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GEMS Block Modelling Labs

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Revision date: 6/3/2009

Table of Contents
Project Data .............................................................................................................................. 5
GEMS Projects ................................................................................................................................... 5
Blockmodelling1 Project ................................................................................................................... 5
GeostatsBasics Project .................................................................................................................... 6
Lab 1: Load and Display Project Data.................................................................................................. 7
Blockmodelling1 ............................................................................................................................... 7
GeostatsBasics ................................................................................................................................ 8

Block Attributes ........................................................................................................................ 9


Display Blocks ........................................................................................................................ 11
Lab 2a: Define a Block Display Profile ............................................................................................ 11
Lab 2b: Assign a block display profile to an attribute ....................................................................... 12
Lab 2c: Display Single or Multiple Block attributes .......................................................................... 14
Lab 2d: Block Display Overides ...................................................................................................... 15

Block Selection ....................................................................................................................... 16


Lab 3a: Select Blocks........................................................................................................................ 17
Lab 3b: Needle intersections ............................................................................................................. 20

Set Up a Block Model ............................................................................................................. 22


Lab 4a: Check/Add Grade names ................................................................................................... 22
Lab 4b: Determine Block Model Geometry and Size ....................................................................... 23
Lab 4c: Create a Block Model Workspace....................................................................................... 24

Edit Block Model Properties and Attributes ......................................................................... 26


Lab 5a: Edit Workspace Properties ................................................................................................. 26
Lab 5b: Edit Folder Properties ........................................................................................................ 27
Lab 5c: Edit Attribute Properties ..................................................................................................... 28
Lab 5d: Add Extra Attributes ........................................................................................................... 29

Initialise Block Model Attributes............................................................................................ 30


Lab 6: Initialise Block Model Attributes .............................................................................................. 30

Rock Type ............................................................................................................................... 31


Lab 7: Rockcode Profiles .................................................................................................................. 31
Lab 8: Update Rock Type.................................................................................................................. 32

Density .................................................................................................................................... 36
Lab 9a: Initialise and update density from rock types ...................................................................... 36
Lab 9b: Use surfaces to update density .......................................................................................... 36

Building Grade Models ........................................................................................................... 40


Interpolation methods........................................................................................................................ 40
Kriging Processing Sequence ........................................................................................................... 40
Workflow ........................................................................................................................................... 41
Trace Block Profiles .......................................................................................................................... 41
Lab 10: Create/Edit Trace Block Profiles......................................................................................... 42
Search Ellipse Profiles ...................................................................................................................... 44
Lab 11a: View Search Ellipse Profiles ............................................................................................. 44
Lab 11b: Create a Search Ellipse Profile......................................................................................... 46
Variogram Profiles ............................................................................................................................ 47
Lab 12: View/Edit Variogram Profiles .............................................................................................. 48
Interpolation Profiles ......................................................................................................................... 49
Lab 13a: Create Interpolation Profile for Inverse Distance ............................................................... 50
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Table of Contents

Lab 13a: Create Interpolation Profile for Ordinary Kriging................................................................ 51


Run Interpolation and View Generated Reports ................................................................................. 52
Lab 14: Run interpolation to estimate AU_IK and AU_OK grades. ................................................... 53
Block Model Manipulation ................................................................................................................. 55
Lab 15a: Calculate AU_Metal for each block................................................................................... 56
Lab 15b: Manipulate blocks based on ore type and weathering profile ............................................ 57

Block model reports ............................................................................................................... 58


Model Validation ..................................................................................................................... 59
Partial Block Models............................................................................................................... 60
Standard Block Models versus Partial Block models .......................................................................... 60
Set up a Partial Block Model ............................................................................................................. 61
Update Partial Block Model attributes ................................................................................................ 64
Update the Standard/Rock Type attribute with waste and air rockcodes. ......................................... 64
Edit Rockcode folder mapping to ore rockcodes. ............................................................................ 65
Update attributes for ore type folders .............................................................................................. 65

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Project Data

GEMS Projects

Project Data
The two GEMS projects used to complete the block modelling labs are:

GEMS Projects
Blockmodelling1 Project
The project called Blockmodelling1 contains drillhole data and bench
grade control data for 130RL level.
Geological solids called ORE100 and ORE300 have been created and
1m drillhole composites have been created for each of these orezones
and stored in the dhGrades point area workspace.
Grade control data for Bench 130RL has been saved to the
BenchComps point area workspace and each point identified with the
domain it belongs to.

2D Grade Control Data

3D Geological solid and drillholes

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Project Data

GeostatsBasics Project
The block models in the GeostatsBasics project have already been set up. You will use this project to
learn how to display block model data and to learn about the impact of changing certain kriging
parameters such as ID power, nugget, range and discretisation.
The GeostatsBasics project contains 2 block models:
20x20x1 contains one level of blocks of size 20mX 20 m wide and 1m high.
It has different gold attributes set up for storing grade results for different
kriging methods and parameters.
The point area called 4 points in the SamplePoints point area workspace
has been used as the sample input data for kriging.

1block contains only one block in the block model of size 1m X 1m X 1m.
The AU attribute has been updated by kriging the 2 Points point area in the
SamplePoints point area workspace.

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Project Data

Lab 1: Load and Display Project Data

Lab 1: Load and Display Project Data


This exercise is designed to help you familiarize with the project data that will be used for block modelling
and to carry out data validation before block modelling begins.

Blockmodelling1
1) Open the project called Blockmodelling 1
2) Open the drillhole workspace and load all drillholes.
3) Validate the drillhole workspace.
4) Open the Point area workspace called dhGrades and load the point areas called ORE100
comps and ORE300 comps:

5) View the Point area data in the workspace editor and answer the following questions.
a. How many points are in each point area?
________________________________________________________________
b. Have the HOLE-ID for each sample been extracted?
________________________________________________________________
c.

What ROCKCODES are associated with each of the samples?


________________________________________________________________

d. What interval lengths are the samples?


________________________________________________________________
6) Open the geological solids called ORE100 and ORE300 in the Geology Triangulation
workspace:

7) Hide the drillholes and check that all composites lie inside the solids. You may need to make the
solids temporarily transparent.
8) Validate the geological solids for errors.
9) Close all open workspaces.
10) Open the BenchComps point area and load the point areas called GC130:

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Project Data

Lab 1: Load and Display Project Data

What does this data represent?


_______________________________________________
11) Open the Polyline workspace called BenchOre and load all polylines for rockcode ORE100 and
ORE300:

12) View the BenchComps point area workspace via the Workspace editor.
13) Double click on the ROCKCODE column to sort on ROCKCODE in descending order. Scroll
down and note that points have been identified with rockcode 100 and 300 for each domain.

14) Close all open workspaces.

GeostatsBasics
1) Open the project called BasicGeostats.
2) Open the Point area workspace called SamplePoints and load all 3 point areas.
3) View all points and identify the points in each point area.

