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ASPHALT

TECHNOLOGY

IMPORTANCE OF ASPHALT

ASPHALT
A dark brown to black cementitious
material, solid to semi-solid in
consistency in which the
predominating constituents are called
bitumen, which are found in nature, or
as residue in petroleum refining.

Properties of Asphalt
Physical
a. Consistency ranges from a very thin liquid to a stiff semisolid state.

b. Temperature Susceptibility thermoplastic substance.


c. Adhesion ability to stick to the agg.
d. Cohesion ability to hold the agg. particle firmly
e. Durability resistance of asphalt to changes in properties due
to weathering or aging.

f. Hardening asphalt hardens when heated to higher


temperature.

Chemical Composition of Asphalt


1. Asphaltenes
a. Gives Color

Black

b. Hardness
2. Maltenes
a. Resin provides stickiness (adhesiveness)
b. Oil influences viscosity of asphalt & imparts softness

Uses of Asphalt
1.

Binder

2.

Water proofing material

3.

Joint and crack filler

4.

Roofing

5.

Prime Coat

6.

Tack Coat

7.

Sealing (PCCP)

8.

Pipe Coating

Kinds of Asphalt
1. Natural Asphalt
a. Rock Asphalt
b. Lake Asphalt or Pure Deposit
2. Manufactured Asphalt
a. Asphalt Cement Penetration grade 40 to 300
b. Blown Asphalt Penetration grade 0 to 30
c. Liquid Asphalt Cutback asphalt & emulsified asphalt

Refining Process of Petroleum Asphalt


Asphalt is a natural component of
petroleum crude oil taken from the
hundred of thousand of oil wells
throughout the world today

CLASSIFICATION OF PAVING ASPHALT


A. Asphalt Cement or Hot Asphalt, 99% (bitumen) pure, 1%
impurities
Characteristics
1. Solid to semi-solid in consistency
2. Odorless
3. Black in Color
- Penetration Grades:
40-50, 60-70, 85-100, 120-150, 200-300

CLASSIFICATION OF PAVING ASPHALT


B. Liquid Asphalt
Cutback Asphalt blend of Asphalt Cement
+ Solvent
Classification:
1. Slow Curing (SC) Asphalt Cement + Non-volatile or
slowly volatile roads oils
- liquid at room temperature
- SC 70
- SC 250
- SC 800
- SC 3000

CLASSIFICATION OF PAVING ASPHALT


B. Liquid Asphalt
Cutback Asphalt blend of Asphalt Cement
+ Solvent
Classification:
2. Medium Curing (MC) Asphalt Cement + Kerosene
- characteristic smell of kerosene
- liquid at room temperature
- MC 30
- MC 70
- MC 250
- MC 800
- MC 3000

CLASSIFICATION OF PAVING ASPHALT


B. Liquid Asphalt
Cutback Asphalt blend of Asphalt Cement
+ Solvent
Classification:
3. Rapid Curing (RC) Asphalt Cement + Gasoline
- characteristic smell of gasoline
- liquid at room temperature
- RC 70
- RC 250
- RC 800
- RC 3000

CLASSIFICATION OF PAVING ASPHALT


B. Liquid Asphalt
Emulsified Asphalt blend of Asphalt Cement
+ Water + Emulsifier
- usually 60% asphalt and 40% water
Characteristics:
- liquid at room temperature
- Pungent Odor
- Chocolate brown in color

CLASSIFICATION OF PAVING ASPHALT


Emulsified Asphalt
Anionic Emulsified Asphalt
- Negatively Charged globules
Classifications:
- Rapid Setting (RS-1, RS-2)
- Medium Setting (MS-1, MS-2)
- Slow Setting (SS-1, SS-1h)

CLASSIFICATION OF PAVING ASPHALT


Emulsified Asphalt
Cationic Emulsified Asphalt
- Positively Charged globules
Classifications:
- Rapid Setting (CRS-1, CRS-2)
- Medium Setting (CMS-1, CMS-2)
- Slow Setting (CSS-1, CSS-1h)

Asphalt/Concrete Joint Sealer/Filler


- Hot poured elastic type
- Preformed/Pre-molded

Asphalt Cement
QUALITY/PHYSICAL TESTS:

1. Specific Gravity
2. Penetration
3. Loss on Heating
4. Penetration after Loss
5. Spot test
6. Flash Point
7. Ductility
8. Solubility

Emulsified Asphalt
QUALITY/PHYSICAL TESTS:
1. Viscosity
2. Distillation
3. Cement Mixing
4. Sieve Test
5. Storage Stability
6. Test on Residue
a.

Penetration

b.

Ductility

c.

Stability

Cutback Asphalt
QUALITY/PHYSICAL TESTS:

1. Viscosity
2. Flash Point
3. Distillation
4. Test on Residue
a. Penetration
b. Ductility
c. Solubility
d. Spot test

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


1. SPECIFIC GRAVITY indicates the uniformity of the
product/supply
APPARATUS: Fisher pycnometer, heating device, balance

a. Weigh pycnometer empty

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


1. SPECIFIC GRAVITY indicates the uniformity of the
product/supply

Fill the pycnometer with water

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


1. SPECIFIC GRAVITY indicates the uniformity of the
product/supply

b. Then weigh the pycnometer

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


1. SPECIFIC GRAVITY indicates the uniformity of the
product/supply

Pour the heated asphalt sample into the pycnometer to about


three fourths of its capacity.

