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5/31/2010

DMME

BANGLADESH UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


BANGLADESHUNIVERSITYOFENGINEERINGANDTECHNOLOGY

MME 6203: Advanced Topics in foundry Engineering


Lecture 2

AKMBRashid
Professor,DepartmentofMME
BUET,Dhaka

5/31/2010

TodaysTopics

The casting technology


The casting processes
Casting fundamentals

NineClassesofProcess
Raw Materials

CASTING
METHODS

Gravity, pressure,
die casting

PRESSURE
MOULDING

Polymer moulding,
glass moulding

DEFORMATION
PROCESSING
Roll, forge,
draw, press

POWDER
METHODS

Sinter, slip cast,


hot isotatic press

MACHINING

HEAT TREAT

Cut, turn, plane, drill, grind

Anneal, normalise,
quench, temper

FINISH

Bolt, rivet, weld, braze,


solder, adhesive

Polish, plate, anodise, paint

SPECIAL
METHODS
Layup, CVD,
electroform

JOINING

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MetalFormingProcess
atomise

LIQUID METAL
casting

Metal Powder

continuous casting

Ingots

Intermediate Shapes
Slabs, Billets, Bars, Rods, Sections

moulding
and casting

pressing and
sintering

hot and cold


forming

FORGINGS
CASTINGS

hot and cold


forming

MISCELLANEOUS
WROUGHT FORMS

Standard Wrought Stocks


Plates, Sections, Sheets,
Tubes, Bars, Rods, Wires

SINTERED
COMPACTS

machining

joining

Machined Shapes

Fabrications

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TheCastingTechnology
Stepsinvolvedinmakingacasting

Pattern Making
Moulding and Core making
Melting and Pouring
Fettling and Finishing operations
Inspection and Quality Control

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TheCastingTechnology
Elementsofamould

Feeder

Mould

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TheCastingTechnology
Advantages of casting process
1.
2.
3.
4.

Versatile
Dimensional accuracy
One stepp pprocess
Low cost

Metallurgical advantages of castings


1.
2.
3.

Directional properties
Grain size
Density
Design advantages of castings
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Size
Complexity
Weight saving
Production of prototypes
Wide range of properties
Versatility in casting alloys

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TheCastingTechnology
Disadvantagesofcastingprocess
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Bad surface finish and dimensional accuracy


Lack of directional properties
Unable to produce complex structures
Unable to use refractory materials
Presence of casting defects

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TheCastingTechnology
TheFoundryEstablishment
Classes based on type and capacity of production
1. Jobbing foundries
2. Production foundries
3. Captive foundries
Classes according
g to the type
yp of materials melted
1. Ferrous foundries
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Steel foundries
Grey iron foundries
Malleable iron foundries
Ductile iron foundries

2. Non-ferrous foundries
(a) Light metal foundries (for Al and Mg)
(b) Copper, brass and bronze foundries
(c) Lead, tin and zinc-base foundries
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TheCastingTechnology
Influenceofcastingtootherindustrialsectors
F
Foundry
d is
i ab
basic
i iindustry.
d t
Its product, castings, enters into every field in which metals serve man.

Castings are produced almost everywhere that


manufacturing occurs.
Transportation, communication, construction, agriculture, power
generation, in aerospace, atomic energy applications.

Modern civilisation would not be so far advanced


as it is today.
If it were not for the foundry and its product.

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TheCastingProcesses
Sand system

Clay/water-bonded green sand moulding


Green sand moulding
Floor and pit moulding
Loam moulding
Dry sand moulding
Skin dried moulding
Resin-bonded sand moulding
No-bake process
Cold box process
Hot box process
Warm box moulding

Sodium silicate process


Precision casting
Un-bonded sand moulding
Lost foam process
Vacuum moulding

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TheCastingProcesses
Non-sand system
Metal (or permanent) mould processes
Gravity die casting
Low-pressure die casting
High-pressure die casting
Centrifugal casting
Vertical centrifugal casting
Horizontal centrifugal casting

Ceramic moulding
Plaster moulding
Graphite moulding

Hybrid processes
Squeeze casting
Semisolid metal casting (rheocasting)

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CastingFundamentals
Presently, casting is not an art.
Creating casting without major defects repeatedly
requires a good understanding on the following
scientific knowledge:
1 The melt dynamics and fluid flow
2 The principles
p p of heat transfer and kinetics solidification
Design of running system
Solidification of metals and alloys
Solidification shrinkage and design of feeding system
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DesignofRunningSystem
The series of funnels, pipes
andd channels
h
l to guide
id liliquid
id
metal from the ladle into the
mould is known as the
gating system or the running
system.
An accurate design of running
system is crucial for obtaining
defect free castings
repeatedly.