4) Open the Block model called 20x20x1 and note the attributes in the Standard folder.
5) Open the Block model called 1 block and note the attributes in the Standard folder.
6) Close all workspaces.

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Block Attributes

Lab 1: Load and Display Project Data

Block Attributes
Block model attributes can include rock type, density, grade, elevation, percentage of block occupied or
mined, economic value, or any user-defined value of interest.
Attribute Type

Description

Rock Type

This attribute represents the geological domains of the deposit. Each block
contains a numerical code indicating its assigned rock type. Domain (Rock type)
codes are indexed to the rock code profile that contains details about the domain,
such as slope angles, economics, primary minerals, recovery factors, and cutoff
grades. Each folder should contain one rock type model.

Density

This attribute defines the density of the rock represented by the rock type model
stored in the same folder. Although each rock type profile specifies a default
density, you may wish to control accuracy further, for example, by linking density to
grade. Each folder containing a rock type attribute should contain a corresponding
density attribute.

Elevation (Very rarely


used)

Multiple topographic and geological surfaces are represented by surface elevation


grid (SEG) data contained in this attribute. SEG cells have the same locations and
dimensions as blocks in the other attributes and contain average elevation data.

Grade

You can create grade attributes. Each grade or assay element has an individual
grade model associated with it.

User-Defined or
Generic

You may create as many additional block-model files as you wish to fully
characterise your reserves. Typically, these might be used for special purpose
manipulation, backing up models, or storing results of IK or MIK interpolating runs.
Another typical user-defined attribute is the percent mined attribute.
You can add special attributes to save special-model kriging results such as:

Percent (Used only in


Partial block models)

A percent attribute can represent the portion of a block occupied or unoccupied by


any solid(s) or extruded polygon(s). The standard percent attribute, however,
represents the portion of the block volume occupied by the rock type represented
in the rock type attribute in the same folder. The remaining volume of the block is
associated with rock types found in rock type attributes stored in other folders.
If you have n types of rock, each in a separate folder, you need n-1 percent
attributes to account for 100% of the deposit.

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Block Attributes

Lab 1: Load and Display Project Data

Attribute Type

Description

Economic Model (Use


Only for Whittle 3D)

The economic attribute is constructed after all other attributes have been built. This
attribute contains an economic factor for each block, calculated from block-mining
costs and block revenues as follows:

1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

Determine a cost penalty for the block volumetric mining cost that is
a function of the block volume, its rock type, and its associated rock
type-dependent mining costs.
Determine a further cost penalty if the block can be classified as ore,
which is a function of block grades, cutoff grades, or primary
minerals. This cost penalty consists of processing costs and
administrative overhead and is calculated per ton of ore.
Determine a final cost penalty to take into account variable haulage
distances. This cost is determined as a function of block location
and haulage costs.
Assign to each block the block revenue that is dependent on grades,
product revenues, and recovery factors.
The mining cost penalty (a negative value) and the block revenue (a
positive value) combine to form the economic factor. If the result is
positive, then the block is payable; if it is negative, the block is not
economical.

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Display Blocks

Lab 1: Load and Display Project Data

Display Blocks
Blocks can be displayed in a variety of ways. In this lab you will learn how to:

define a block cell display profile

assign a block display profile to an attribute

display single or multiple blocks attributes

Lab 2a: Define a Block Display Profile


1) Open the project called GeostatsBasics.
2) Choose Format>Blocks. This will open the Block Display settings profile editor.
3) View the list of existing block cell display profiles. Note that there are various block display
profiles for AU, DENSITY, ROCKCODE, etc.
4) Note that there are 2 tabs:

Block this tab allows you to define the block appearance such as colour, display type,
shrinkage factors, etc
Labels this tab allows you to define the block label attributes such as colour, text
height, rotation and number of decimal places.

5) Create a new block display profile called NUMSAMP to display the number of samples used to
estimate the block model value as shown:

a. Click the New Profile icon and enter a new profile name called NUMSAMP.
b. Click on the browse button to open the Colour profile editor:

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Display Blocks

Lab 1: Load and Display Project Data

c.

Create a new colour profile called NUMSAMP as follows:

Click OK to return to the Block display settings box.


d. Show all blocks attributes as Values and Outlines:

e. Enter a shrinkage factor of 0.9.


f.

Click on the Labels tab.

g. Enter 0.5 for the Height of text and enter 0 for the Decimal Places.
h. Note that you can rotate the text if required. Check the Rotation box and look at the
preview box.
Uncheck the Rotation box.
i.

Click Apply to save and Close to exit the block display profile editor.

Lab 2b: Assign a block display profile to an attribute


1) Assign the block display profile to the block model attribute called num_samp as follows:
a. Open the Block model called 20x20x1.

b. Click on the + sign next to the Standard folder.


c.

Right click on the num_samp attribute and select Properties:

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Display Blocks

Lab 1: Load and Display Project Data

d. This displays the attribute properties. Choose the display profile called NUMSAMP:

e. Press OK to exit.
f.

Save the block model:

2) Close the Block model.

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Display Blocks

Lab 1: Load and Display Project Data

Lab 2c: Display Single or Multiple Block attributes


1) Open the Block model called 20x20x1.
2) Right click on the num-samp attribute and select Show:

a. Select all blocks to show:

b. Click on the
c.

Text ON/Off icon to display the numbers if required.

You should see the following:

d. Hide the num_samp display


3) Show the Rock Type attribute. What rockcode has been assigned to these blocks?
____________________________________________________________________
4) Show the AU attribute. Check that both attributes are displayed.
5) Hide the Rock Type.
6) Show the Density.
7) Turn rendering on and off. What does this do?
_________________________________________
8) Change the AU attribute properties to display as
values and outlines with a text height of 0.4 and 1
decimal place.
9) Select Block>Display>Block Info Window and move
your cursor over the blocks.
What information does this window display?

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Display Blocks

Lab 1: Load and Display Project Data

Lab 2d: Block Display Overides


1) Choose Block>Display>Display Overides to view the various display override features.

2) View both the Rock Type and AU attributes at the same time. Choose Block>Display>Display
Overides. Check Draw first attributes value as block outline. You should get a similar display
to that below:

3) Experiment with the other display overrides.


4) Close the Block Info window.
5) Close the Block model.

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Block Selection

Lab 1: Load and Display Project Data

Block Selection
Blocks can be selected for display purposes or other work such as updating or kriging blocks. Blocks can
be selected via the Block>Select menu or use the Block selection icon.

You can save or check the status of selected blocks via the Block>Select menu so that a selection so
that you can quickly re-select and use those blocks later.