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


1. SPECIFIC GRAVITY indicates the uniformity of the
product/supply

c. Cool the pycnometer and sample, then weigh with the cover.

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


1. SPECIFIC GRAVITY indicates the uniformity of the
product/supply

Fill the pycnometer with sample plus water

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


1. SPECIFIC GRAVITY indicates the uniformity of the
product/supply

d. Then weigh
Formula:
Specific Gravity = (c - a) [(b - a) - (d - c)]

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


2. PENETRATION determines the hardness of asphalt
Apparatus: Penetrometer, timer, mc can, water bath, thermometer

a. Pour heated sample in MC can then cool

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


2. PENETRATION determines the hardness of asphalt

b. Immerse in a water bath for 1-1/2 to 2 hours at a temperature


of 250C

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


2. PENETRATION determines the hardness of asphalt

c. Immediately after the curing period, perform the test. Take at


least three (3) penetration trials/readings, report the penetration
as the average of the three

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


3. LOSS ON HEATING determines the rate of loss of
volatile oil on asphalt when heated and the change in
penetration caused by excessive heating
Apparatus: Oven with revolving shelf, mc cans, balance

a. Weigh MC cans empty (take at least two trials)

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


3. LOSS ON HEATING determines the rate of loss of
volatile oil on asphalt when heated and the change in
penetration caused by excessive heating

b. Pour 50 grams each of the heated sample in the two MC cans.

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


3. LOSS ON HEATING determines the rate of loss of
volatile oil on asphalt when heated and the change in
penetration caused by excessive heating

c. Cool and weigh

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


3. LOSS ON HEATING determines the weigh of loss of
volatile oil on asphalt when heated and the change in
penetration caused by excessive heating

d. Place the samples in the rotating shelf of the oven maintained


at a temperature of 1630C for five (5) hours

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


3. LOSS ON HEATING determines the rate of loss of
volatile oil on asphalt when heated and the change in
penetration caused by excessive heating

d. Cool and weigh

Computation/Formula:
% loss = weight loss after heating x 100
mass of original sample

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


4. SPOT TEST determines if asphalt is over heated during
production
Apparatus: Florence flask, filter paper, pipette or buret,
balance, 25% xylene-heptane solution

a. Weigh 2 grams of the heated sample in a florence flask

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


4. SPOT TEST determines if asphalt is over heated during
production

b. Pour 10 ml of the solvent (25 % xylene heptane solution) in


the florence flask

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


4. SPOT TEST determines if asphalt is over heated during
production

c.

Swirl the flask to dissolve the sample with the aid of a boiling water bath.
The process is repeated until complete dispersion has taken place. Cool the
asphalt solvent mixture to room temperature for 30 min. then warm again
for 15 min in a water bath at 320C

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


4. SPOT TEST determines if asphalt is over heated during
production

c.

A drop of warm mixture shall be placed on the filter paper. Examine the
drop after 5 min. if the drop forms a brown or yellowish brown circular
stain, with a darker solid or annular nucleus in the center, the tests shall be
reported as positive. But if the drop forms a uniformly brown circular stain,
repeat placing the drop on another filter paper the following day. And if it
forms the same uniformly brown circular stain, then report it as negative,
but if the drop forms a solid or annular nucleus report it as positive.

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


5. FLASH POINT indicates the safe heating temperature
of asphalt
Apparatus: Cleveland Open Cup, thermometer

a. Fill the cup with the heated sample

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


5. FLASH POINT indicates the safe heating temperature
of asphalt

b. Place the cup in the heater. Apply heat until the temperature of
the sample reaches at least 280C below the flash point

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


5. FLASH POINT indicates the safe heating temperature
of asphalt

Test
flame

c. Pass the test flame across the center of the cup. Record as the
observed flash point the temp. when a flash appears at any
point on the surface of the sample.

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


6. DUCTILITY measures the ability of the asphalt to
stretch without breaking

Equipment/Apparatus:
1. Ductility machine

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


6. DUCTILITY measures the ability of the asphalt to
stretch without breaking

2. Ductility molds/base plate (brass plate)

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


6. DUCTILITY measures the ability of the asphalt to
stretch without breaking

Procedure:
a. Pour the heated sample into the prepared mold until it is level
full

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


6. DUCTILITY measures the ability of the asphalt to
stretch without breaking

b. Cool the sample and the mold for at least 30 mins. and then
place the mold in the water bath maintained at a temperature of
250C for 85 to 95 mins.

