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IntroductiontoKymlicka,MulticulturalCitizenship

IntheWinter,1998semester,thefirstsectionofSociology304willbebasedonthebook,Will
Kymlicka,MulticulturalCitizenship:ALiberalTheoryofMinorityRights(ClarendonPress,Oxford,
1995).
KymlickainMulticulturalCitizenshipfocusesonboththeoryandonacontemporaryproblemthat
ofmulticulturalismandgrouprights.
Liberalismeitherinadequateorhasnotbeenabletoconsidergrouprightswithinitsmodel.That
is,theliberalmodelisoftenconsideredtobeconcernedexclusivelywithindividualrights.
Considersissuesthathavebeenraisedbysocialmovementsandindividuals.
Attemptstoprovideamodelandpolicyguidelines.
Manyexamples,ofwhichthebulkareCanadianQuebec,firstnations,immigrants,ethnic
groups.
Kymlicka'sanalysisisrootedincontemporarysocialanalysisinthatitexaminestheethnicandracial
diversityofsocieties,andtheincreasingconnectionamongthesesocieties(withmodernformsof
transportationandcommunication).Theseincreasedconnectionshaveraisedtheissuesofidentity
andrightstotheforefrontinsocialmovements,individualexperiences,andinpublicpolicy.His
analysisistheoreticalinthatheconsidersthenatureoftheindividualandofculturethemeaning
offreedom,liberty,thegoodlifetheconnectionbetweentheindividualandculture,groupsand
societyandthenatureofsocietyasawhole(seepp.8081).Hesetsthisanalysisintheliberal
tradition,onethatismoreclearlypoliticalthansociological.Atthesametime,muchofsociological
analysiscanbeconsideredtohaveemergedoutoftheliberaltradition,eitherpositively(Durkheim,
Weber,Parsons)orinreactiontosomeoftheproblemsassociatedwithliberalism(Marx).Kymlicka
developsananalysisthatleadstopolicyimplicationsandtoimplicationsforthewaythatwelook
atourselvesandothers,andhowweasindividuals,andingroupsandinsociety,relatetoeach
other.Insocietiesthatwillbeincreasinglydiverseintermsofethnicityinthenextcentury,these
areespeciallyimportantissuestoconsider.
WillKymlicka
ProfessorintheDepartmentofPhilosophy,UniversityofOttawaandResearchDirectorofthe
CanadianCentreforPhilosophyandPublicPolicy.Kymlicka'swritingsarephilosophical,butarealso
appliedtocurrentissuesanddebates.HisLiberalism,Community,andCultureanalyses
communitarianwritersandissuesrelatedtoculturalmembership.Kymlickahaswrittenabout
citizenshipissuesandmulticulturalismforthefederalgovernment.Amongtheotherwritershe
discussesandusesareRawls,CharlesTaylor,Walzer,andSandel.Kymlicka'sworkappearstobein
theareaofpoliticaltheory,withhisworkbeingintheliberaltradition,attemptingtodefendand
expandtheliberalviewofrights,andtheindividualandsociety.
TheargumentsinMulticulturalCitizenshipareclearandwellpresented,withmanyCanadian
examplesaboriginalpeoples,Quebec,immigrantgroups,andmulticulturalism.Kymlicka'scarefully
reasonedargumentsforcethereadertorethinkhisorherapproachtoissuesrelatedtominoritiesand
grouprights,anddealwithprejudice,misconception,andfuzzythinking.
ClickheretoviewthewebpageofWillKymlicka.Hisemailaddressiskymlicka@uottawa.ca.Will
KymlickareceivedhisB.A.inphilosophyandpoliticsfromQueen'sUniversityin1984,andhis
D.PhilinphilosophyfromOxfordUniversityin1987.Sincethen,hehashadresearchfellowshipsat
variousuniversitiesintheUnitedStates(Princeton),Canada(Queen'sTorontoOttawa),andoverseas
(EuropeanUniversityInstitute).HeistheauthorofthreebookspublishedbyOxfordUniversityPress:
Liberalism,Community,andCulture(1989),ContemporaryPoliticalPhilosophy(1990),and

MulticulturalCitizenship(1995),whichwasawardedtheMacphersonPrizebytheCanadianPolitical
ScienceAssocation,andtheBuncheAwardbytheAmericanPoliticalScienceAssociation.Heisalso
theeditorofJusticeinPoliticalPhilosophy(Elgar,1992),TheRightsofMinorityCultures(Oxford,
1995),andEthnicityandGroupRights(NYU,1997).HeiscurrentlyVisitingProfessorofPhilosophy
atboththeUniversityofOttawaandCarletonUniversity,andcoordinatorofaSSHRCfunded
researchnetworkon"Citizenship,DemocracyandIdentityinaMultiethnicState".
