:

12.2

14

13

Add 3 to each

data value

15.2

17

16

Multiply 2

times each data

value

24.4

28

26

When added: Since all values are shifted the same amount, the measures of central tendency all shifted by the

same amount. If you add 3 to each data value, you will add 3 to the mean, mode and median.

When multiplied: Since all values are affected by the same multiplicative values, the measures of central

tendency will feel the same affect. If you multiply each data value by 2, you will multiply the mean, mode and

median by 2.

Example #1

Find the mean, median and mode for the following data: 5, 15, 10, 15, 5, 10, 10, 20, 25, 15.

(You will need to organize the data.)

Mean:

Median:

Listing the data in order is the easiest way to find the median.

The numbers 10 and 15 both fall in the middle.

Average these two numbers to get the median.

10 + 15 = 12.5

2

Mode:

There are three 10's and three 15's.

In this example there are two answers for the mode.

Example #2

For what value of x will 8 and x have the same mean (average) as 27 and 5?

First, find the mean of 27 and 5:

27 + 5 = 16

2

average of x and 8 must be 16:

x + 8 = 16

2

32 = x + 8

-8

-8

24 = x

cross multiply

and solve

Example #3 :

On his first 5 biology tests, Bob received the following scores: 72, 86, 92, 63, & 77. What

score must Bob earn on his 6th test so that his average (mean score) for all 6 tests will be 80?

Possible solution:

Set up an equation to represent the situation. Remember to use all 6 test scores:

72 + 86 + 92 + 63 + 77 + x = 80

6

cross multiply and solve:

(80)(6) = 390 + x

480 = 390 + x

- 390 -390

90 =

x

Bob must get a 90 on the sixth test.

Example #4

The mean (average) weight of three dogs is 38 pounds. One of the dogs, Sparky, weighs 46

pounds. The other two dogs, Eddie and Sandy, have the same weight. Find Eddie's weight.

Let x = Eddie's weight

(They weigh the same, so they are both represented by "x".)

Let x = Sandy's weight

Average: sum of the data divided by the number of data.

x + x + 46 = 38

cross multiply and solve

3(dogs)

(38)(3) = 2x + 46

114 = 2x + 46

-46

-46

68 = 2x

2

2

34 = x

Deviation just means how far from the normal

The Variance & the Standard Deviation both measure how spread

out numbers are.

We use the Greek letter to represent Std Dev, and we use 2 to represent Variance.

Theyre both related, because Std Dev is simply the sq root of Variance

STD DEV :

VARIANCE

Calculate the MEAN: x

Calculate the DIFFERENCES: ( x x )

3) Calculate the SQUARED DIFFERENCES:

1)

2)

(x x) 2

4)

x x

Calculate the AVG SQUARED DIFF (This gives you the VARIANCE): VAR

5)

To get the STD DEV , take the square root of the VAR (from Step 4): STD DEV

You and your friends have just measured the heights of your dogs (in millimeters):

The heights (at the shoulders) are: 600mm, 470mm, 170mm, 430mm and 300mm.

Answer:

Step#1:

394

5

On the graph below, we have drawn in a line at the mean height of 394 mm

Step#2:

Step#3:

(206) 2 , (76) 2 , ( 224) 2 , (36) 2 , (94) 2

VAR

Step#4:

VAR : 2

21,704

5

Step#5:

STD DEV:

VAR

21,704

147.3

(Note: In reality, the 5 dogs arent really a population. Rather, they are really just a small sample of a

bigger population of dogs. Therefore, we really should have calculated the Sample Std Dev, & therefore,

we should have used a slightly different formula. But because this is Algebra 2 (& not AP Stats), we will

keep things simpler & just stick with the formula for the Population Std Dev.)

If you prefer, you can use a TABLE to help you calculate the Standard Deviation:

Step#1:

Step 2

394

5

Step 3

DATA

DIFFERENCES

(x x)

SQUARED

DIFFERENCES

( x x )2

600

( 206) 2 42,436

470

( 76) 2 5,776

170

( 224) 2 50,176

430

( 36) 2 1,296

300

( 94) 2 8,836

Step#4:

VAR : 2

21,704

5

Step#5:

STD DEV:

VAR

21,704

147.3

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