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF ASPHALT CEMENT


6. DUCTILITY measures the ability of the asphalt to
stretch without breaking

c. Remove the briquette from the plate, detach the side pieces and attach the
clips to the pins/hooks of the testing machine with a bath of the machine
maintained at 250C. Pull the clips apart at a rate of 5 cm/min. Measure and
record the distance through which the clips have been pulled to produce
rupture

JOB MIX FORMULA


The job-mix formula is the
primary quality control
mechanism for the production of
asphalt mixture, mixture, which
shall conform with following
ranges of tolerance:

Passing No. 4 and larger sieves


Passing No. 8 to No. 100 sieves
Passing No. 200 sieves
Bituminous material
Temperature of mixture

+/-7%
+/-4%
+/-2%
+/-0.4%
+/-10C

a.mixture shall have a minimum dry comprehensive


strength of 1.4Mpa (200psi)
b. The mixture shall have a mass percent air voids with
the range of 3 to 5.
c. The mixture shall have an index of retained strength of
nor less than 70%

The Marshall Stability


Method is the most commonly
used method in the design
and evaluation of bituminous
concrete mixes.

QUALITY CONTROL TEST


FOR ASPHALT MIX
A.
The immersion/Compression test
determines
the index of Retained
Strength of the mix.
Which is the ratio
of wet to dry stability of
the mix
(compressive strength).

QUALITY CONTROL TEST


FOR ASPHALT MIX
B. Extraction and Grading tests determines
asphalt content and practice size
distribution of coarse and fine
aggregates, respectively.
C. The laboratory density test determines
the degree of compaction.

Gradation Ranges Hot Plant Mix Bituminous Pavements


(Mass percent passing square sieves, AASHTO T 11 and T 27)
Sieve
Designation, mm

37.5 (1 inch.)

100

25 (1 inch.)

95-100

100

100

19 (3/4 inch)

75-95

95-100

95-100

100

100

12.5 (1/2 inch.)

68-86

68-86

95-100

100

100

9.5 (3/8 inch.)

54-75

56-78

56-78

74-92

95-100

95-100

4.75 (No.4)

36-58

36-60

36-60

48-70

75-90

45-85

30-50

2.36 (No. 8)

25-45

27-47

27-47

33-53

62-82

33-53

5-15

1.18 (No. 16)

18-37

18-37

22-40

38-58

0.600 (No. 30)

11-28

11-28

13-28

15-30

22-42

0.300 (No. 50)

6-20

9-20

10-20

11-28

10-20

0.075 (No. 200)

0-8

0-8

4-8

4-9

2-10

3-8

2-5

ITEM 310 BITUMINOUS CONCRETE SUREFACE COURSE


1995 STANDARD SPECIFICATION, GRADING E
JOB-MIXING FORMULA
ITEM 310-B
I. Gradation
Sieve Sizes
Inch
mm

Job Mix
Gradation

Job Mix
Specifications
Min.
Max.

General
Specifications
Min.
Max.

25.4

100

100

100

100

100

19

99

95

100

95

100

12.5

81

74

86

68

86

3/8

9.5

68

61

75

56

78

#4

4.75

50

43

57

38

60

#8

2.36

38

34

42

27

47

#16

1.18

28

24

32

18

37

#30

0.600

18

14

22

11

28

#50

0.300

11

15

20

#200

0.075

ITEM 310 BITUMINOUS CONCRETE SUREFACE COURSE


1995 STANDARD SPECIFICATION, GRADING E
JOB-MIXING FORMULA

II. Asphalt Content


a. Asphalt Cement
b. % be Weight of Aggregates
c. % Weight of Mix

Penetration 60/70
5.52
5.23

III. Filler
Fly Ash
IV. Additives
Hydrated Lime
V. Temperature
Asphalt Cement
Aggregates
Mixing
Compaction

135oC
150oC
145oC

140oC
160oC
175oC
107oC minimum

ITEM 310 BITUMINOUS CONCRETE SUREFACE COURSE


1995 STANDARD SPECIFICATION, GRADING E
JOB-MIXING FORMULA

B. BLENDING COMPOSITION OF
AGGREGATES
Bin No. 1 -- Sand
Bin No. 2 -- 3/8 Agg.
Filler Bin -- Cement

83.5%
16.0%
0.5%

ITEM 310 BITUMINOUS CONCRETE SUREFACE COURSE


1995 STANDARD SPECIFICATION, GRADING E
JOB-MIXING FORMULA

C. GRADATION OF AGGREGATES
Sieve Designation

Result

General
Specification

Job-Mix
Specification

(12.5)

100

100

100

3/8

(9.5)

89

95-100

95-100

No.4

(4.75)

82

75-90

75-89

No.8

(2.36)

64

62-82

62-68

No.16

(1.18)

40

38-58

38-44

No.30

(0.60)

26

22-42

22-30

No.50

(0.30)

15

11-28

11-19

No.200

(0.075)

2-10

3-7

(inch)

(mm)

ITEM 310 BITUMINOUS CONCRETE SUREFACE COURSE


1995 STANDARD SPECIFICATION, GRADING E
JOB-MIXING FORMULA

D. SPECIFIC GRAVITY
Specific Gravity of Asphalt Cement =
Effective Sp. Gr. of Aggregates
=

1.03
2.79

ITEM 310 BITUMINOUS CONCRETE SUREFACE COURSE


1995 STANDARD SPECIFICATION, GRADING E
JOB-MIXING FORMULA

E. TEST ITEM
Specifications

Items

Result

1. Optimum Asphalt Content (%) by. wt. of


mix
2. Stability (lbf)
3. Number of blows each face
4. Flow (0.01 in.)
5. Air Voids
6. Compacted Pavement Density (%)
7. Mixing Temperature, C
8. Compaction Temperature, C
9. Laying Temperature, C