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Block Selection

Lab 3a: Select Blocks

Lab 3a: Select Blocks


This lab will cover various methods for selecting and displaying blocks.
1. Open the project called GeostatsBasics and Open the Block model called 3D.
2. Right click on the AU attribute and select Show. If no blocks are displayed, click on the block
display icon and select All:

3. Change the display to use the AU_CUBES display profile.

4. Open the GeologyTINS workspace and load the surface called Surface1.
5. Select blocks above below this surface by clicking the Block>Select icon and selecting Below
Surface. Enter the following details:

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Block Selection

Lab 3a: Select Blocks

a. Needles are used to approximate a volume based on intersection lengths and needle
weighting. In Integration level, enter a value that is squared to specify the number of
needles to penetrate each cell.
b. In Minimum percent of block
below surface to select it, enter a
percentage from 0 to 100 to cue
selection of a block according to
whether enough of the block lies
below the surface.
c.

In Needle orientation, select


depending on whether you want
needles oriented Horizontal along
rows, Horizontal along columns or
Vertical down levels.

d. If you already have blocks selected, in Behaviour, select whether to add to, subtract from,
or replace that selection.
e. Select Show selected blocks during operation to show outlines of the selected blocks
during processing.
f.

Press OK to continue,

6. To view the blocks that intersect a single plane, select either a PlanView or Section and select

Auto-select Blocks by Current View.


7. Use the arrow buttons to move from plane to plane. The block selection changes to show only
those blocks that intersect the reference plane.
8. Select the vertical section called 5E and set the Block selection to Auto-select Blocks by
Current View. This displays the blocks that intersect the selected plane as shown below:

9. To view the blocks in the section corridor, set the Block selection to All Blocks. This displays the
blocks in the current section corridor:

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Block Selection

Lab 3a: Select Blocks

10. To view all blocks, either click on the Large Projection icon
View.

or choose View>End Section

11. Choose View>End Section View:


12. To select multiple rows, columns and levels, click on the Block selection
icon and
choose By Multiple Columns/Rows/Levels. Check the rows, levels and columns you wish to
display.

13. To select a few blocks, click on the Block selection


icon and choose By
Column/Row/Level range. Enter the rows, levels and columns you wish to display.

14. Clear the selection by selection None from the Block selection List:

.
15. Experiment with the other block selection menu items.

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Block Selection

Lab 3b: Needle intersections

Lab 3b: Needle intersections


GEMS can temporarily make block triangulation intersections appear more accurate for presentation
purposes as follows.
1. Open the project called GeostatsBasics.
2. Load Surface1 from the GeologyTINS workspace.
3. DIsplay the 3D block model attribute AU if not already done so.
4. Set the block selection method to Below Surface.
5.

Display the blocks intersecting vertical section 8N. Flip into 2D to view the following:

6. Click on the Needle Intersections

icon and enter the following:

a. Select use all opened workspace.


b. Enter the Needle integration level to 2x2.
c.

Display as blocks.
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Block Selection

Lab 3b: Needle intersections

d. Set the Needle direction, to Vertical down levels.


e. To select the triangulation, click Select.
f.

Click OK.

g. Select the method Below Surface. Click OK.

7. Change the display to bars:

8. Change the integration level:

9. Hide the needle intersections:

10. Close all open workspaces.

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/Set Up a Block Model

Lab 3b: Needle intersections

Set Up a Block Model


Follow the directions below to learn how to:

define the block model geometry


create a block model workspace
assign block cell display profile to each attribute
open and close a block model and view the list of
attributes from the project tree.

Lab 4a: Check/Add Grade names


1. Open the project called Blockmodelling1.
2. Choose Format>Other Profiles>Grade Names and check that there is a grade name for all
elements for which you will be reporting tonnes and grade. When you create a block model
workspace, block model attributes will be automatically created for each grade name. If you
forget to do this, you will need to manually add the attributes.

NOTE: IN the example above, several grade names have been created indicating the calculation
method used for AU. Only do this if you need to report the grades together in one report. It is
simpler to have one grade name called AU. You then map the grade name AU to either AU_ID2,
AU_OK, etc. before running a volumetrics report. This saves time when creating grade groups
as you will only need grade groups for AU! You wont need grade groups for AU_ID2, AU_OK,
etc.

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/Set Up a Block Model

Lab 3b: Needle intersections

Lab 4b: Determine Block Model Geometry and Size


Before creating a block model workspace, you need to work out the block model geometry and extents.
There are several things you can do to make this job easy such as displaying the work area coordinates,
or displaying a surface laplace grid.
1. Load all your drillhole, and geological data to
view the data limits. Choose Window>Set
Display Area Options and click on the
General tab and set the display to show
coordinates along each axis using the :
2. Choose Window>Set Display Area Options
and click on the Work Area tab. This will also
provide you with the minimum and maximum
X,Y and Z coordinates for this data.

3. The Surface>Create>Laplace function is another trick method that can help you quickly
calculate the origin, number of rows, columns and levels. Activate the drillhole collars, flip into a
2D planview, set large projections and begin to create a laplace surface over the block model
area using the graphical method. Enter the block height and width and press OK. Say no
interpolate displayed grid to Abort the process then repeat using the manual method. You can
use the information displayed as a guide for determining your block model extents.

Try and make sure your columns or rows match up with your drilling sections. This will enable
easy graphical comparison of block model grades with drillhole grades later on.
When determining block model extents, remember to take provide extra space for potential pit
designs, etc.

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/Set Up a Block Model

Lab 3b: Needle intersections

Lab 4c: Create a Block Model Workspace


1. Open the GEMS project called Blockmodelling1.
This project contains the extracted composite data and geological solids and surfaces that you
will be using for block model interpolation.
2. To create a new block model, right click on Block models in the project tree and select Create
Workspace.

3. The Workspace Wizard will open. Type in a Workspace name and Description:

Click Next.
4. Enter the following block model parameter:
a. Origin: 930 X, 6670 Y, 350 Z
b. Rotation: 0
c.

Block size: 10m Col, 20m Row,4m Level


NOTE: These blocks have been chosen for demonstration purposes only they have not
been based on geology/ mining methods, etc).

d. Number of blocks: 130 cols, 65 rows, 90 Levels


5. Click Next.
6. Check the details displayed and click Finish if everything is OK.
7. Choose Workspace>Exit after the block model workspace has been created.
8. Right click on Blockmodels in the project tree and select Add workspace:

9. Highlight the block model to add and click Select.


10. Right click on the block model name and select Open:

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/Set Up a Block Model

Lab 3b: Needle intersections

11. Enter/change the appropriate details for each of the block model attributes. Extra attributes can
be added to the list, or be created later (see next lab).

12. A block-model workspace has folders that organize your block model data. Each folder has its
own block-model attributes. For new block models workspaces, the Standard folder is
automatically the default folder.
For partial block models (when more than one ore material is likely to exist in a block), multiple
folders are set up to keep data separate for different ore types. Each folder will contain rock type,
grade, density and percent attributes for each ore type. Partial block models will be covered later
on in this course.
13. Click OK to continue
14. Save the block model workspace.