TheCCPPPProjectonCitizenship,DemocracyandEthnoculturalDiversity
ProfessorKymlickaeditsanddistributesaquarterlyelectronicnewsletterupdatingrecent
developmentsinthefield,ofwhicheightissueshavenowbeenproduced.Thenewslettercontains
informationaboutupcomingconferences,recentpublications,journals,internetresources,andrelated
researchprograms.Thefulltextoftheeightbackissuesandotherpartsoftheprojectcanbeviewed
atthewebsiteoftheProjectonCitizenship,DemocracyandEthnoculturalDiversity.
SelectionofBook.Icameacrossthebookbychance,butitappearedtobecloselyconnectedtosome
oftheresearchthatIwasworkingon.In19923,Icoordinatedaresearchstudyoffiftyfive
individualswhohadarrivedinReginaasrefugeesfromSoutheastAsia,CentralAmerica,Eastern
Europe,andtheMiddleEast.Thisstudyaskedthesepeopleaboutagreatvarietyofissuesrelatedto
theirpast,theirarrivalinCanada,theirsettlement,andtheirviewsonanumberofimmigrationand
settlementrelatedissues.AmongthesewereEnglishlanguageknowledgeandacquisition,labour
forcehistory,healthrelatedissues,andfamilyandcommunityissues.Theaimoftheprojectwasto
determinesomeofthebarriersfacedbytheseimmigrants,withaviewtoimprovingthewelcoming,
settlement,andintegrationprocess.ThisresultedinareportRefugeeSettlementandIntegrationin
Regina,1995.NotethatimmigrationandrefugeearrivalsarenotgreatinnumberinSaskatchewan,
butaresteadyandnonnegligible.
Amongtheissuesthatweaskedtheseimmigrantstocommentonwasmutliculturalism.Weaskedthe
immigrantswhethertheywereawareofthepolicyofmulticulturalism,andifso,"whatdoes
multiculturalismmeantoyou."Thirtyfourofthefiftyfivesaidthattheywereawareof
multiculturalismandvolunteeredameaningforit.Wehadnotanalyzedthesecommentsuntilthe
summerof1996.ChristopherFries,aSociologyhonoursstudent,andIexaminedthesecommentsin
detaillastsummerandwroteapaper"A'Great'LargeFamily:UnderstandingsofMulticulturalism
AmongNewcomerstoCanada,"whichwepresentedattheNationalSymposiumonImmigrationand
IntegrationinWinnipeginOctober,1996.
Aspartofthissectionofthecourse,wewilllookatthecommentsandtheissuesraisedinthispaper.
Intheprocessofworkingontheissueofmulticulturalism,IcameacrossKymlicka'sbookandfound
ituseful.Inaddition,ourDepartmenthadbecomepartofthePrairieCentreofExcellencefor
ResearchonImmigrationandIntegration,centredinEdmonton.Multiculturalismseemedclosely
connectedtoresearchinthisarea.
OutlineofMulticulturalCitizenship
Culturaldiversityhasbecomeacentralfeatureofcontemporarysociety,andseemslikelytobecome
moresointheimmediatefuture.Increasingcontactamongsocietiesasaresultofimproved
communicationandtransportationhasmadeforpopulationmovementsandpopulationchange.
IncreaseddiversityinCanadaistheresultofchangedpatternsofimmigration,withmanymorepeople
ofcolourimmigratingtoCanada.Ethnoculturalconflictshavebecomethemaintypeofpolitical
violencearoundtheworldYugoslavia,Rwanda,EasternEuropeandCentralAsia,MiddleEast,etc.
Politicalandsocialactionofvariousethnic/minoritygroupshavemadetheirpresencefelt.In
Canada,firstnationspeopleshavebecomemorepoliticallyactiveandhavedemandedthattheir
requestsbehonoured.TheissueoftherelationsbetweenQuebecandCanadahavedominatedmuch

politicaldiscussioninCanadainrecentyears.Thisraisestheissueofrightsforindividualsand
groupswhofeelthattheyhavenotbeenequitablyorjustlytreated.Whataretheserights,how
extensivearethey,anddotheyadheretothegrouporjusttheindividual?Finally,governmentpolicy
andprogramshavechangedinanattempttodealwithsomeofthesedemographic,social,and
politicalchanges.Policiesrelatedtoimmigration,landclaims,selfgovernment,language,and
customshaveallchangedinrecentyears.ThemulticulturalpolicyofCanadaisanotableexample.