5.50
2700
75
13
3.75
90
150
130
130

Min.
5.10

Max.
5.90

1800

8
3
90
130
120
120

16
3
+
165

MARSHALL TEST
Procedure:
1. Segregate the aggregates in different size according to their grading.
2. Batch wt.
3. Heating of aggregates.
A. Heating temperature of Aggregates - 177C-191C
B. Heating temperature of Asphalt 121C-138C
4. Mix mixing temperature
5. Mold the specimens

163C
Compaction Temp. 124C

Mold it by compaction 25 times with a heated Spatula fifteen times


around & remaining with at random over the mixture. The remaining
half of the mixture similar spading action repeated. No. of blows
depends on traffic you are designing.

MARSHALL TEST
6. The cool the specimen extrude the mold
after 24 hours.
7. Measure the specimen at four (4) angles
and get the average.
8. Get Gmb (Bulk Specific Gravity)
9. Water Cure 30-40 minutes at a
temperature of 60C.
10. Take the stability test by means of
Marshall apparatus and flow test.

Table 5.2 MARSHALL MIX DESIGN CRITERIA


Light Traffic
Surface and Base

Marshall Method Mix Criteria 1

Min

Compaction, number of blows


each end of specimen

Max

Medium Traffic
Surface & Base
Min

35

Max

Heavy Traffic
Surface & Base
Min

50

Max
75

Stability, N
(lb.)

3336
(750)

5338
(1200)

8006
(1800)

Flow, 0.25 mm (0.01 in.)

18

16

14

Percent Air Voids

65

75

Percent Voids in Mineral


Aggregate (VMA)
Percent Voids Filled With Asphalt
(VFA)

See Table 5.3

70

80

65

78

Common Distresses for Asphalt


Concrete Pavements

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF CUTBACK ASPHALT


1. SPECIFIC GRAVITY
Apparatus: same
as in asphalt
cement

a. Weigh the pycnometer empty.


b. Weigh the pycnometer with water
c. Weigh the pycnometer filled with sample
c - a
Specific Gravity = ----------------b - a

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF CUTBACK ASPHALT


1. KINEMATIC VISCOSITY measures the resistance of
the asphalt to flow
Equipment/Apparatus:
Viscometer, water bath, thermometer,

a.

Mount the viscometer in


the bath maintained at
600C

b. Mix the sample thoroughly


and measure a 20 ml
representative sample

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF CUTBACK ASPHALT


1. KINEMATIC VISCOSITY measures the resistance of
the asphalt to flow

c. Introduce sample through the big tube into the cross arm until
the leading edge stands within 0.5ml of the fill mark

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF CUTBACK ASPHALT


1. KINEMATIC VISCOSITY measures the resistance of
the asphalt to flow

d. Allow the charged viscometer to remain in the bath for around


ten(10) minutes to attain temperature equilibrium.

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF CUTBACK ASPHALT


1. KINEMATIC VISCOSITY measures the resistance of
the asphalt to flow

e. Start the flow of asphalt in the viscometer by applying pressure


to the big tube or slight vacuum to the small tube, until gravity
flow is initiated.

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF CUTBACK ASPHALT


1. KINEMATIC VISCOSITY measures the resistance of
the asphalt to flow

f. Record the time required for the leading edge of the meniscus
to pass from the first timing mark to the second.
Viscosity @ 600C, Cst = time in seconds x Calibration Constant of
viscometer, Centistokes / Second

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF CUTBACK ASPHALT


2. DISTILLATION determines the asphalt content of
liquid asphalt
Equipment/Apparatus:
Distilling flask, condenser, adapter, shield, shield and flask
support, heat source (bunsen burner), graduated cylinder,
thermometer, balance

a. Weigh in a 500 ml flask the mass of a 200 ml of the sample


calculated based from the specific gravity of the material

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF CUTBACK ASPHALT


2. DISTILLATION determines the asphalt content of
liquid asphalt

b. Place the flask in the shield


supported by wire gauze in a
ring/tripod

c. Assemble the distillation


apparatus

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF CUTBACK ASPHALT


2. DISTILLATION determines the asphalt content of
liquid asphalt

d.

Pass cold water through the


condenser jacket. Apply heat
to the distilling flask

e. Record the volume of distillate


starting from 225C, 260 C ,
3150C

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF CUTBACK ASPHALT


2. DISTILLATION determines the asphalt content of
liquid asphalt

f.

