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9-11 December 2009

PIPELINES

Raad ISSA

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK

and

Multiphase Simulation Ltd., London W6 0NB, UK

E-mail address: r.issa@imperial.ac.uk

ABSTRACT

This paper reviews recent advances made in the

computational simulation of intermittent flow, and in

particular the slug flow regime in pipes carrying

multiphase fluids. The methodology is based on the

transient, one-dimensional two-fluid model equations that

are solved numerically using fine grids and small time

steps to capture the hydrodynamic instabilities that initiate

waves and slugs. The capture of slugs is achieved in a

completely automatic manner and leads to remarkably

accurate predictions of average slug characteristics when

compared to data from laboratory experiments. More

astonishing is the ability of the one-dimensional model to

capture stochastic nature of slug flow. In industrial

applications involving pipelines extending several

kilometres, special numerical procedures must be adopted

to speed up the computations to keep them within

practical time constraints.

INTRODUCTION

Intermittent flow, especially the slug flow regime, occurs

in many engineering applications, particularly in the

transport of hydrocarbon fluids in pipelines in the oil and

gas industry. The slug flow regime, in which large gas

bubbles flow alternately with liquid slugs at randomly

fluctuating frequency, is usually undesirable since the

intermittency of slugs causes severe adverse conditions.

Firstly, the flow rates of the gas and oil arriving at the

receiving equipment (separators and slug-catchers) can

fluctuate widely thereby undermining the efficacy of the

equipment (e.g. separator flooding); to cater for this

situation, processing facilities are usually designed with

generous safety margins at the expense of cost, weight

and size. Secondly, the flow intermittency results in

highly-unsteady loading on the piping system and

processing equipment, which can result in catastrophic

failure due to metal fatigue. It is therefore important to be

able to predict the onset and subsequent development of

slug flow; it would be even more beneficial if slug

characteristics, such as slug length and frequency could be

calculated as well.

NOMENCLATURE

A

D

Dg

F

f

g

h

p

Re

S

U

u

t

x

pipe diameter (m)

gas hydraulic diameter (m)

frictional force per unit volume (Nm-3)

friction factor (-)

gravitational acceleration (ms-2)

height of liquid layer (m)

pressure (Nm-2)

Reynolds number (-)

contact perimeter (m)

superficial velocity (ms-1)

velocity (ms-1)

time (s)

distance along the flow (m)

Phase fraction (-)

angle of inclination of pipe to the horizontal (o)

kinematic viscosity (m2s-1)

density (kgm-3)

shear stress (Nm-2)

generated from stratified flow by two main mechanisms:

(i) liquid accumulation due to instantaneous imbalance

between pressure and gravitational forces caused by pipe

undulations, and (ii) natural growth of hydrodynamic

instabilities. In the first, slugs may form at pipe dips due

to the retardation and subsequent accumulation of liquid

in the dips leading to the filling up of the cross-section

with liquid. An extreme example of this terrain induced

slug flow is called severe slugging and occurs when a

slightly inclined pipeline meets a vertical riser (Schmidt

et. al., 1985). This phenomenon is fairly well understood

and methods for calculating its development exist. In the

case of hydrodynamic instabilities, small random

perturbations of short wavelengths arising naturally may

grow into larger and longer waves on the surface of the

liquid. The mechanism behind this growth is the classical

KelvinHelmholtz instability (Lin and Hanratty, 1986).

Such waves may continue to grow picking up liquid

flowing ahead of them, until they bridge the pipe crosssection, thereby forming slugs. These slugs may grow if

the slug fronts travel faster than the tails; conversely they

would collapse. Stable slug flow is obtained if the slug

front and tail travel at the same speed. In real flow, all

these events take place at different times, hence some

slugs grow, others collapse; also slugs may travel at

Subsripts

g gas

i gas-liquid interface

l liquid

constitutes a breakthrough in providing a capability (slugcapturing) for predicting the onset of slug flow caused by

hydrodynamic instabilities. It has been demonstrated that

the resulting predictions for the main characteristics of

slug flow compare astonishingly well with experimental

data. Moreover, a remarkable finding in the above cited

works was the generation of slugs of randomly variable

length at different instants in time. Such prediction indeed

tallies with what happens in reality.

slugs with others (Taitel and Barnea, 1990).