15. Click on the + sign to expand the list of block model attributes.

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Edit Block Model Properties and Attributes

Lab 3b: Needle intersections

Edit Block Model Properties and Attributes


In this lab, you will learn how to:

edit block model workspace and folder properties


edit block model attribute properties
add extra block model attributes.

Lab 5a: Edit Workspace Properties


1. Choose Block>Edit>Workspace Properties or right click on the Block model workspace name
in the project tree and select Properties to edit the workspace properties.
Do not make any changes for this exercise.
2. Click on the Geometry tab and Change buttons to edit the number of blocks, origin and rotation
and block size.

Do not make any changes for this exercise.


3. Click on the Levels tab and Auto Descriptions button to automatically infill bench descriptions
with the Elevation of Toe.

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Edit Block Model Properties and Attributes

Lab 3b: Needle intersections

4. NOTE: If you change any block model properties, all blocks must be initialized which means that
all attribute data will be reset to their default values!!!
Right click on Bm3d in the project tree and select Initialize to reset blocks to their default values.
5. Save the block model.

Lab 5b: Edit Folder Properties


1. Choose Block>Edit>Workspace Properties or right click on the Block model folder name in the
project tree and select Properties to edit the workspace properties. This allows you to change
mappings before running volumetrics reports. For instance, you might have 2 Rock types.. You
can map to either one before running a volumetrics report.

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Edit Block Model Properties and Attributes

Lab 3b: Needle intersections

Lab 5c: Edit Attribute Properties


1. After you set up a block model, you can check or edit the attribute properties as follows:
2. Choose Block>Edit>AttributeProperties or right click on the Rock Type attribute and select
Properties.

Check that the default value is set to 99 for the Waste rockcode. You can use this menu to
change any default and display properties later on.

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Edit Block Model Properties and Attributes

Lab 3b: Needle intersections

Lab 5d: Add Extra Attributes


1. After you set up a block model, you can add extra attributes as required. In this exercise you will
add some attributes to store special kriging information.

2. Open the Block model called BM3d.


3. Expand the Standard folder to view the list of attributes.
4. Right click on the Standard folder and select Create Attribute.
5. Add the following attributes:

Click OK.
6. Save the block model and check that all attributes have been added successfully:

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Initialise Block Model Attributes

Lab 6: Initialise Block Model Attributes

Initialise Block Model Attributes


All block attributes must be initialised whenever the block model properties such as origin and rotation, or
the size and number of blocks are changed. Blocks will be reset to the default values for each attribute.
This means you will lose all interpolated block model data.
Individual block model attributes may be initialised to a given value for all blocks, selected blocks or
unselected blocks.

Lab 6: Initialise Block Model Attributes


To initialize a block model follow these steps:
1) In the Project View window, right-click the block model workspace, and select Initialize.
2) To initialise a single attribute, expand a block-model folder to view all attributes, right-click the
attribute, and select Initialize. Enter the Initial value then click on the Selection range to
choose all blocks, selected blocks or unselected blocks.

3) Show the blocks to check that all selected blocks for a particular attributes have been initialised.
In addition, a status check could also be carried out. Choose Block>Select>Status to view the
block value statistics.

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Rock Type

Lab 7: Rockcode Profiles

Rock Type
Each geology solid or polygon has a rock code. GEMS rock codes are eight character alphanumeric
strings (all characters and numbers are allowed). Block modelling requires a four-digit numeric value only.
Therefore, you must translate the values for the block model updating process.
You must enter the block-model code for any rock code you want to use for updating block models. The
ore/waste/air flag is also accessed when updating.
GEMS recommends the following conventions for updating the Rock Type attribute:
Code

Lithology

1-9

Air or overburden

10-99

Waste

100-999

Marginal or low grade ore

1000-9999

High grade ore

Lab 7: Rockcode Profiles


1. Choose Format > Other Profiles > Rock Codes and add/edit the following rock codes:
Name

Rock
type

Density

Colour

Rock code

Comment

AIR

Air

Cyan

ORE100

Ore

2.5

Red

100

ORE200

Ore

2.5

Orange

200

ORE300

Ore

2.5

Magenta

300

WASTE

Waste

1.8

Grey

99

W_OX

Ore

1.8

Brown

10

Weathering -Oxide

W_TR

Ore

2.0

L Green

20

Weathering -Transitional

W_FR

Ore

2.2

L Blue

30

Weathering -Fresh

2. Create a rock code colour profiles called ROCK1 to match:

3. Save rock code colour profiles as ROCK2 and delete the waste rockcode. Use this profile when
you do not wish to display Waste blocks. This can also speed up block display time.

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Rock Type

Lab 8: Update Rock Type

Lab 8: Update Rock Type


Solids and surfaces are typically used to update the Rock Type attribute. A typical process would be:

Initialise all blocks to Waste if not already done so.

Load/select the topographic surface ,select blocks above the surface and initialise to AIR.

Load all ore solids and update from solids.

Check that all blocks have been updated correctly.

These steps are covered below.


4. Close all open workspaces.
5. Open the Geology workspace and load the following surfaces and solids:

6. Open the block model BM3d.


7. Right click on Rock Type and select Initialise to set all blocks to code 99 (Waste rock code):

8. To stamp in the AIR rock code above the topographic surface, choose Solid>Data>Select
solids from List and select the surface called TOPO

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Rock Type

Lab 8: Update Rock Type

9. Click on the Block Select icon and select the blocks Above Surface.
Click on the surface, enter an Integration level of 5, and 50% for the minimum percent of
block above surface. Replace the current selection and click OK.
Alternatively, you could enter 0% and remember to report only blocks below the surface when
carrying out volumetrics reports later on.

10. Right-click on the Rock Type attributes in the Project Tree and select
Initialise. Enter an initialise value of 1 (=AIR) and choose Blocks in
the current selection.
Click OK.
11. Save the block model.
12. Change the block selection to Auto-select Blocks by Current View,
and Show the Rock Type. Check that all blocks have been updated
correctly for section 7400.
13. Flip from one section to the next and check that all sections look OK.

14. Choose Solid>Data>Select solids from List and select the Geology solids called ORE100 and
ORE300.

Click OK.
15. To update the Rock Type using these solids, right-click on the Rock Type attributes in the
Project Tree and select Update from Solids.

Page 33 of 70

Rock Type

Lab 8: Update Rock Type

16. In the box displayed, enter the following:

The Solid attribute Rock Type will be used to update the blocks. An Integration level of 5 (25
needles per block) will be used to pierce each block to estimate the percentage of ore material in
the block.
17. The minimum percent required to re-assign the block has been set to zero, as even if there is
a tiny amount of ore in the block, we want to assign the block with an ore rock code. This is
necessary for the block to obtain a grade when kriging later on. Even though the whole block will
be assigned an ore rock type, the volume of ore inside the block will be calculated correctly
during volumetrics reporting by choosing to use either the ore solid for volumes, or the blocks
weighted with a percent block attribute.
18. You can choose to Show updated blocks during run, though this slows the process down.
19. The Needle Orientation is set to Horizontal along rows for this example, since the orebody
strikes roughly N-S.
20. Select the vertical section 7400N, flip into 2D, show the Rock Type attribute and set the bock
display to Auto-select Blocks by Current View and check that all blocks have been updated
correctly.