Multiculturalandmulticulturalismhavebeenusedinvariousways.Oneapproachistoincludethe
"perspectivesofwomen,minorities,andnonWesternculturesinrecognitionoftheincreasingly
diversecharacteroflifeinmodernWesternsocieties."(TheColumbiaDictionaryofModernLiterary
andCulturalCriticism).Viewedthisway,allthesocialcategoriesofFolbrecouldbeincluded.While
Kymlicka'sapproachmightbeextendedtoincludeallofthese,hisfocusisonethnoculturalgroups
ethnicgroups,nationalminorities,nations,andpeoples.Partofthenextsectionwillbetodefineand
understandwhatthesemeanthesearesomeofthemostconfusingaspectsofcontemporarytheory,
partlybecauseofthevarietyofmeaningsandthepoliticallychargedatmospherethatispartofthe
discussionofthese.
Liberaltheory.Kymlickasetshisanalysisfirmlywithinthetraditionofliberalism.Thisisthe
politicaltheoreticalcounterpartofneoclassicaleconomics.Thatis,liberalismlooksontheindividual
asautonomousandabletoact.Emphasisisplacedon"individualfreedom,whetherdefinedas
freedomfromcoercion,asmoralselfdetermination,orastherighttoindividualhappiness"(Seidman,
p.15).Toleranceandrespectfortherightsofothersarepartofthis,sothatpluralisminsocialand
politicalaffairsisanecessaryfeatureofaliberalsociety.Freedomofexpression,freedomof
conscience,freedomofassociationaresomeoftherightsthathavetypicallybeenassociatedwith
liberalismandliberaldemocracies.Asapoliticalphilosophy,liberalismhasoftenbeenseenas
"primarilyconcernedwiththerelationshipbetweentheindividualandthestate,andwithlimitingstate
intrusionsonthelibertiesofcitizens"(Kymlicka,Liberalism,p.1).
Individualismandindividualrightsareoftenviewedasthedefiningcharacteristicofliberalism,so
thatthereareminimalornogrouprightsthatarepartofcollectivities.Allrightsadheretothe
individual,andliberalismhasoftenbeencriticizedforbeingexcessivelyindividualistic.Incontrast,
Kymlickaarguesthat"liberalismalsocontainsabroaderaccountoftherelationshipbetweenthe
individualandsocietyand,inparticular,oftheindividual'smembershipinacommunityanda
culture"(Kymlicka,Liberalism,p.1).ItisthisargumentthatKymlickapursuesinMulticultural
Citizenship,andwherehearguesthatgrouprightsarepartofliberalthought.Grouprightscanbe
viewedasadmissiblewithinliberalismandevennecessaryforfreedomandequality.
Kymlickadistinguishestwotypesofethnoculturalgroups(i)nationalminoritiesinmultination
statesand(ii)ethnicgroupsinpolyethnicstates.Aparticularstatecouldbeacombinationofthese,
asisCanada.Moststateshaveaspectsofeach,althoughCanadaismoreclearlyanexampleofa
countrywithatleasttwonationalminoritiesandmanyethnicgroups.
Nationalminoritiesaregroupsthathaveincommonsomeorallofhistory,community,territory,
language,orculture.Eachoftheseissometimesreferredtoasanation,people,orculture.Eachof
thesemayhavebecomeaminorityinvoluntarilythroughconquest,colonization,orexpansion,orit
couldhavevoluntarilyagreedtoenterafederationwithoneormoreothernations,peoples,or
cultures.Kymlickadefinesnationalminoritiesintermsofculture,andarguesthatiftheseminorities
wishtoretaintheircultures,theyshouldberecognizedasdistinct.Thegrouprightsthatmaybe
associatedwithnationalminoritiesareselfgovernmentrightsorspecialrepresentationrights.