Slug flow may also arise from both of the aforementioned

mechanisms simultaneously in long pipelines transporting

hydrocarbons. There, slight terrain undulations may lead

to the generation of slugs in addition to those generated by

inherent flow instabilities. In such cases, the slugs

generated from one mechanism interact with those arising

from the other leading to a complex pattern of slugs,

which may overtake and combine.

Despite the fact that the model used is only onedimensional, computations still require an inordinately

long time for real pipelines, since mesh sizes of the order

of few centimetres and time steps of the order of

milliseconds have to be used to capture the instabilities

responsible for slug initiation. It is therefore important to

look at means of accelerating the calculations to render

them of practical use. This paper reviews the situation

with regard to making such applications practical and

presents the results of calculations for a real pipeline.

Oil and gas pipelines are typically several, if not tens of,

kilometres long. The methodology described herein shows

that in order to capture inherent hydrodynamic

instabilities, streamwise mesh sizes of the order of

centimetres and time steps of the order of milliseconds are

needed. To simulate the transient dynamics of the flow in

real pipelines in three dimensions would simply be

infeasible on even the most powerful of current computer

systems; this explains why no work on such simulation

has been attempted in the past apart from short pipe

sections, which is of little use in real pipeline calculations.

One-dimensional, transient models of multiphase flow are

therefore the only practicable means for calculations in

real pipelines. The model utilised for is called the multifluid model in which transport equations for mass,

momentum and energy are formulated for each phase.

MODEL EQUATIONS

The basis of the two-fluid model is the formulation of two

sets of conservation equations for the balance of mass,

momentum and energy for each of the phases. The onedimensional form of the model is obtained by integrating

(area averaging) the flow properties over the crosssectional area of the flow (see Fig. 1).

Transfer of momentum and energy between the walls and

the fluids and between the phases themselves across the

interface is accounted for via source terms in the

equations; they are formulated using empirical

correlations (Ishii and Mishima, 1984).

pipelines are normally based on the two-fluid model, and

some are embodied in well established commercial codes

like OLGA, PROFES and TACITE. All use coarse grids

(pipe segments) of several tens or hundreds of metres in

length; such calculations do not resolve fast transients nor

are able to capture hydrodynamic instabilities. Instead,

two types of approaches are followed to simulate the

effects of intermittent/slug flow, one in which the

presence of slugs is merely represented on an average

basis by empirical closure relations (mainly for shear

forces) pertaining to slug flow. The other approach is

based on the Lagrangian tracking of individual slugs

within the framework of the two-fluid model. Commonly,

slugs of pre-determined length and frequency are assumed

to generate using crude empirical relations. Subsequently,

the position of each slug tail and front is monitored along

the pipe in a Lagrangian manner with time. Neither of the

above approaches can capture the initiation of slug flow

naturally and both rely on empirical slug initiation

relations to start a slug regime calculation. Moreover,

neither is capable of accounting for the effects of

interactions between slug flow and terrain undulations.

an isothermal flow. Hence the equations solved are for the

conservation of mass and momentum for the gas and

liquid phases. For one-dimensional stratified and slug flow

they are:

Gas Continuity

( g g ) ( g u g g )

+

=0

t

x

Liquid Continuity

( l l ) ( l ul l )

+

=0

t

x

(2)

Gas Momentum

of extensive analyses of the Kelvin-Helmholtz type to

investigate its ability to simulate wave growth (e.g.

Barnea and Taitel, 1994). Results of these analyses show

clearly that for certain flow conditions, perturbations

occurring in stratified flow are amplified in time resulting

in the formation of waves that may eventually grow to

form slugs. More recently, Issa and Woodburn (1998), and

Issa and Kempf (2003) have shown that by solving

numerically the transient, one-dimensional, two-fluid

model equations it is possible to capture the growth of

disturbances leading to the generation and subsequent

development of slugs in an automatic manner. That work

(1)

( g g u g ) g g u g2

p

= g

+ g g g sin (3)

+

x

x

t

+ Fg + Fi

Liquid Momentum

( l l ul ) l l ul2

p

h

+

= l

( l g ) l g cos

t

x

x

x

+ l l g sin + Fl Fi

(4)

Rels =

the condition that: l+g=1.