When the temperature reaches


3600C, extinguish the flame &
remove the flask and
thermometer. Immediately pour
the contents of the flask in the
residue container

g. Record the total volume of


distillate collected at 3600C

Residue, % by volume
vol.of orig sample-total vol.of distillatex100
vol of original sample
TEST ON RESIDUE:
1. Penetration
2. Ductility
3. Solubility
4. Spot

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF CUTBACK ASPHALT


3. FLASH POINT same significance as in asphalt cement
The procedure is similar to asphalt cement, the difference is just in
the method of heating the sample, since the flash point of cutback is
lower than asphalt cement: heating of sample is through a water
bath, not direct heating.
Apparatus: Tag open cup, thermometer

a.

Pour sample into the glass


container

b. Place the glass container in the


water bath and attached the
thermometer to the heater

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF CUTBACK ASPHALT


3. FLASH POINT

c. Start heating the water bath with the glass container filled with
sample. Pass a test flame across the center of the cup. Record as
the observed flash point the temperature reading on the
thermometer when a flash appears at any point on the surface
of the sample.

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT


1. VISCOSITY SAYBOLT
Equipment/Apparatus:
Saybolt Viscometer and bath, 60 cc receiving flask, #100 sieve,
thermometer

b.
a.

Stir the sample thoroughly and pour


into a 100 ml. flask. Place the flask in
the water bath at 250C for 30 mins.

Place the cork stopper in


position and pour the sample
into the viscometer through
the No. 20 sieve

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT


1. VISCOSITY, SAYBOLT

c.

Place a 60 cc receiving flask


under the outlet tube. Snap the
cork at the same time starting
the timer

d. Stop the timer the moment the


lower meniscus on the flask
reaches the 60 cc mark. Record
the effluent time in second.

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT


2. SIEVE TEST determines the presence of larger globules
of asphalt in the emulsion
Equipment/Apparatus:
Sieve #20, pan, sodium oleate solution/distilled water, balance

a.

Record the mass of the sieve +


pan

b. Weigh 1000 gms of the emulsified


asphalt into a suitable container

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT


2. SIEVE TEST determines the presence of larger globules
of asphalt in the emulsion

c.

Pour the sample through sieve


No. 20.

d. Wash the container and residue


until the washwater is clear

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT


2. SIEVE TEST determines the presence of larger globules
of asphalt in the emulsion

e. Place the pan under the sieve and


f. Cool and weigh
oven dry for two hours at 1100C
Weight Residue
Sample Retained,% = ----------------------------X 100
1000

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT


3. CEMENT MIXING determines the resistance of the emulsion
to breakdown on the job. It indicates the rate at which the
emulsion will break when mixed with aggregates

Apparatus/Materials: Sieves(#80 &14), dish(watch glass),


stirring rod, graduated cylinder, balance, cement, oven

a. Dilute the emulsion with distilled water to a residue of 55%, as determined


by the distillation test
Example: % residue = 58
55 58 x 100 = 95 ml of sample
For 100 ml solution:
100 - 95 = 5 ml of water for dilution

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT


3. CEMENT MIXING determines the resistance of the emulsion
to breakdown on the job. It indicates the rate at which the
emulsion will break when mixed with aggregates

c. Sieve 50 grams of portland


cement through No. 80 sieve

d. Measure a 100 ml solution with the


computed proportion

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT


3. CEMENT MIXING determines the resistance of the emulsion
to breakdown on the job. It indicates the rate at which the
emulsion will break when mixed with aggregates

e. Add the diluted solution to the 50


grams cement

f.

Stir the mixture at once with the


steel rod using a circular motion
at a rate of 60 rpm

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT


3. CEMENT MIXING determines the resistance of the emulsion
to breakdown on the job. It indicates the rate at which the
emulsion will break when mixed with aggregates

g.

At the end of the one minute


mixing period, add 150 ml of
distilled water and continue the
stirring for 3 mins.

h. Weigh the No. 14 sieve with a pan


or watch glass

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT


3. CEMENT MIXING determines the resistance of the emulsion
to breakdown on the job. It indicates the rate at which the
emulsion will break when mixed with aggregates

i.

Pour the mixture through a


weighed No. 14 sieve. Use
repeated washings to completely
remove material from the
mixing bowl

j. Pour the washings over the sieve

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT


3. CEMENT MIXING determines the resistance of the emulsion
to breakdown on the job. It indicates the rate at which the
emulsion will break when mixed with aggregates

k.

Rinse the sieve using distilled


w a t e r, h e l d a t a h e i g h t
approximately 6 inches until the
water is clear.

l.

Place the sieve in the weighed


watch glass/shallow pan and oven
dry at 1630C until constant weight

Amount of Residue
Cement Mixing, % = -------------------------------- x 100
100

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT


4. STORAGE STABILITY detect the tendency of the asphalt
globules in the emulsion to settle during storage
-- measures the permanence of the
dispersion as related to time

Apparatus/Materials: two(2) 500 ml cylinders, glass pipet,


balance, beakers(1000 ml cap), oven

a. Place a 500 ml sample to a glass cylinder

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT


4. STORAGE STABILITY detect the tendency of the asphalt
globules in the emulsion to settle during storage
-- measures the permanence of the
dispersion as related to time

b. Stopper the cylinder and allow to stand undisturbed at


laboratory air temperature for 24 hours.
c. Remove approximately 55 ml from the top of the emulsion by
means of a pipet
d. Weigh 50 gms into the previously weighed beaker with a 7
inches glass rod inside and a watch glass
e. Take the total weight of the beaker
f.