Page 34 of 70

Rock Type

Lab 8: Update Rock Type

Change the block display profile if necessary to view the blocks as values and outlines.

21. Make a new display profile called ROCK3 to display only the ore rockcodes 100 and 300 only (as
in not display waste and air)
22. If all looks OK, Hide the Rock Type and Save the block model workspace.

Page 35 of 70

Density

Lab 8: Update Rock Type

Density
Density can be updated using a variety of methods such as:

Initialise and update density from rock type

Use surfaces to update density

Krige density

Block model manipulations

The labs below will cover 2 common methods for updating density. If you want to calculate the density
using Inverse Distance or Kriging methods then refer to the section, Error! Reference source not
found.s.

Lab 9a: Initialise and update density from rock types


1. In the Project View window, right-click the density attribute, and select Initialize to open the
Initialize Block Attribute dialog box.
2. Enter the Initial value, select a block selection range, select Update the density model from
the rock-type model, and click OK. GEMS will look at the rock code in the Rock Type model
and index this with the density value in the rock code profile.

Lab 9b: Use surfaces to update density


In this example, topography and weathering surfaces will be used to update the density attribute.
1. If not already done so, load/select the following surfaces from the Geology workspace:

These surfaces represent the topography, base of oxide and base of transition.

Page 36 of 70

Density

Lab 8: Update Rock Type

2. Display the triangulations, choose Solid>Properties and click on each solid to check the Above
material and Below material rock types have been assigned correctly. These attributes will be
used to assign the density. See next diagram:

Page 37 of 70

Density

Lab 8: Update Rock Type

3. Right click on the Density attribute in the Project tree, and select Update from Solids.

a.
b.
c.
d.

Check the Density is selected as the Solid attribute to update from.


Set the Integration level to 5.
Use All Materials and set the Minimum percent required to re-assign blocks to 50%.
Because these are surfaces, the Needle Orientation has been set to Vertical down
levels.
e. Ignore the Default materials under Surface options, as these surfaces already have
above and below material assigned.
f. You can choose to Show needles and Show results this slows the process down
though.
g. Click OK to continue.
4. Right click on Density and select Properties, and check that the block cell display profile is set
to Density displayed as values and outlines.

Page 38 of 70

Density

Lab 8: Update Rock Type

5. Right click on Density and select Show.

6.
7.
8.
9.

Check that the densities are correct for each weathering zone.
Hide Density.
Close the block model.
Close all open workspaces.

Page 39 of 70

Building Grade Models

Interpolation methods

Building Grade Models


You can update (fill) grade block models by interpolating point grade data in order to accurately assign a
grade to each block.
Kriging and other interpolation methods allow you to assign grade values to blocks based on
geostatistical formulae involving semi-variogram distribution curves and effective distances from samples
of known grade.

Interpolation methods
The three most common techniques for estimation are:

Inverse distance
Ordinary kriging
Indicator kriging

Successful interpolation requires correct statistical and geostatistical pre-analysis of the data so that
appropriate search radii, anisotropy, numbers of samples, rock type constraints, etc may be defined.

Kriging Processing Sequence


The following describes general processing sequence that occurs during kriging. For each interpolation
profile, GEMS processes the data as follows.

For the current target rock code, GEMS reads the point area data, filters, sorts, and then displays
it on the screen. Summary statistics for the loaded data are written to the report file.
For the current target rock code, GEMS then processes each of the selected levels or benches
sequentially.
For ordinary kriging or inverse distance options, GEMS displays each block with the target rock
code on the screen in grey.
If sufficient data is found inside the search volume for that block, GEMS estimates a value for the
block and re-plots the block in a colour determined by the colour profile. (If insufficient data is
found, the colour of the block remains grey. This is useful in assessing areas where the specified
range/anisotropy might be too short or the data too sparse.) For indicator kriging, GEMS displays
the block with a size scaled proportional to probability.
If a trace block is encountered, GEMS plots the search volume for that block. The lower
hemisphere is plotted in yellow and the upper hemisphere in grey. This helps you assess the
direction of the dip of the search ellipsoid.
GEMS writes results to various block models on a row by row basis. If block models have not
been correctly initialised or created, kriging will unexpectedly terminate at this stage.

GEMS will continue with all levels for current target rock code.
GEMS then repeats these steps for all other target rock codes.

GEMS then unloads everything then loads the next interpolation profile and starts again.
When complete, GEMS issues summary information and terminates.

Page 40 of 70

Trace Block Profiles

Workflow
The suggested workflow is:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Create Trace Block profiles.


Create Search ellipse profiles.
Create Variogram profiles.
Create Interpolation profiles.
Run an Interpolation.
View and Save Interpolation reports.

These functions are all accessed via the Tools>Geostatistics>Interpolation menu:

The following sections will cover each of these steps in detail.

Trace Block Profiles


In the Trace Blocks dialog box, you can set up profiles to select one or more trace blocks. These are
important, since two things happen at each trace block when interpolating:

The search volume (ellipsoid) will be graphically displayed on the screen.

Details about the sample weights, interpolating results, and other related information will be
reported for each trace block.

It is strongly recommended that you use at least one to three trace blocks for any run. Place these blocks
at points of interest (low versus high grade areas, different material types, etc). Printed results for these
blocks should always be checked.
The steps for creating trace block profiles are:

Choose Format > Geostatistics > Trace Blocks to open the Trace Blocks dialog box.

Click New Profile, type in a Profile name, and click OK.

Set up the trace blocks to verify a profiles interpolation settings, and click Apply.

Repeat steps 2 to 3 to add more profiles.


When you are finished, click OK.

Page 41 of 70

Trace Block Profiles

Lab 10: Create/Edit Trace Block Profiles


Follow the steps below to create trace blocks for ORE100 and ORE300:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose Tools>Geostatistics>Interpolation>Other Profiles>Trace Blocks.


Open the block model called BM3d and display the Rock Type.
Display the blocks on section 7240N and flip into 2D.
Choose Block>Display>Block Info Window and move your cursor over a block. Choose a
block in the middle of ORE100 and note the Column, Row, and Level numbers.

5. Choose Geostatistics>Interpolation>Other Profiles> Trace Blocks


6. Create a new profile called ORE100 and enter the Block Column, Row and Level numbers for
blocks identified above:

7. Another way of doing this, is to use the Search Ellipse Visualiser. Choose
Tools>Geostatistics>Preview Search ellipse.
8. Select the Block model BM3d, and select any search ellipse. Enter 5m for the X,Y and Z ranges.
9. Click on Select trace bocks by using the mouse and click on a block in the middle of ORE300.