DU l

(10)

correlation of Taitel and Dukler (1976) as for gas-wall

shear. Hence:

f i = C i Re i ni

(11)

Re i =

Kempf (2003), the initiation and generation of slug flow

were also shown to be captured as an outcome of the

growth of instabilities in stratified flow in an automatic

manner. The prerequisite for such capability is accurate

numerical resolution in both space and time so that any

small numerical perturbations (due to round-off and other

numerical errors) are captured and allowed to grow

naturally as the governing equations dictate. Figure 2

depicts the outcome of such calculation. In the figure, the

liquid hold-up is plotted along the pipe at several instants

in time starting from stratified flow. The first disturbance

that can barely be discerned in the second inset generates

automatically and then grows to bridge the pipe thereby

generating a slug. Subsequent disturbances generate

periodically to lead to more slugs and eventually resulting

in a continuous train of slugs. What is remarkable is the

fact that the predicted flow is stochastic in nature, in that

no slug is identical to the others, a result that mimics

nature closely.

f g g ug ug S g / A

(5)

Fl =

1

2

f l L ul ul Sl / A

Fi =

1

2

f i g u g ul (u g ul ) Si / A

correlations. In the present work, the gas-wall factor is

based on the widely used correlation of Taitel & Dukler

(1976):

ng

f g = C g Re g

(6)

diameter Dg and defined as:

Re g =

(12)

SLUG CAPTURING

frictional forces per unit volume between each phase and

the wall and between the phases at the interface

respectively. They are prescribed by the following closure

relations:

1

2

values as those for the gas friction factor.

Fg =

Dg (u g ul )

Dg u g

(7)

0.25 respectively if the flow is turbulent (Reg>2100), or 16

and 1 if the flow is laminar (Reg2100).

The best correlation for calculating the liquid-wall friction

factor fl, was found to be that of Spedding & Hand (1997).

Thus, for laminar flow:

fl =

24

Rels

(8)

f l = 0.0262 l Rels

0.139

(9)

based on the liquid superficial velocity and the pipe

diameter as:

pipe at different instants in time in slug flow.

respectively. The experimental evidence for this case

indicates that the slug lengths are typically in the range of

1230 times the pipe diameter. Also as in real slug flow,

the variations in slug characteristics occur around a

statistical mean, which is what is used to compare the

calculations against the data.

been compared with experimental data in an extensive

validation programme which has proved that the

methodology gives remarkably realistic predictions of

slug flow characteristics (such as slug frequency and

length). An example of that study is presented in figures 3

and 4 (taken from Issa & Kempf, 2003) where the

predicted average slug frequency and average liquid holdup are compared with measurements for horizontal and

slightly downward inclined pipes.

Number of Slugs

Slug Length

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION

inclined pipes.

long and 20 inch diameter carrying oil and gas; the outlet

pressure is 96 bar. The topology of the line is depicted in

Figure 6 where the first section shows the initial 50m,

where the pipe dips after a short horizontal section. The

second section shows the major portion of the pipe

(around 15 km) which is more or less horizontal with few

undulations. The third section depicts the final 50m

section where it rises at an incline and then levels off to

the outlet. A mesh of 400,000 cells was found to give

mesh-independent results.

~50 m

computations and experiment is excellent bearing in mind

that the predictions are entirely mechanistic without the

need to impose any external perturbation to generate slugs

or any special treatment to simulate their subsequent

movement.