Siphon off the next 390 ml from the cylinder without any
disturbance to the bottom sample

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT


4. STORAGE STABILITY detect the tendency of the asphalt
globules in the emulsion to settle during storage

g.

Mix the emulsion remaining in the cylinder and weigh 50


grams into the previously weighed beaker with glass rod and
watch glass

h. Take the total weight of the beaker


i. Heat the two beakers containing the top and bottom sample in
a stove for an hour to remove water and then transfer in an
oven at a temperature of 1630C for an hour. Cool and weigh
j. The numerical difference in the asphalt contents of the top
and bottom samples represents the storage stability of the
emulsion

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT


5. DETERMINATION OF RESIDUE BY EVAPORATION
determines the asphalt content of liquid asphalt

Apparatus: Iron still, heat source, thermometer

a. Weigh iron still empty. Pour 200 grams sample in the iron
still

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT


5. DETERMINATION OF RESIDUE BY EVAPORATION
determines the asphalt content of liquid asphalt

b. Heat the iron still with sample until all water has evaporated,
increase the temperature to 260 C for 15 minutes. Extinguish
the flame and weigh the iron still with residue

QUALITY/PHYSICAL TEST OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT


5. DETERMINATION OF RESIDUE BY EVAPORATION
determines the asphalt content of liquid asphalt

c. Immediately pour the contents of the iron still into a residue


container
d. Calculate the percent residue
Formula:
Weight Residue
%, Residue = ------------------------------------ x 100
200

TESTS ON RESIDUE:
1. Penetration
2. Ductility
3. Solubility
Note: Same test procedures as in asphalt cement

BITUMINOUS MIXTURES
Bituminous Mixture
- is a combination of aggregate that are uniformly mixed
and coated with bituminous/asphalt materials such as
asphalt cement, cutback asphalt or emulsified asphalt
Kinds of Bituminous Mixture
- Bituminous/Asphalt Hot Mix
- Bituminous/Asphalt Cold Mix

BITUMINOUS MIXTURES
Composition of Bituminous Mixture
- Bituminous Mix or Hot Mix
Aggregate

+ Asphalt Cement

92% 95%

5% - 8%

- Bituminous Cold Mix


Aggregate + Cutback Asphalt
4.5% - 7%
Aggregate + Emulsified Asphalt
6% - 10%

AGGREGATES
Three kinds of aggregates for bituminous mix:

a. Coarse Aggregates retained on No. 8 and larger sieve


b. Fine Aggregates passing # 8 and retained on # 200
c. Mineral Filler passing # 200

Properties of Aggregates
1. Strength
2. Particle Shape
3. Surface Texture
4. Absorption and Specific Gravity
5. Gradation
6. Cleanliness
7. Affinity for asphalt

Properties of Bituminous Mixture


1. Stability -- ability to resist deformation from imposed
loads
* ability to resist shoving and rutting under
traffic
Causes and Effects of Pavement Instability
Causes

Effects

Excess asphalt in mix

Rutting and flushing or bleeding

Excess medium sand in


mixture

Tenderness during rolling & for


period after construction,
difficulty in compacting

Rounded aggregate, little


or no crushed surfaces

Rutting

Properties of Bituminous Mixture


2. Durability ability to resist the detrimental effects of air,
water, temperature and traffic

Causes and effects of lack of durability


Causes

Effects

Low asphalt content


High void content
through design or lack of
compaction
Water susceptible
(hydrophilic) aggregate
in mixtures

Dryness or raveling
Early hardening of asphalt
followed by cracking or
disintegration
Asphalt film strips from
aggregate leaving an
abraded, raveled or mushy
pavement

Properties of Bituminous Mixture


3. Flexibility ability to bend slightly without
cracking and to conform to gradual settlements and
movements of the base and sub grade.

Factors affecting Flexibility


- High asphalt content
- Gradation (open graded)

Properties of Bituminous Mixture


4. Fatigue Resistance ability to withstand repeated
flexing caused by the passage of wheel loads
Causes and effects of Poor Fatigue Resistance
Causes
Low asphalt content
High design voids

Effects
Fatigue cracking

Lack of compaction

Early aging of asphalt


followed by fatigue cracking

Inadequate pavement
thickness

Excessive bending followed


by fatigue cracking

Early aging of asphalt


followed by fatigue cracking

Properties of Bituminous Mixture


5. Skid Resistance ability to offer resistance to
slipping or skidding of the vehicle tires
Causes and effects of Poor Skid Resistance
Causes
Excess asphalt

Effects
Bleeding, low skid
resistance
Poorly textured or graded Smooth pavement,
aggregate
potential for
hydroplaning
Polishing aggregate in
Low skid resistance
mixture

