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July 28, 1925.

Re, 16,126

IM. scHULER
ELECTRIC MACHINE

IX

Original Filed 0G12. 25. 1915

Fig. l..

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hvehtor:
'Max Schuler,
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His

Attorneg.

Reissued July 28, 1925.


UNITED STATES> '

Re. 16,126

PATENT OFFICE.

MAX SCHULER, OF NEUMUI-ILEN, NEAR KIEL, GERMANY, ASSIGNOR, BY MESNE AS


SIGNMENTS, 'IOv GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, A CORPORATION 0F NEW YORK.

ELECTRIC MCHINE.
OriginalNo. 1,453,083, dated April 24, 1923, Serial No. 127,682, filed October 25, 1916. Application fory
reissue led November 17, 1924; wSerial No. 750,465.

of 1 gram of hydrogen is about 14% times

To all whom it may concern.'

Be it known that I, MAX SCHULE'R, a sub

that of 1 gram of'air.

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At the same time we obtain, with machines


ject ofthe Emperor of Germany, residing running
in contact with hydrogen, the fur
in Neumuhlen, near KielGermany, have in
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vented certain new and useful Improve

~ments in Electric Machines (for which I f


vhave filed an application for German pat
. ent September 22, 1915), of which the fol
lowing is a specification.
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ther great advantage that metals and oils


do not enter chemical" combinations with
hydrogen; consequently@ the collectors and 60

the slip rings remain always bright, n'or


will the oils in the bearings turn resinous

become altered.
With electric machines `having a great or In
certain cases furtherl special advan- f
number of revolutions and great circumfer
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ential velocities of thev armature. or with tages are attained. With the already men-considerable output, it often proves diiiicult tioned . high- frequency transformers for
to sufficiently cool the armature by air. The wireless telegraphy the casing and enclos
electric losses comprise the heating of the ing of the hydrogen produces a very con
armature by air friction andthe work of siderable silencing action, so that the recep

forcing the necessary cooling air through

tion of incoming signals is facilitated. '

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The hydrogen is intended to act as a me


the parts to be cooled. Also the airused
v for cooling is heated by Athe/Ventilating ap dium for the carrying-ofi' of heat from the
armature to the casing. With this
paratus and thefairpfriction, and the cool rotating
in
view,
magnet-shell may be con
ing action of the air is thereby diminished. structed asthea gas-tight
casing ork the ma 75
For such reasons, it becomes necessary to
may be fitted in a separate gas-tight
increase the ventilation, the result being a chine
correspondingy increase also of the, power container. The container ymust yield heat
2Ol consumed in the'ventilation and a diminu to the air for which purpose it may be pro
' tion of the efliciency of the machine. With vided with cooling ribs. Should the sur

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face, however. not be suiiicient forthe car


_high-speed machines, such,- for instance, as ' rying-o?f
of the heat, the shell may be pro
high-frequency transformers, it may even vided with
suitable water-cooling or heatv I
become necessary to reduce the number of

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revolutionsof thev armature 'more than its radiating means. The arrangement may
stability requires, and more .than it is vde 6 also be made in such manner that the arma 85..
acts as a fan for circulating the heated`
sirable from _the electric point of view in ture.
hydrogen
through external or internal cool
order to preventtoo great a rise in tempera
ture.v It is true that it has been proposed ing devices and again drawing the cooled
to have such machines run in vacuo, but that hydrogen into the machine.'
will not bring the desired result,- for while ' In the subjoined drawing, Figures 1 and 2 90
arelongitudinal vertical sectional views of

it is true that the air friction will diminish

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'
proportionately the air-pressure, the heat two embodiments ofthe invention.
U in Fig. 1 being an electric machine, for
conductivity of the air will be lowered in
instance, a transformer for high-frequency
the same proportion.
'

For these reasons the armature of electric current. This machine is mounted in a cas

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machines of this kind is, according to the ingo, closed by a lid Y). This casing is-air
tight
and
filled
with
hydrogen
through,
present invention, made to run in hydrogen,
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the physical constants of which are much openings (not shown). A. pressure-gauge al
more favorable than those of the air. Since permits of reading the pressure and-_for
the power consumed in ventilation is di a known pressure - aL a normal tempera 100
ture-fthe reading of the temperature of the

minished in proportion to the specific


weight, itamounts, with hydrogen, to only vhydrogen.

5, o

The pressure-gauge

may

the fourteenth part of that of the air. Fur therefore be rovided, beside the pressure
lthermore the viscosity-of hydrogen is only scale, also with- a temperature-scale. The
half that of the air. On the 'other hand ,` transformer U is a normally ventilated elec

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the heat-conductivity of hydrogen is 7% tric machine. Byenclosing thetransformer
times that of the air and the specific heat in hydrogen, lthe heat emission becomes a,

16,126

multiple of that of the air, and the ma across the casing a and a ain into the ,pipe
o. In this circulation'the ydrogen is cooled

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' chine may therefore be considerably'more

loaded and it will be possible to attain in the cooling device P.

higher circumferential velocities of the


A pressure-gauge, such as d in Fig'l, and
armature. For carrying off theheat from- an oil gauge, such as in Fig. l can, as a mat
the hydrogen, the lid b is provided With a ter of course, be provided.
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radiator, in the form of a coil c through
The higher the pressure the hydrogen is
which cooling Water continually flows. submitted to, the more heat will be carried i
Furthermore f and g are the current leads ofi' by it, but the greater will be the power
to and from the transformer, While e is an consumed in ventilation with the same ma

oil-gauge, 4 permitting of lubricating the chine. Consequently one gains b >an al


bearings Without anyf air entering the cas-> teration of the pressure of the hy regen, a
means for limitlng the heating of the ma
ing a.
_.
- _
n the embodiment of F1g. 2, a fan 'i is chine, making good the electric losses, more
15~ provided on the shaft la of the machine U,`fully utilizing the machine, and attaining

which fan is placed immediately in front higher eiiiciencythan heretofore possible.


of a lateral opening c of the casing a. Upon
Vhat I` claim is:
'
y
the `o posite side of the casing there is pro
l. In combination, a casin g having an elec
` . vide an opening Z. The opening lc is closed tric machine therein; hydrogen gas in said
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by a lid m having an openmg fn.. The open casing as a cooling medium; and means
_ ings Z and 'n are connected to eachother by Within said casingl for cooling the hydrogen.

a pipe o, inserted gas-tight in Saidopenings

`"2. In combination, a casing having a dy


Z and n. This pipe leads through any cool namo electric machine therein; hydrogen
ing device, for instance, a rece tacle> f1., gas in said casing as a coolingr medium; and
through -Which cooling water is ed. The means for cooling the hydrogen.
.
casing a and thehpipe o are filled with hy
In witness whereof, I have hereunto set
dro en as before. When the machine is my hand this 27 day of October, 1924.
wor 'ng, the fan z' will suck hydrogen out
of the pipe o, said hydrogen being delivered
DR. MAX soHULER. -

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