Whilethesehavetobeworkedoutonacasebycasebasis,Kymlickamakesastrongcaseforthese
rightswherenationalminoritieshaveaclaimtobepeoplesorcultures.ForKymlickathesearenot
temporaryrights,butarerightsthatshouldberecognizedonapermanentbasis,becausetheseare
inherentrightsofthenationalminority.Ofcourse,thesegroupscoulddecidetosecede,andthismay
bethebestsolutioninsomecases.Butinothercases,itmaybepossibletoaccommodatetherightsof
nationalminoritiesthroughacombinationofselfgovernmentandspecialrepresentationrights.

PolyethnicRights.Incontrast,Kymlickaarguesthatimmigrantgroupsaregenerallyethnicgroups,
andcanbeaccordedwhathecallspolyethnicrightsinapolyethnicstate.Kymlickanotesthat
immigrationisvoluntary(hedealsseparatelywiththeissueofrefugees)andarguesthatimmigrants
generallywishtointegrateintothesocietyandculturethattheyenter.Atthesametime,theymay
wishtoretainsomeaspectsoftheirculture,andretentionoftheseisespeciallyimportanttothem.
AmongtherightsthatKymlickaarguescouldbegiventotheseethnicgroupsarepoliciesrelatedto
endingracismanddiscrimination,education,sometypesofaffirmativeaction,exemptionfromsome
ruleswhichmayviolatereligiouspractices,andpublicfundingofculturalpractices.
Culture.Whysuchrightsaresoimportanttonationalminoritiesandethnicgroupsisoutlinedin
Chapter5andisrelatedtoculture.Kymlickahasmanyusefulcommentsconcerningthemeaningof
cultureandtheimportanceofcultureforindividuals.Theparticularculturethatisdiscussesissocietal
culture,thehistory,traditions,andconventionsthatgoalongwiththesociety,andthesetofsocial
practicesandinstitutionsthatareassociatedwiththesocietalculture.Cultureoforiginprovidesa
basicresourceforpeople,andintegrationintoanewcultureisdifficultforpeople.Inthese
circumstances,itmaybeimportanttostrengthenthecultureandprovideprotectionsforvarious
minoritygroups.Butnotethatthisleadsinquitedifferentdirectionsfornationalminoritiesthanfor
immigrantethnicgroups.Thatlattergenerallywishtointegrate,theprotectionsmaynotneedbe
permanent,andareoftenfairlylimited.Fornationalminorities,theargumentmayleadinthedirection
ofstrengtheningtheirsocietalculture,asapermanentfeature,withextensiveselfgovernmentrights.
Kymlickadoesnotargueforselfgovernmentrightsforethnicgroups.
Problems.Kymlickadoesnotshyawayfromdealingwithproblemcasesandexampleswhichdonot
fithisapproach.Herecognizesthateachgroup,orpartsofgroups,mayrequiredifferenttypesof
treatment.OneexampleisAfricanAmericansintheUnitedStatesneitheravoluntaryimmigrant
groupnoranationalminority.Ingeneral,AfricanAmericanshavedesiredintegrationandan
extensionoffullindividualrightstothem,ratherthanrequestinggrouprights.Asecondgroupthat
maynotfitisrefugees,wholeavetheircountryandcultureinvoluntarily,andmayormaynotwishto
enterthecultureofthenewcountrywheretheyfindrefuge.Somemaywishtoreturntotheircountry
oforigin,othersmaybecomemoresimilartovoluntaryimmigrants.NotethoughthatintheRegina
RefugeeStudy,therewereanumberofrefugeesforwhomCanadadidnotseemtobethefirstchoice,
andwhowerequiteunhappywiththeirsituationhere.
IlliberalCultures.Aconsiderablepartofthediscussioninvolvesilliberalculturesandhowliberals
candealwiththem.Thesearecultureswhichlimitthelibertyofmembersandwhererespectfor
individualfreedomofchoiceislimitedornonexistent.Thesecouldbenationalminoritiesorsocietal
culturesthatpeopledecidetoleavewhentheybecomeimmigrants.Bothgroupsmaytrytomaintain
illiberaltraditionsinNorthAmerica.Beingaliberal,Kymlickadoesnotagreewiththesetraditions
andpractices,butarguesthatifnationalminoritiesaretobeselfgoverning,thenliberalscannot
selectivelyinterveneonsomeoftheseissues.Thisisanimportantpolicypoint,becausesomefirst
nationsgroupsmayarguethattheyshouldnotbesubjecttotheCharterandtoCanadiancourtsifthey
aretobetrulyselfgoverning.Forethnicgroups,maintainingsuchpracticesisinconsistentwith
integrationintoaliberalsociety.Forexample,treatmentofgirlsandwomenwithinsomecultures
seemsinappropriatecustomslikearrangedmarriage,femalecircumcision,etc.Forthesegroups,
Kymlickaarguesthatinternalrestrictionsongroupmembersbelimitedornonexistent.Heargues
forexternalprotectionsforthesegroups,butthatliberalrightsshouldexistforindividualswithin
thesegroups.