Properties of Bituminous Mixture

6. Workability ease with which paving mixture


maybe placed and compacted
Causes and effects of Workability Problems
Causes

Effects

Large maximum-size particle

Rough surface, difficult to place

Excessive coarse aggregate

May be hard to compact

A mix temperature that is too


low

Uncoated aggregate, not


durable,rough surface hard to
compact

Too much medium-size sand

Mix shoves under roller,


remains tender

Low mineral filler content

Tender mix, high permeable

High mineral filler content

Mix may be dry or gummy hard


to handle, not durable

Properties of Bituminous Mixture


7. Impermeability - prevents the passage of air and
water into or through the asphalt pavement.
Causes and effects of Permeability
Causes

Effects

Low asphalt content

Thin asphalt films will cause


early aging and raveling

High voids content in design


mix

Water and air can easily enter


pavement, causing oxidation
and disintegration

Inadequate compaction

Will result in high voids in


pavement, leading to water
infiltration and low strength

QUALITY TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


1. EXTRACTION
2. GRADING/MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF
EXTRACTED AGGREGATES
3. BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY
4. STABILITY TEST
1. Immersion Compression test
2. Marshall Stability

QUALITY TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


1. EXTRACTION determines the amount of
asphalt present in the mix
W1 - W2
% Extraction

= ------------------------- x 100

(% Asphalt, by wt. of mix)

W1

Where:
W1 = weight of sample
W2 = weight of sample after extraction

QUALITY TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


2. GRADING determines the size distribution of aggregates
whether it is in conformance with the approved design
Sieve Size

Wt. Retained

Wt. Passing

3/8
No. 4
No. 8
No. 16
No. 30
No. 50
No. 200
SPECS refer to the approved job mix formula

% Passing

SPECS

QUALITY TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


Example: Job-Mix Formula: READYCON Trading
GRADING: Based on Grading E Item 310 =2004 DPWH
SPECS
Sieve Size

Cumulative, % Passing

100

3/8

98

No. 4

82

No. 8

64

No. 16

40

No. 30

26

No. 50

15

No. 200

Asphalt Content: % By Mass of Aggregates = 5.8

QUALITY TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


Example: Evaluation of a Job-Mix Formula
Sieve Size

%, Passing

Applying
Tolerances

100

100

3/8

98

95 100

No. 4

83

75 90

No. 8

64

62 82

No. 16

40

38 58

No. 30

26

22 42

No. 50

15

11 28

No. 200 of Tolerances:5


Ranges
Passing No. 4 and larger Sieves 7%
Passing No. 8 to No. 100 Sieves - 4%
Passing No. 200 Sieve - 2%
Bituminous Material - 0.4%

DPWH
SPECS

2 - 10

Grading
Specs to
Adopt

QUALITY TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


3. BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY
- for unit weight determination
- used in design computation
- used in computation of the degree of compaction:
Field Density/Specific Gravity
% of compaction = -------------------------------------------- x 100
Laboratory Density/Specific Gravity
Specs = 95%-97 %

QUALITY TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


4. STABILITY TEST
4.1 Immersion - Compression test (4 in dia. X 4 in ht)
- measurement of the loss of cohesion or adhesion
resulting from the action of water
- Dry Stability
- Wet Stability
Wet Stability
Index of retained strength, % = --------------------- x 100
Dry Stability
Specs = 70% minimum

QUALITY TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


4. STABILITY TEST
4.2 Marshall Stability = (4 in dia. X 2-1/2 in ht)
- intended for laboratory design and field control of
asphalt paving mixtures
Specs = refer to Marshall Design Criteria

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES

1. EXTRACTION

Apparatus/Material: Extraction machine, oven, pans,filter rings,graduated


cylinder, solvent(gasoline)

a. Place the sample in a pan and


heat/warm until it can be
handled or mixed

a. Mix the sample thoroughly,


quartering first before
sampling

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


1. EXTRACTION

c. Weigh an 850 grams sample

d. Place the sample in the bowl

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


1. EXTRACTION

e. Cover the sample with the


solvent (gasoline)

f. Weigh the filter ring

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


1. EXTRACTION

g. Fit the filter ring around the


edge of the bowl

h. Clamp the cover on the bowl


tightly.

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


1. EXTRACTION

i. Place container under the drain to collect the solvent. Start the
centrifuge revolving slowly and gradually increase the speed to a
maximum of 3600 RPm until the solvent ceases to flow from the
drains. Allow the machine to stop, add 200 ml (or more as appropriate
for mass of sample) solvent and repeat the procedure at least three (3)
times.

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


1. EXTRACTION

j. After the completion of the


process transfer the aggregates
from the bowl to the pan

k. Dry to constant mass together


with the filter ring in an oven at
110 50C. Cool and weigh

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


1. EXTRACTION

l. Cool the aggregates and the filter ring and weigh

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


1. EXTRACTION
Formula:
W1 - (W2 + W3)
Asphalt Content, %
= ------------------------------- x 100
by mass of dry aggregates
W2 + W3
where:
W1 = mass of sample, grams
W2 = mass of extracted aggregates, grams
W3 = increase in mass of filter ring, grams