Page 42 of 70

Trace Block Profiles

10. Save the Trace block to a profile:

11. Click OK to exit the Trace block profile editor.


12. Click the Close button to exit the Search Ellipsoid parameter box.
13. You now have two trace blocks for ORE100 and one trace block for ORE300.

Page 43 of 70

Search Ellipse Profiles

Search Ellipse Profiles


Search ellipses are used to select the samples used for estimating the value of a block.
To create a search ellipse profile:

Choose Format > Geostatistics > Search Ellipse to open the Search Ellipse dialog box.
Click New Profile, type in a Profile name, and click OK.

Complete all necessary dialog box elements, and click Apply.

Repeat steps 2 to 3 to add more profiles.


When you are finished, click OK.

To use anisotropy for more effective searches, you need to understand anisotropy definitions. For more
information on anisotropy, see Variography training manual.

Lab 11a: View Search Ellipse Profiles


Search ellipse parameters were previously saved during the 3D variography analysis. To view a search
ellipse:
1. Load and select the ORE100 geological solid and set the Triangulation display to
Triangulations.
2. Show the BM3d block model Rock Type attribute and select the blocks inside ORE100 solid.
3. Choose Tools>Geostatistics>Interpolation>Other Profiles>Search Ellipse. Select the Block
workspace BM3d, Search-ellipse profile AU_100 and the trace-block profile ORE100:

4. Rotate your data and check how the ellipsoid shape matches the orebody orientation.
5. Click on the browse button to open the Search-ellipse profile editor.

Page 44 of 70

Search Ellipse Profiles

6. View the parameters for AU_100.

7. You can edit the search ellipse parameters if required. Notice that you may specify separate
high-grade search radii.
8. Click OK to exit the Search Ellipse profile editor.
9. Click the Close button when finished to exit the search ellipse visualiser.

Page 45 of 70

Search Ellipse Profiles

Lab 11b: Create a Search Ellipse Profile


Load in the geological solid called ORE300 and create a search ellipse called ORE300 to suit the
domains orientation.

Page 46 of 70

Variogram Profiles

Variogram Profiles
This profile is the heart of the kriging interpolation. One or several semi-variograms may be entered, each
consisting of up to eight nested models. For example, one semi-variogram may have a nugget effect
model plus two spherical models. Each model may have its own spatial orientation and anisotropy
parameters.
The steps to create a variogram profile are:
1. Choose Format > Geostatistics > Variograms to open the Variogram dialog box.
2. Click New Profile, type in a Profile name, and click OK. When you name the profile, use a name
so you know to which domain it belongs.
3. Click Comment and type a description for the profile.
4. In the Components section, select the components to be used. These selections will likely be
influenced by the shapes of experimental semi-variograms you have generated from your sample
data.
o

On the bottom half of the tab, you can edit specific information about a particular
model component. You will be asked to define:
Anisotropy method and Rotation angles: Because the specification of
anisotropy can easily become complex, if you are not familiar with
anisotropy, choose No rotation or Same as for Search anisotropy.
Range of influence components along each anisotropy axis: All range
components must be greater than zero except when using a nugget effect
model.

and, for some models,

Sill value.
Slope.

5. Click Apply to save the profile.


6. Repeat steps 2 to 6 to add more profiles.
7. When you are finished, click OK.
You can define several profiles even if they are not all being used for a particular interpolation run.
Note: When using inverse distance options, semi-variograms are not used. Therefore, you dont need to define this
profile.

Page 47 of 70

Lab 12: View/Edit Variogram Profiles


1. Choose Format > Geostatistics > Variograms to open the Variogram dialog box.
2. View the parameters for AU_100.

These parameters were previously saved during the variogram modelling process and can be edited here
if required. See the Variography training manual for more details.

Page 48 of 70

Interpolation Profiles

Interpolation Profiles
You need to define one interpolation profile for each grade to be interpolated and depending on the
geostatistical analysis, you may need to define one interpolation profile for each element per geological
domain. GEMS enables you to define interpolation profiles with various user-specified kriging parameters
such as:

Kriging method and parameters.

Number of samples and what samples (point


areas) to use for each target rock type when
estimating the grade for each block.

Search ellipses to use for each domain (rock


type).

Variogram parameters for each domain (rock


type)

Data limits

Where to store the results and what to report.

To create an interpolation profile, follow these steps:

Choose Format > Geostatistics > Interpolation to open the Interpolation dialog box.

Click New Profile, type in a Profile name, and click OK.

Complete the Interpolation and Data Constraints tabs as needed.

Click Apply.

Repeat steps 2 to 4 to add more profiles.

When you are finished, click OK.

The details of the dialog box are described in the GEMS Help and the Block Modelling Concepts manual
for GEMS.
Page 49 of 70

Interpolation Profiles

Lab 13a: Create Interpolation Profile for Inverse Distance


In this exercise you will create an interpolation profile for estimating grades using inverse distance.
1. Choose Format > Geostatistics > Interpolation to open the Interpolation dialog box.
2. Click New Profile, type in a Profile name, and click OK.
3. Complete the Interpolation and Data Constraints tabs with the parameters tabled below.
PROFILE NAME

AU_ID

Calculation method

Inverse Distance (Anisotropic)

ID power

Number of samples

Min = 2, Max = 20

Block Selection

All blocks in BM3d block model workspace.

Use Rockcodes from

Standard\Rock Type folder

Target Rock Type

100

Point Area workspace

300
dhGrades

Point Area

ORE100 comps

ORE300 comps

Data limits

HOLE-ID to 5 occurrences

HOLE-ID to 5 occurrences

ORE100

ORE300

NA

NA

Search Ellipse
Semi -variogram
Values

Min = 0
Max = 100000 (above max not included)
High grade limit = 10000 (cut and included)

Duplicate samples

Detect and report only

Other Filtering

None

Results

Grade = Standard|AU_ID2
Variance = NA
Special model kriging results = NA

Display

Colour profile = AU
Draw blocks = Yes (no, will speed kriging time)
Draw the extract data = Y, 5m above and below current level

Reporting options

Save details in a text file with column, row and level of each
block.
For each trace block report only the search volume location,
kriging equation and weight.
Trace blocks = 100-300 profile

Cross Validation

NA

Advanced options

NA

4. Click Apply.
5. When you are finished, click OK.

Page 50 of 70

Interpolation Profiles

Lab 13a: Create Interpolation Profile for Ordinary Kriging


In this exercise you will create an interpolation profile for estimating grades using ordinary kriging.
1. Choose Format > Geostatistics > Interpolation to open the Interpolation dialog box.
2. Click New Profile, type in a Profile name, and click OK.
3. Complete the Interpolation and Data Constraints tabs with the parameters tabled below.
PROFILE NAME

AU_OK

Calculation method

Ordinary kriging

Block variance

By block

Negative Weights

Set to zero

Number of samples

Min = 2, Max = 20

Discretisation

3x3x3

Block Selection

All blocks in BM3d block model workspace.