LiberalTradition.Kymlickanotesthattheliberaltraditionisnotexclusivelyindividualistic,butthat
thisexclusivefocusonindividualismisofrecentorigin.Hearguesthatallliberalsocietiesrecognize
grouprightsinsomeformeventheUnitedStates,whereliberaldemocracyisconsideredmost
dominant.There,KymlickanotesthattherightsofaboriginalpeoplesandnativeHawaiiansmay
differfromthoseofotherAmericans.Oneofthewaysthatliberalsconsideredgroupstobeimportant
wasthroughrecognitionofthenationstateasthebasicunitofsociety.JohnStuartMill,oneofthe

mostconsistentlyliberalpoliticaltheoristsarguedthataliberalsystemofselfrulewouldworkonlyif
thepopulationconstitutedanationalgrouporasinglebackground.Nineteenthcenturyliberals
generallysupportedassimilationofminoritygroups,colonization,andimperialistexpansion.
TheMarxistandsocialisttraditioninthenineteenthcenturywaslittledifferent,withtheassumption
thatthegreatpowersFrance,Britain,Germanyshouldbenationstates,butthatsmallnationalities
shoulddisappear.Morerecentlysocialistshaveadoptedavarietyofdifferentapproaches,butmanyof
thesehavethesameproblemasnotedbyFolbre,theyemphasizeclassandtheachievementof
socialismovertheculturalandnationalissues.Manyassumethattheseissuesarepartofideologythat
isusedbytheeconomicallyandpoliticallypowerfultodividetheweakandoppressed.Asaresult,the
socialisttraditiondoesnothaveastrongtheoryofculture.
InChapter8,issuesoftolerancewithintheliberaltraditionareaddressed.Byrequiringfreedom
withinandequalitybetweengroups,Kymlicka'sapproachmayfallintothesametrapthatMilland
Marxdid.Somehavequestionedonwhatbasisliberalemphasesonindividualrightscouldbeforced
onculturesthatdonothavesuchatradition.Kymlickaarguesthatliberalscannotforcesuch
traditionsonothercountries,andshouldgoeasyonattemptingtoenforcesuchindividualrightsin
nationalminorities.However,forethnicgroupsthatvoluntarilycometoaliberal,democraticcountry,
andwhowishtointegrateintosuchasociety,requiringrecognitionofindividualrightsinthese
groupsdoesnotseemunreasonable.Infact,rightssuchasthoseintheChartermaygenerallybe
supportedbysuchimmigrant,ethnicgroupsandindividualsinthosegroups.
Basisforgrouprights.Asabasisforgrouprights,Kymlickamakestwoarguments.Theequality
argumentisthatsomeminorityrightsactuallyincreaseequality,andthattrueequalityrequires
differenttreatmentfordifferentgroups.Theproblemisthatdeprivinggroupsofrightssuchas
languageandaccesstolandmayleaveagroupculturallydisadvantaged,andunabletofully
participateinsociety.Examplesincludelandandfishingrightsforaboriginalpeople,imposingfew
restrictionsontheminoritybuthavinganespeciallyimportantimpactonimprovingthepositionof
aboriginalpeople.Partoftheargumenthereisthatthestatecannotbeculturallyneutral,thereis
usuallyanofficiallanguage,hasparticularproceduresusedintheexerciseofpower,anddetermines
boundariesthatmyaffectrepresentationforcommunitiesofinterest.Withrespecttopolyethnic
rights,holidays,workweekscheduling,education,andpublicsymbolsmayallpresentproblemsfor
someethnicgroups.
Historicalagreementssuchastreaties,termsoffederation,agreementconcerningboundariesanduse
oflanguageshouldberecognized,especiallyfornationalminorities.Thismaycreateproblemsfor
groupsthatneverdidcedecontrol,andtheretheequalityargumentwouldhavetobeused.Some
difficultcasessuchastheHutteritesmayemergehere,wherepromisesweremademanyyearsago,
andwhereinternalrestrictionsaresevere.Notethatindividualsinthesegroupsdohavethepossibility
ofexit,butwhendoingsomaybeseverelydisadvantagedculturallyandeconomically.
