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Structural Analysis

Is the prediction of the performance of a given structure


under the prescribed loads and /or other external
effects, such as support movement and temperature.

Structure
Refers to a system of connected parts used to support a
load.

Example:
1. buildings
2. bridges

4. Ship and aircraft frames


5. tanks

6. Pressure vessels
3. towers

7. Mechanical systems
8. Electrical supporting structures

PERFORMANCE CHARATERISTICS
1. Stresses or stress resultant
such as axial forces, shear forces, and
bending moments

2. Deflections
3. Support Reactions

CLASSIFICATION OF STRUCTURES
1. Tension Structures

2. Compression Structures

COLUMN

ARCH

3. Trusses

4. Shear Structures

5. Bending Structures

Beam

Rigid Frames

Plate

1. Dead Loads
Example:
a. Weights of frames
b. Framing and bracing systems
c. Floors
d. Roofs

e. Ceilings
f. Walls
g. Stairways
h. Heating and air conditioning systems
i. plumbing
j. Electrical system and so forth

UNIT WEIGHTS OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS


MATERIALS

UNIT WEIGHT/kN/m3

Aluminum

25.9

Brick

18.8

Concrete ,reinforced

23.6

Structural Steel

77.0

Wood

6.3

Are loads of varying magnitudes/or positions


caused by the use of the structure.
- the magnitudes of design live loads are usually
specified in building codes.

Building Code of the Philippines

National Structural Code of the Philippines


-

Minimum Floor LIVE LOADS for Building


Occupancy or Use

Live Load/kPa

Hospital patient rooms,


residential, dwellings,
apartments, hotel guest
rooms, school classroom

1.92

Library reading rooms,


hospital operating rooms
and laboratories

2.87

Dance halls and


ballrooms, restaurants,
gymnasiums

4.79

Light manufacturing,
light storage warehouses,
wholesale stores
Heavy manufacturing,
heavy storage
warehouses

6.0

11.97

Source: Adapted from ASCE/SEI 7-05, Min. Design Loads


for Buildings and Other Structures.

3. Live Loads for Bridges:


Specified by :
American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officials (AASHTO)

Two System of standard Trucks


H- truck (H loading) two axle truck
HS-truck (HS loading) two axle tractor truck with single-axle
semitrailer

WIND PRESSURE

= I
Where:
= design wind pressure
= .
= . .

= . . 10
=

Combined Height, Exposure and Gust factor Coefficient (Ce)


Height Above Average Level of Adjoining
Ground, (m)

Exposure D

Exposure C

Exposure B

05
6
7
8
9
10
15
20
30
40
60
80
100

1.41
1.45
1.48
1.51
1.54
1.56
1.65
1.75
1.87
1.96
2.09
2.17
2.26

1.08
1.13
1.17
1.20
1.23
1.25
1.35
1.46
1.60
1.70
1.86
2.00
2.09

0.63
0.67
0.70
0.73
0.76
0.78
0.89
0.98
1.12
1.23
1.41
1.55
1.68

Pressure Coefficients (Cq)


Structure or Part
Thereof

Description
Method 1 (Normal Force Method)
Walls:
Windward wall
Leeward wall
Roofs:
Wind perpendicular to ridge
Leeward roof or flat roof
Windward roof
less than 2:12
slope 2:12 to less than 9:12

Primary Frames and


Systems

slope 9:12 to 12:12


slope > 12:12
Wind parallel to ridge and flat roofs
Method 2 (Projected Area Method)
On vertical projected area:
structures 12 m or less in height
structures over 12 m in height
On horizontal projected area

Cq Factor

0.8 inward
0.5 outward
0.7 outward
0.7 outward
0.7 outward
0.9 outward or
0.3 inward
0.4 inward
0.7 inward
0.7 outward

1.3 horizontal any


direction
1.4 horizontal any
direction
0.7 upward

Occupancy Categories
Occupancy Category

Occupancy Type of Function of Structures

Essential Facilities

Hospitals and other medical facilities having surgery and emergency treatment areas
Fire and police stations
Tanks and other structures containing, housing or supporting water or other fire-suppression materials
or equipment required for the protection of essential or hazardous facilities or special occupancy
structures
Emergency vehicles and equipment shelters and garages
Structures and equipment in emergency preparedness centers
Stand-by-power generating equipment for essential facilities
Structures and equipment in communication centers and other facilities required for emergency
purposes

Hazardous Facilities

Structures housing, supporting or containing sufficient quantities of toxic or explosive substances


which are dangerous to the safety of the general public if released

Special Occupancy Structures

Covered structures whose primary occupancy is public assembly having a capacity of more than 300
persons
Buildings for schools (through secondary) or day-care centers having a capacity of more than 250
students
Buildings for colleges or adult education schools with a capacity of more than 500 students
Medical facilities with 50 or more resident incapacitated, patients but not included above
Jails and detention facilities
All structures with an occupancy of more than 5000 persons
Structures and equipment in power generating stations and other public utility facilities not included
above and required for continued operation

Standard Occupancy Structures

All structures having occupancies or functions not listed above

Wind Speeds (qs)


Zone

II

III

basic wind speed

200 kPH

175 kPH

150 kPH

wind stagnation pressure

2000 Pa

1500 Pa

1000 Pa

Occupancy Requirements
Occupancy Category
I.
II.
III.
IV.

Essential Facilities
Hazardous Facilities
Special Occupancy Structures
Standard Occupancy Structures

Importance Factor, I
1.15
1.15
1.00
1.00

NORMAL FORCE
METHOD

PROJECTED AREA
METHOD

5. Snow Loads
6. Earthquake loads
7. Hydrostatic and Soil Pressures
8. Thermal and other Effects

Support Connections
Three Types of Joints
1. Pin Connection
2. Roller Support
3. Fixed Joint

Support Connections

Idealized Models

Pin Connection

Roller Support

Fixed Support

Plate #1-Support for Coplanar Structures


Draw the different types of Connections,
there corresponding idealized symbol,
reactions, and number of unknowns.

Source: RC Hibbeler