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


2. GRADING/MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF EXTRACTED
AGGREGATES
Apparatus/materials: set of sieves, pans,heating device,balance, disbursing agent

a. The test sample (aggregate from


extraction test) after being dried &
weighed shall be placed in a container &
covered with water. Add a sufficient
amount of wetting or disbursing agent
such as calgon or soap which will
promote the separation of fine material

b. The contents of the container shall be


agitated vigorously

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


2. GRADING/MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF EXTRACTED
AGGREGATES

c. The wash water shall be poured over a


0.075 mm wash sieve. The operation
shall be repeated until the wash water
is clear.

d.. The washed aggregates in the


container shall be dried to constant
mass at a temperature of 110 50C
and weighed

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


2. GRADING/MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF EXTRACTED
AGGREGATES

e. The aggregate shall be sieved over


sieves of the various sizes required by
the specification covering the mixture,
including the 0.075 mm sieve

f.. The weight of material passing each


sieve and retained on the next and the
amount passing the 0.075 sieve shall
be recorded. Compute & report
percent (%) passing on each sieve

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


3. BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY

Apparatus:
specific gravity balance,
App
App

a. Weigh the specimen in air

b. Immerse the specimen in


water bath at 250C for 3 to 5
minutes. Weigh.

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


3. BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY

c. Surface dry the specimen by blotting with a damp towel/cloth. Weigh

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


3. BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY

Formula:
mass of the dry specimen in air, in grams
Bulk Specific Gravity, Gmb = ----------------------------------------------------------mass of the saturated surface-dry specimen in air, in grams
-

mass of the specimen in water, in grams

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


3. IMMERSION COMPRESSION TEST
Apparatus: Testing machine,
balance, molds, supports, heating
device, oven, water bath, spatula

a. Weigh around 2000 grams of the


sample. The weighed sample shall
be brought to the molding
temperature which is 124 100C

b. Approximately one-half of the heated


mixture shall be placed in the molding
cylinder & spaded virgously 25 times
with 15 of the blows being delivered
around the inside of the mold & the
remaining 10 at random over the
mixture

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


3. IMMERSION COMPRESSION TEST

c. The sample shall be spaded


vigorously 25 times with 15 of the
blows being delivered around the
inside of the mold & the remaining 10
at random over the mixture. The
remaining half of the mixture shall be
quickly transferred to to the molding
cylinder & the same spading action

d. The mixture shall be compressed


between the top & bottom plungers
under an initial load of 150 psi to set
the mixture against the sides of the
mold.

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


3. IMMERSION COMPRESSION TEST

e. The mixture shall be compressed


between the top & bottom plungers
under an initial load of 150 psi to set
the mixture against the side of the
mold. The support bars shall then be
removed an the entire molding load of
3000 psi shall be applied for 120
second.

f. The specimen shall be remove from


the mold with an ejection device.
Make at least four specimen

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


3. IMMERSION COMPRESSION TEST

g. After removal from the mold


specimen shall be oven cured for 24
hours at 600C

h. Allow the specimen to cool to room


temperature for at least two hours then
determine the bulk specific gravity

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


3. IMMERSION COMPRESSION TEST

i.

Air dry the two specimens for at


least four hours prior to the
determination of the dry stability

j. Immerse the other two specimens in a


water bath with a temperature of 500C
for four days

TESTS ON BITUMINOUS MIXES


3. IMMERSION COMPRESSION TEST

k. Transfer the two specimens to another


water bath with a temperature of 250C
& store them there for two hours

l. Determine the wet stability

Formula:
Wet Stability
Index of retained strength, % = ----------------------------- x 100
Dry Stability

Asphalt/Concrete Joint Sealer/Filler


1. Hot Poured Elastic Type

TESTS

AASHTO M 173
Specification

a. Safe heating temperature,C

b. Pour Point,C

242 max

c. Flow at 60 C,mm

5.0 max

Penetration at 25C,
d.
150grams, 5 sec

90 max

Asphalt/Concrete Joint Sealer/Filler


2. Preformed:
S PE C I F I CAT I O N S
AASHTO M-33

AASHTO M-153

AASHTO M-213

689 5171 KPa

0.34 10.35 Mpa

689 5171 Kpa

Recovery

90% (min.)

70% (min.)

Density

304 Kg/m3 (min)

Compression

Water Absorption

Depends on thickness

AASHTO M-153

Preformed Sponge Rubber and Cork Expansion Joint fillers for Concrete
Paving and Structural Construction

AASHTO M-213

Preformed Expansion Joint Fillers for Concrete Paving & Structural


Construction (Non extruding and Resilient Bituminous Type)

AASHTO M-33

Preformed Expansion Joint filler for Concrete (Bituminous Type)

MINIMUM TESTING REQUIREMENTS


One quality test for every . . . . . . . . . .

Kind of Materials

Quantity
Represented

Minimum Quantity
of Sample

Asphaltic Material

40 tonnes or 200 drums

4 liters/1 gallon

130 tonnes

20 kilograms

a. Hot Poured Elastic Type

Per shipment/Delivery

400 grams

b. Premolded/Preformed

Per shipment/Delivery

1 (400 mm x 400 mm)

I.

II. Asphalt Mix


III. Asphalt/Concrete Joint
Filler/Sealer

THANK YOU
GOD BLESS YOU !!!