~50 m

Simulations were carried out over nearly two hours of real

flow time starting from arbitrarily assumed initial

conditions; this is the integration time required for the

flow to reach statistically steady state. Time steps of less

than 1 ms were taken and the computations on a single

processor machine require some 45 days to complete. This

clearly is not a practical proposition for industrial

purposes, hence means of accelerating the calculations are

needed and the most effective measure to achieve that

goal is by parallel processing which is being pursued at

present.

predicted slugs exhibit a similar trend to those in real slug

flow in that they are not all of the same length or

frequency. Indeed there is an element of statistical

randomness in their characteristics as is the case in actual

flow. A typical histogram of the slug lengths produced is

shown in Figure 5 (also taken from Issa and Kempf, 2003)

as an example. Such a histogram is obtained from the

computations by monitoring the liquid hold-up at two

points along the pipe (near the outlet) in time. From these

hold-up values the times of arrival and departure of slugs

are established and from these, the slug velocity can be

determined. The length of each slug that passes can thus

be calculated from the passage time and the slug velocity

(in much the same way as is done in actual experiments).

The computed values shown in the figure relate to a case

~15 km

sections of the pipe are given in panels (a), (b) and (c) in

Figure7. It can be seen that in the first section, the flow is

stratified and is stable. In the middle section, flow

instabilities likely to be induced by either hydrodynamic

instabilities or pipe undulation (or both) develop and form

successive roll waves that continue until the final section

are of the order of tens if not hundreds of kilometres in

length, then millions of nodes and time steps may be

necessary to perform the same kind of slug-capturing

calculations shown above. Thus, seemingly simple onedimensional calculations become a major effort requiring

enormous computing effort. In order for the computations

to be completed within practical times to be of use to

industry (hours or days rather than weeks), means of

accelerating the calculations must be found: speed-up of at

least one order of magnitude is necessary to achieve this

objective.

In what follows is a general discussion of options that

have been considered for accelerating the calculations. It

will be apparent that only one option (that of parallel

computing) is able to achieve the required speed-up.

section, form slugs that continue until pipe outlet.

minimise the total number of grid nodes in the domain by

concentrating the mesh only in areas where high

resolution is required (i.e. where steep gradients are

present). Although this may appear as a particularly

logical and attractive proposition, it does have its serious

limitations in the context of slug simulation. To begin

with, it is necessary to establish a priori where the relevant

areas in the flow field are in order to concentrate the mesh

in those areas. However, this is extremely difficult if not

impossible in wavy/slug flows where regions of wave or

slug initiation cannot be predicted in advance. The

situation is made even more complicated by the unsteady

nature of the flow where local mesh refinement must be

dynamic in time. Furthermore, experience shows that the

gains from this approach can seldom yield the order of

magnitude improvements sought here.

High order differencing schemes: Several high order

schemes for discretising the governing transport

equations, both in space and time, exist. These would

normally need less mesh nodes than lower order schemes

to yield the same degree of numerical accuracy, hence

resulting in less computing time. They are therefore

becoming more widely used. However, here again, the

resulting reduction in number of nodes is nothing like

what is needed to reduce the computational effort

involved in slug capturing. Moreover, in order to capture

the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities, there is an upper

limit on the mesh size to be able to resolve the small

disturbances responsible for initiating the waves

irrespective of the order of the differencing scheme used.

Efficient solution algorithms: Most existing solution

techniques utilise an iterative process to arrive at the final

result because of the strong non-linear coupling of the

multiphase flow equations. In steady state flow, this is

normally the only feasible method of reaching a solution.

In the context of time-dependent calculations, iteration

may be performed at each time step. With so many time

steps needed to march to the final solution, the effort

expended in obtaining the solution therefore may become

enormous. To remedy this, two alternatives may be

adopted. In the first, the multigrid technique can be

utilised to speed up convergence of the iterative process.

However, this comes at the expense of increase in memory

requirement and algorithm complexity as intermediate

solutions on the many grids employed need to be handled.

Also, although reported speed-ups can be achieved on

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS

As was mentioned earlier, in order to capture the fine

details of the flow, leading to the growth of hydrodynamic

instabilities that form either roll waves or develop into

slugs, small mesh sizes (grid intervals of few cm) and

short time steps of (of the order of milliseconds) have to

be used. This obviously demands very high computing

resources to perform calculations that commence from

arbitrarily assumed flow conditions (normally stratified

flow), then proceed to capture the initiation and

subsequent development of waves/slugs automatically,

and finally reach a statistically steady state.