User rockcodes from:

Standard/Rock Type folder

Target Rock Type

100

Point Area workspace

300
dhGrades

Point Area

ORE100 comps

ORE300 comps

Data limits

HOLE-ID to 5 occurrences

HOLE-ID to 5 occurrences

Search Ellipse

ORE100

ORE100

Semi -variogram

AU_100

AU_100

Values

Min = 0 / Max = 100000 (above max not included)


High grade limit = 10000 (cut and included)

Duplicate samples

Detect and report only

Other Filtering

None

Results

Grade = Standard/AU_OK
Special model kriging results

Display

Colour profile = AU / Draw blocks = Yes


Draw the extract data = Y, 5m above and below current level

Reporting options

Save details in a text file with column, row and level of each block.
For each trace block report only the search volume location,
kriging equation and weight.
Trace blocks = 100-300 profile

Cross Validation

NA

Advanced options

NA

4. Click Apply and OK when finished.

Page 51 of 70

Run Interpolation and View Generated Reports

Run Interpolation and View Generated Reports


Before you perform an interpolation run, close or hide all images, models, etc. in the graphics area. To
perform an interpolation run, follow these steps.

Choose Tools > Geostatistics > Interpolation


> Interpolation and Report to open the
Interpolate and Report dialog box.
In Use data from, select and add all the
interpolation profiles you want to run with their
matching Trace Block Profiles.

Click OK. GEMS will run the interpolation.

When completed, GEMS displays the


Interpolation Reports dialog box. Click
Summary, View Detail Trace, or View Report
File to open any of the reports.

1.
Choose the Interpolation
profile for which to view results

2.
Click the Summary, View Detail
Trace and View Report File
buttons to view results for the
interpolation profile selected
above.

3.
Reports are saved to ASCII files.
These are overwritten each time
you run the interpolation, so be
sure to rename these if you want
to keep the results.

When you are finished, click Close.

Page 52 of 70

Run Interpolation and View Generated Reports

Lab 14: Run interpolation to estimate AU_IK and AU_OK grades.


1) Choose Tools>Geostatistics>Interpolation>Interpolate and Report
2) Select the Interpolation profiles (Use Data from column) and Trace bock profiles (Use trace
blocks column for this run:

3) Click Save to save these settings to a Kriging Run Setting File for future use if required. This
step is optional.

4) If you have a large block model, it is suggested you check the option to Interpolate and report
only for trace blocks and check that everything is OK before repeating the process for all
blocks.

5) After the interpolation is completed, view the reports that have been generated.
a. Click the Summary button to view and compare the summary results for ID2 and OK:

Check that all blocks have been kriged. If not, note the reason why. You may need to
change your kriging parameters and rerun the interpolation.
b. Select the Interpolation profile for which you want to view results for and then click the
View Detail Trace button to view and compare view the information for each trace block:

Page 53 of 70

Run Interpolation and View Generated Reports

c.

Select the Interpolation profile for which you want to view results for and then click the
View Report File button to view a full report.

6) Save the block model.


7) View the results graphically.

Page 54 of 70

Block Model Manipulation

You should check your block model results against drillhole grades and make sure that they
make sense!

Block Model Manipulation


Simple block manipulation scripts (CEL scripts) can be used to calculate or modify attributes in a blockmodel workspace by using mathematical and logical operations. For instance, you can calculate grade
equivalents, classify material into ore categories, manipulate rock codes to divide ore into differerent
weathering types,etc.
To create a script:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Choose Block > Edit > Simple Manipulation.


Select the Block Workspace.
Click Script Help to learn about CEL scripts.
Click Insert Attribute to insert attribute names in the correct syntax.
Write or modify a script.
Save the script (a .ssc file) so that you can use it later.

To modify a script:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose Block > Edit > Simple Manipulation.


Select the Block Workspace.
Click Open Script to select and then modify an existing script (a .ssc file).
Save the script.

To run a script:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Choose Block > Edit > Simple Manipulation.


Select the Block Workspace.
Click Open Script to select and then modify an existing script (a .ssc file).
Save the script.

Page 55 of 70

Block Model Manipulation

Lab 15a: Calculate AU_Metal for each block


In this lab, you will create and run a script to manipulate blocks to calculate Au_Metal (gold metal
content) based on AU_ID2 grades.
1. Right click on the Standard folder for BM3d block model and select Create Attribute.
2. Add a new attribute called Au_Metal with the following parameters:

This will be used to store then block model manipulation results.


3. Press OK and Save the block model.
4. Choose Block > Edit > Simple Manipulation
5. Write a script for the following equation:
If AU_ID2 > 0 THEN
Au_Metal = Block Size x Density X AU_ID2
Use the Insert Attribute button to enter attributes in the correct syntax as shown below:
If BlockModel.Model("Standard","AU_ID2", Column, Row, Level) > 0 THEN _
BlockModel.Model("Standard","AU_Metal", Column, Row, Level) = _
BlockModel.Model("Standard","AU_ID2", Column, Row, Level) * 2000 * _
BlockModel.Model("Standard","Density", Column, Row, Level)
Note:
- The If statement is necessary for when dividing cells with zero values.
- The space _ at the end of each line connects the statement. This makes the script
easier to read over several lines instead of one line.
6. Click the Save Script button and name the script Au_Metal.ssc. It is recommended that you
save your scripts to a sub-directory called BM scripts inside the GEMS project folder

7.
8.
9.
10.

Click the Execute button to run the script to update all blocks.
When finished, click the Close button to exit the script editor.
Save the block model.
Create a colour profile called AU_METAL as follows:

11. Add a new Block Cell display profile called AU_METAL which uses the colour profile created
above.
12. Edit the AU_METAL block attribute properties to use the new Block cell display profile called
AU_METAL.
13. Show the AU_ID2 and AU_METAL attributes and check your results:

Page 56 of 70

Block Model Manipulation

Lab 15b: Manipulate blocks based on ore type and weathering profile
Create a new block model attribute called ROCK_W and see if you can figure out how to use the
Rock Type and Density attributes to display the numbers:
RockW

Integer

Ore 100 in Oxide Zone

110

Ore 100 in Trans Zone

120

Ore100 in Fresh Zone

130

Ore 300 in Oxide Zone

310

Ore 300 in Trans Zone

320

Ore300 in Fresh Zone

330

Hint: The Rocktype contains integers 100 and 300 for the orezones and the Density attributes are
based on weathering zones!
Run the script and check your results! The answers are in Blockmodelling2 project, called
ROCK_Weathering2.ssc.

Page 57 of 70

Block model reports

Block Model Manipulation

Block model reports


Volumetrics reports are used to report block model tonnes and grade.

The volumetrics profile to run the report above has been saved in the Blockmodelling2 project for your
future reference. Steps for generating these reports are covered in the Volumetrics training manual and
labs.