Pouring
system

Cope
Casting

Feeding
system

Parting
Line
Running system
Drag

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DesignofRunningSystem

Basic components

Pouring basin/conical cup


Sprue/downsprue
Sprue base
Runner
Gates/ingates

Basic components of a simple gating system for a horizontally parted mould

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DesignofRunningSystem
Essentialfunctionsofagoodrunningsystem
1 Economy of size to increase yield of casting and productivity.
1.
productivity
2. The filling of the mould under the critical speed:
Al-bronze
Al-base and Mg-base alloys
Cu-base and Fe-base alloys

: 75 mm/s
: 250 mm/s
: 500 mm/s

3 The delivery of liquid metal into the mould cavity,


3.
cavity excluding other
phases (e.g. slag, oxide, sand, air or other gases).
4. Streamlining the running system to eliminate surface turbulence.
5. Facilitate ease of removal from the casting.
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DesignofRunningSystem
Progressivesolidificationvs.directionalsolidification

Flow of
molten metal

Progressivesolidification

Directionalsolidification

Source of
molten metal

Combinationofprogressiveanddirectionalsolidifications
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DesignofRunningSystem
Streamliningtherunningsystem

Turbulence in flow channel due to


reduction in cross-section

Vena contracta and air aspiration


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DesignofRunningSystem
Toppouringvs.Bottompouring

Top pouring system

Bottom pouring system

Side pouring system

Top pouring is prone to produce turbulence,


bottom pouring is always preferred.
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DesignofRunningSystem
Presurrised systemvs.Unpressurisedsystem

Pressurised system

Unpressurised system

Although a pressurised system produces high yield and reduces


pouring time, unpressurised system produces more sound
casting because of minimised turbulence and air entrapment.
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DesignofRunningSystem
Controllingfactorsingatingsystem

1. Type of gating system


(top / bottom pouring, pressurised / unpressurised system)
2. Pouring temperature
(fluidity of metal)
3. Type of pouring equipment
(ladle / pouring cup / pouring basin)
4. Rate of pouring
5. Size and type of runner and sprue
6. Size, number and location of ingates
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DesignofFeedingSystem
Molten metal occupies considerably more volume than the
solidified casting. Thus, liquid contracts on freezing because of
rearrangement of atoms from open randomly-packed structure
to a regular densely-packed structure.
Liquid metals experience 3 different contractions during solidification.
1. Liquid contraction - not troublesome
2. Solidification contraction - causes feeding problem
3. Solid contraction - causes hot tearing/cracking
Shrinkage porosity is the
most common and most
important defect in castings.

Solidification shrinkage
Aluminium
Copper
Magnesium
Zinc
Iron

FCC
FCC
HCP
HCP
BCC

7.14 vol.%
5.30
4.10
4.08
3.16
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DesignofFeedingSystem
Feeding thesixrules

1.
2.
3.
4.
5
5.
6.

Heat transfer requirement


Volume requirement
Junction requirement
Feed path requirement
Pressure differential requirement
Pressure requirement

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DesignofFeedingSystem
Controllingfactorsinfeedingsystem

1.
2.
3.
4.

Feeder size and shape


Feeder number and feeder dimensions
Feeder connection
Increase in efficiency of feeder

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SolidificationofMetalsandAlloys

FREE ENERGY, G

Nucleationofsolid
The driving force,
GV = GS - GL = H TS
GV = L T / Tm

GV

GS

Undercooling, T

GL

TM

Most liquids do not solidify spontaneously


(as expected) when they are cooled below
the equilibrium melting temperature, TM.

TEMPERATURE, T

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SolidificationofMetalsandAlloys
Nucleationofsolid
For r > r* :
Surface free energy

system lowers its free


energy by dissolution
of solid.
unstable nucleus.

FREEENERGY,G

SL
G*

RADIUS, r

r*

Total free energy

Volume free energy

GV

For r < r* :
free energy decreases
if the solid grows.
unstable nucleus.

r* = critical radius
free energy requirement
is the maximum.