involve hundreds of thousands, and sometimes millions of

nodes as well as millions of time steps in order to capture

and resolve inherent hydrodynamic instabilities. To this

end sufficient computer resources must be made available

for the calculations. It can be argued however that the

magnitude of the problem in wave/slug capturing in a real

pipeline in the oil industry is no bigger than threedimensional cases encountered in other industries. Perhaps

the main additional burden is the time dependent nature of

the slug flow which necessitates the use of transient

computations thereby making them time consuming. A

brief review of the potential benefits and drawbacks of

different techniques to speed up those calculations was

then presented. It is suggested that perhaps the single most

powerful route to reducing computing time is the use of

parallel computing. Here, there are several strategies to

implementing the parallelism, most of which lead to

almost linear speed-up with the number of processors

deployed. Use of such strategies would undoubtedly result

in making slug-capturing simulations manageable as

routine calculations

be realised on real non-linear systems. The second

approach is by employing non-iterative techniques

wherein the solution achieved at the end of each time step

contains certain discretisation errors. Such errors

(especially non-conservation of mass) can build up

gradually to the detriment of accuracy of the solution and

stability of the computations, thereby necessitating even

smaller time steps, which defeats the object of the

exercise.

Parallel computing: With the development of fast

networking technology and multi-core computers,

processors can now be utilised to share the effort in

performing calculations simultaneously. In one approach,

different portions of the problem (e.g. portions of the grid)

are assigned to different processors or computers. In this

way, the execution task is run in parallel on all processors

thereby speeding up the solution process as though it is

run on a much more powerful computer. It is because of

this advantage that parallel computing is relied upon today

in many of the industrial CFD analyses and why the

commercial CFD codes now offer this capability as a main

feature.

REFERENCES

BARNEA, D. AND TAITEL, Y., (1994), Interfacial

and structural stability of separated flow, Int. J

Multiphase Flow, 20, 387-414.

ISHII, M. AND MISHIMA, K., (1984), Two-fluid

model and hydrodynamic constitutive relations, Nucl.

Eng. Des. 107126.

ISSA R.I. AND KEMPF, M.H.W., (2003), Simulation

of slug flow in horizontal and nearly horizontal pipes with

the two-fluid model, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 29, 60-95.

ISSA, R. AND WOODBURN, P.J., (1998), Numerical

prediction of instabilities and slug formation in horizontal

two-phase flows, Proc. Third Int. Conf. on Multiphase

Flow, ICMF98, Lyon, France.

LIN, P.Y. AND HANRATTY, T.J., (1986), Prediction

of the initiation of slugs with linear stability theory, Int.

J. Multiphase Flow, 12, 7998.

SCHMIDT, Z., DOTY, D.R. AND DUTTA-ROY, K.,

(1985), Severe slugging in offshore pipeline riser-pipe

systems, J. SPE, 2738.

SPEDDING, P.L. AND HAND, N.P., (1997),

Prediction of stratified gas-liquid co-current flow in

horizontal pipelines, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 40,

1923-1935.

TAITEL, Y. AND BARNEA, D., (1990), Two-phase

slug flow, Adv. Heat Transfer, 20, 83132.

TAITEL, Y AND DUKLER, A.E. (1976), A model for

predicting flow regime transitions in horizontal and near

horizontal gasliquid flow. AIChE J., 22, 4755.

110

105

100

95

90

85

80

75

Speed Up

70

65

60

55

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

0

10

15

20 25

30

35 40

45

50

55 60

65

70 75

80

85 90

Number of Processors

Figure 8 shows an example of the speed-up obtained with

parallel computing on several processors and it clearly

illustrates that this is the most feasible way to achieving

the acceleration in the calculations necessary to make the

methodology a practical tool in the oil and gas industry.

CONCLUSION

The transient one-dimensional two-fluid model has been

shown to be able to simulate wave growth in unstable

stratified flow leading to the initiation and subsequent

evolution of trains of roll waves and slugs. The

methodology has been validated against a range of

laboratory experimental data with excellent agreement

being obtained. The predictions yield stochastic

distribution of slug characteristics such as length and

frequency similar to real slug flow. This ability is rather

surprising, but explicable, in view of the simplicity of the

model.

The method has also been applied to the computation of

intermittent flow in real pipelines; an example of a 15 km

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