Culturaldiversityisathirdargumentthatissometimesusedtoargueforspecialminorityrights.
Kymlickaisgenerallyskepticalofthese,arguingthatnationalminorityrightsmaydolittletoincrease
diversitywithinthemajorityculture,andcouldevenreducediversity.Forexample,itwouldseemthat
specialrightsforQuebecmightreduceculturaldiversityinWesternCanada.Theargumenthereis
thatonehastobeclearconcerningdiversitywithinacultureasopposedtodiversitybetweencultures.
Forthemajority,increasedculturaldiversityislikelyapositivedevelopment,butthisisdiversity
withintheculture.Thiscanbeachieved,andpresentlyisoccurring,byhavingmoreimmigrantgroups
integrateintothemajorityculture.
Notethatgrouprightsadherenotjusttothenationalminorityorethnicgroupsbutmaybepartofthe
rightsofindividualsinthesegroups.Forexample,speciallandrightsforaboriginalpeoplemaybe
partoftherightsoftheaboriginalgroup.Buthuntingandfishingrightsmaybeprimarilyimportant
forindividualsinthesegroups.Similarly,allowingSikhstoavoidwearingmotorcyclehelmetsisa
specialrightthatindividualSikhsmaywishtoexercise.

RepresentationisdealwithinChapter7.Thisisamorespecificallypoliticalissue,inthatthetypes
offormalrepresentationandthetypesofgroupsrepresentedinpoliticalbodiesisdiscussedthere.
Solidarityandsocialunityinthenationstate.Chapter9dealswiththeseissues,andmayseemto
beapessimisticconclusiontoanotherwiseoptimisticapproach.Forethnicgroups,integrationiskey,
andmanynewcomersareamongthemostcommittedcitizens.InCanada,throughmulticulturalism,
thesenewcomersaretolerantofandwelcomediversity,andseektoworktocreateabettersociety.
Withrespecttoethnoculturalminorities,Kymlickaisveryoptimisticintermsofcreatingashared
civicidentity.Whereheismorepessimisticiswithrespecttonationalminorities.Whilehesupports
grouprightsforthese,healsorecognizesthattheserightsareinherentlydivisive,arenotintegrative,
anddonotsuportthesamesenseofsharedcivicidentity.Kymlickadoesnotethoughthatasaliberal,
ifagroupwishestoseparate,andmembersofthegroupconsiderthatthisimprovestheirsituation,the
liberalsolutionwouldbetopermitorencourageseparation.Finally,Kymlickanotesthattheshared
identityassociatedwiththenationstatemaybedifficulttodevelopinamultination,polyethnicstate
likeCanada.Infact,hereferstoCanadaashavingasituationofdeepdiversity,withdiversecultural
groupsanddiversewaysofbelonging.Hepresentsnomagicsolutionornationalgoals,butargues
thatwehavetoworkatdevelopingthesenseofsharedidentityifwewantCanadatostayintact.
ListofSomePossibleApplicationsofMulticulturalCitizenship
1.PracticalImportance
ForCanadaandworld.
Increasedimmigrationandpopulationmovementaroundworld.
Globalization.
Diversityorcommonglobalcultureglobalvillage?
DiversitywithinethnicgroupsSeeanalysisofPeterLi
Issuesimportantforindividualsandforcollectiveidentity.
Importantforpoliciesrelatedtonationalminoritiesandimmigrants.
Freedom,justice,equalityandinequality.
Liberalismdyingideologyorbasisofcurrentandfuturesociety.
Multiculturalism.
Futureoutcomesforpolyethnic,multinationsocieties?
2.TheoreticalImportance
Politicaltheory.Nodoubtofimportanceofthese.
Lookforsociologicalimplicationsandapplications.
Natureofindividualandcollectiveidentity(seeanalysisofFolbreinnextsectionofclass).
Interdisciplinarypolitics,philosophy,andsociology.
Liberalismandoriginsofsociology.
Socialorder,individualism,andgroups.
3.SpecificTheoreticalIssues
Culturenottheorizedwellinsociology.
Integrationvariousmeanings,approaches,andimplications
Nation,people,ethnicity,community,imaginedcommunity,nationalminority
Collectiveidentityandstructureagency
Rightsandgrouprights
Variousmeaningsofmulticulturalism.
ThesenoteswereoriginallywrittenforclassonFebruary13,1997.Theywerelasteditedon
December23,1997.

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