Free energy associated with homogeneous nucleation


of spherical nucleus of radius r

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SolidificationofMetalsandAlloys
Nucleationofsolid
G = ((4/3)r
) 3 . GV + 4r2 . SL
For a critical radius, r* :

d (G) / dr = 0

2SL
2SL TM
r* ==
GV
L
G* =

16 (SL)3
=
3 (GV)2

1
T

16 (SL)3 TM2
3 L2

1
(T)2

Note that, as T increases, r* and G* decrease.


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SolidificationofMetalsandAlloys
Nucleationofsolid
Under suitable conditions, liquid nickel can be undercooled
to 250 K below TM (1453 C) and held there indefinitely
without any transformation occurring.
Normally undercooling as large as 250 K are not observed.
The nucleation of solid at undercooling of only ~ 1 K is
common.
In the refrigerator,
g
, however,, water freezes even ~ 1 K below zero.
In winter, we observe that water freezes ~ a few degrees below zero.

Why this happens?

What is the underlying physics?


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SolidificationofMetalsandAlloys
Heterogeneousnucleationofsolid
From the equation

G* =

16 (SL)3 TM2
1
2
(T)2
3L

nucleation becomes easy at small T,


T if SL decreases.
decreases

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SolidificationofMetalsandAlloys
Heterogeneousnucleationofsolid
Heterogeneous
g
nucleation of
spherical cap on a flat mould wall

Ghet = - VS GS + ASL SL + ASM SM - ASM ML


Ghet = - (4/3) r3 . GV + 4 r2 . SL . S()
where S() = (2+cos) (1-cos)2 / 4
S() has a numerical value 1
dependent only on (the shape of the nucleus)
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SolidificationofMetalsandAlloys
Heterogeneousnucleationofsolid

Inoculating agents
Inoculatingagents
Small interface energy
Similar crystal structure
Same physical properties

Similar lattice distance


Same chemical properties

Nucleation at the pre-existing


pre existing interfaces
Mould walls
Inclusion
Interface
Free surface
Impurity
Thoseparticleswettedbytheliquidare
particularlyhelpfulfornucleatingsolidphase.
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SolidificationofMetalsandAlloys
Growthandmicrostructure

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SolidificationofMetalsandAlloys
Growthandmicrostructure

Mould

Undercooling, T

Actual melt temperature, T

Equilibrium freezing
Temperature, Te

Liquid

Solid
skin

Distance from
mould wall

Undercooling ahead of the mould


wall immediately after pouring
Crysta
l
Crystal growth of a pure metal on the mould wall
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SolidificationofMetalsandAlloys
Growthandmicrostructure

Temperature

Compositional depression

Equilibrium freezing
temperature, Te

Actual liquid temperature


Undercooling, T
Thermal depression

Distance form interface


Depression of undercooling in the liquid ahead
of interface for impure metals and alloys
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SolidificationofMetalsandAlloys
Growthandmicrostructure

Primary crystal
Dendrites

Secondary crystal

Formation of dendritic structures


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SolidificationofMetalsandAlloys
Microstructureofingot
Outer equiaxed
q
chill zone
Massive nucleation due to intense cooling
(high T) at the interface.
Some re-melted, some flushed always to the
centre of the mould due to convection current.
Those having favourable nucleation sites, grow.

I t
Intermediate
di t columnar
l
zone
Favourably oriented chill crystals grow at the
expense of the others and form columnar zone.
The growth of columnar crystals are blocked by
the central equiaxed crystals.
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SolidificationofMetalsandAlloys
Microstructureofingot
Central equiaxed zone
As the temperature is decreased, the
broken dentritic crystals that are
flushed always to the centre of the
mould start growing.
Thus form the central equiaxed
crystal zone.

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SolidificationofMetalsandAlloys
Microstructureandpropertiesofingot

More columnar zone


Anisotropic properties
More equiaxed zone
Isotropic properties
Less segregation

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SolidificationofMetalsandAlloys
Defectsingrainstructures
Segregation

Micro- and macro-segregation


Homogenisation

Gas porosity

Nucleation of gas pore


Growth of gas pore
V = n RT / P
n = amount of gas in liquid
P = applied pressure during its growth

Homogeneous nucleation of gas pore


r* = 2/P
r* = critical radius of gas pore
= surface tension,
P = pressure difference

Heterogeneous nucleation of gas pore


P*het
P
P*hom
h t /P
h
= 1.12 [ (2 + cos) (1- cos)2/4 ]1/2
nucleation on solid surface does not
become favourable until the contact
angle exceeds 65 degrees.
good nuclei for pores must, therefore,
are non-wetted.
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