Page 58 of 70

Model Validation

Block Model Manipulation

Model Validation
An important step in a geostatistical evaluation is to validate the model after it has been created. There
are several means of performing this, some of which include:

Compare block model grades against drillhole composite grades in both cross-sectional and
planview.
Compare basic statistics for block model grades versus drillhole composite grades.
Prepare grade tonnage curves from volumetrics reports.
Trend analysis.

Page 59 of 70

Partial Block Models

Standard Block Models versus Partial Block models

Partial Block Models


Standard Block Models versus Partial Block models
Standard block models are used when there is ever only one ore rock type present in a block. A
standard block-model workspace has one block-model folder (with no percent attribute).
GEMS interpolates each block as either 100% of one rock type or 100% of the other rock type.
For example, the block-model below has four blocks with 2 ore rock types.

Partial block models are used if two or more ore rock types have the potential to exist in a single block. A
partial block-model workspace has multiple
block-model folders that have a percent block-model
attribute, so that GEMS can interpolate each rock type separately.

Page 60 of 70

Partial Block Models

Set up a Partial Block Model

In a partial block model, multiple folders are used to keep separate values for rockcode, density, grades,
etc for each ore rock type. Each folder will have a percent block-model attribute. The percent attribute
represents the portion of the block volume occupied by the rock type represented in the rock type
attribute in the same folder. The remaining volume of the block is associated with rock types found in rock
type attributes stored in other folders. If you have n types of rock, each in a separate folder, you need n-1
percent attributes to account for 100% of the deposit.
The labs below will provide instructions on how to set up a partial block model and update the blocks for each ore
type.

Set up a Partial Block Model


In this exercise, a partial block model will be set up with the same properties as the standard block model.
Additional folders will then be added for each ore rock type.
1) Close all open workspaces
2) The easiest way to create a new block model with similar parameters to the existing standard
block model is to open the standard block model workspace BM3d in the workspace data editor,
and then use the Save As command to create a new one called BMPartial.

3) Exit the Workspace Editor, Add the new block model to the Project tree and Open it. Enter the
Default values and cell Display Profiles as follows:

Press OK to continue.
Page 61 of 70

Partial Block Models

Set up a Partial Block Model

4) Now add an extra folder for the 2 ore types ORE100 and ORE300 as follows:
a. Right click on BMpartial and select Create Folder:

b. Enter the Name ORE100 and click the Copy from button and select the Standard Block
folder.

Press OK to continue.
c.

The folder ORE100 has been added. Repeat the procedure above to create a new folder
for ORE300.

5) You now have a Standard folder and 2 folders for each ore rock type called ORE100 and ORE
300. The following diagram summarises the next steps.

Page 62 of 70

Partial Block Models

Set up a Partial Block Model

Update the Standard/Rock Type with Waste and Air rockcodes


using topographic surface.
Set Block folder mapping: For a standard block model,
*Default Folder* was selected for the rock code mapping.
For a partial block model, change this option to map the
rock code to a specific block model folder.

Update Rock Type, Density Percent, and Grade models for first
ore Rock Type
ie. ORE100
Update Rock Type, Density Percent, and Grade models for
second ore Rock Type
ie. ORE300
Run volumetrics report, making sure to choose the data type
Block model for Rock codes and check the Constraints for
Block models to Weight the volumes in each block by using
the percent block attribute..

These steps are explained in more detail below:

Page 63 of 70

Partial Block Models

Update Partial Block Model attributes

Update Partial Block Model attributes


Update the Standard/Rock Type attribute with waste and air rockcodes.
1. Update the Standard/Rock Type attribute with Waste and Air as follows:
a. Select the surface called TOPO from the GEOLOGY workspace.
b. Right click on the Standard/Rock Type folder and select Update from Solids.
Enter the following parameters.

Click OK to continue. Check the results.

c.

Save the block model if all OK.

Page 64 of 70

Partial Block Models

Update Partial Block Model attributes

Edit Rockcode folder mapping to ore rockcodes.


Before updating the rockcodes for the Rock type attribute in both ore folders, you can setup Block folder
mapping. Previously, for a standard block model, the *Default Folder* was selected for the rock code
folder mapping. For a partial block model, change this option to map the rock code to a specific block
model folder, ie Map rockcode 100 to the ORE100 folder and rockcode 300 to the ORE300 folder. This
means that when you open both geological solids and select Update from solids, only the rockcode
mapped to that folder will be updated.
1. Choose Format>Other Profiles>Rockcodes
2. Click on ORE100
3. Edit the Block folder options - uncheck Use default folder, and select the Block workspace
BMpartial and select the Block folder that will contain this rockcode. ie ORE100. Press OK.

4. Repeat for ORE300, mapping to Block folder ORE300.

Update attributes for ore type folders


The next step is to update the rockcode, percent, density and grade values for both ore folders as follows:

Rock type
1. Select the geological solids called ORE100 and ORE300.

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2. Right click on ORE100/Rocktype folder and select Update from Solids. Enter the following:

Press OK to continue.
3. Flip into section and Show the Rocktype to check the results:

4. Notice that only rock code 100 was updated for this folder. This was due to the folder mapping
carried out above.

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Percent
1. Load and select ORE100 solid only, right click on ORE100/Percent attribute and select Update
from solids. Use the same integration level and min percent required to re-assign the block as
was used for solids:

2. Show the attribute and view in section to check that all is OK.
3. Save the block model.
4. Load and select ORE300 solid only, , right click on ORE300/Percent attribute and select Update
from solids. Use the same integration level and min percent required to re-assign the block as
was used for solids.
5. Show the attribute and view in section to check that all is OK.
6. Save the block model

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Density
There are many ways in which we could update the ORE100/Density. For this exercise, the density from
the standard block model will be used (this was previously updated from weathering surfaces definining
oxidation, transition and fresh zones).
1. To copy data from another block model workspace, right click on the folder you wish to update
i.e. ORE100 and select Update from Workspace. Select BM3d for the block model and press
OK.

2. Click on the Density model and click the Add==> button. Press OK to continue.

3. You could equally reload the TOPO2, B_OX and B_TR surfaces and Update from solids.
4. Check the results.

Grade
1. Create new kriging profiles to update the grades. For this exercise, just create 2 profiles for
kriging AU_ID2 for ORE100 and ORE300.
TIP: For this project, since most of the kriging parameters are the same as that used for the
standard block model, you could use the Save As command to create new profiles. Remember
to change the Block model, the Rocktype folder for target rockcodes, and the Grade folders for
storing the results for each ore type under the Data and Constraints tab.

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2. Run the interpolation for AU-ID2 for ORE100 and ORE300.


3. Create a new volumetrics profile and report the tones and grade for both ORE100 and ORE300
in the partial block model. For this exercise, set the following parameters:

4. Compare the results with the standard block model. These should be similar for this project.

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