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This article is about the planet. For the Roman god, see Jupiter (mythology). Fo
r other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation).
Jupiter Astronomical symbol of Jupiter
An image of Jupiter taken by the Hubble Space Telescope.
Full-disc view of Jupiter in natural color, as it appeared in April 2014.[a]
Designations
Pronunciation Listeni/'d?u?p?t?r/[1]
Adjectives
Jovian
Orbital characteristics[5]
Epoch J2000
Aphelion
5.45492 AU (816.04 Gm)
Perihelion
4.95029 AU (740.55 Gm)
Semi-major axis
5.20260 AU (778.299 Gm)
Eccentricity
0.048498
Orbital period
11.8618 yr
4,332.59 d
10,475.8 Jovian solar days[2]
Synodic period
398.88 d[3]
Average orbital speed
13.07 km/s[3]
Mean anomaly
20.020
Inclination
1.303 to ecliptic
6.09 to Sun's equator
0.32 to invariable plane[4]
Longitude of ascending node
100.464
Argument of perihelion
273.867
Known satellites
67 (as of 2014)
Physical characteristics
Mean radius
69,9116 km[6][b]
Equatorial radius
71,4924 km[6][b]
11.209 Earths
Polar radius
66,85410 km[6][b]
10.517 Earths
Flattening
0.064870.00015
Surface area
6.14191010 km2[b][7]
121.9 Earths
Volume
1.43131015 km3[3][b]
1,321 Earths
Mass
1.89861027 kg[3]
317.8 Earths
1/1047 Sun[8]
Mean density
1.326 g/cm3[3][b]
Surface gravity
24.79 m/s2[3][b]
2.528 g

Escape velocity
59.5 km/s[3][b]
Sidereal rotation period
9.925 h[9] (9 h 55 m 30 s)
Equatorial rotation velocity
12.6 km/s
45300 km/h
Axial tilt
3.13 (to orbit)[3]
North pole right ascension
268.057
17h 52m 14s[6]
North pole declination
64.496[6]
Albedo 0.343 (Bond)
0.52 (geom.)[3]
Surface temp. min
mean
max
1 bar level
165 K (-108 C)[3]
0.1 bar
112 K[3]
Apparent magnitude
-1.6 to -2.94[3]
Angular diameter
29.8? to 50.1?[3]
Atmosphere[3]
Surface pressure
20 200 kPa[10] (cloud layer)
Scale height
27 km
Composition by volume
by volume:
89.82.0%
hydrogen (H2)
10.22.0%
helium (He)
?0.3% methane (CH4)
?0.026%
ammonia (NH3)
?0.003%
hydrogen deuteride (HD)
0.0006% ethane (C2H6)
0.0004% water (H2O)
Ices:
ammonia (NH3)
water (H2O)
ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH)
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It
is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two and a hal
f times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter is a
gas giant, along with Saturn (Uranus and Neptune are ice giants). Jupiter was k
nown to astronomers of ancient times.[11] The Romans named it after their god Ju
piter.[12] When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of -2
.94, bright enough for its reflected light to cast shadows,[13] and making it on
average the third-brightest object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus.
Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being heliu
m, although helium only comprises about a tenth of the number of molecules. It m
ay also have a rocky core of heavier elements,[14] but like the other giant plan
ets, Jupiter lacks a well-defined solid surface. Because of its rapid rotation,
the planet's shape is that of an oblate spheroid (it has a slight but noticeable
bulge around the equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into seve
ral bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their
interacting boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm

that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first
seen by telescope. Surrounding Jupiter is a faint planetary ring system and a p
owerful magnetosphere. Jupiter has at least 67 moons, including the four large G
alilean moons discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of th
ese, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury.
Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft, most notab
ly during the early Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions and later by the Galileo
orbiter. Jupiter was most recently visited by a probe in late February 2007, whe
n New Horizons used Jupiter's gravity to increase its speed and bend its traject
ory en route to Pluto. The next probe to visit the planet will be Juno, which is
expected to arrive in July 2016. Future targets for exploration in the Jupiter
system include the probable ice-covered liquid ocean of its moon Europa.
Contents [hide]
1
Formation and migration
2
Structure
2.1
Composition
2.2
Mass and size
2.3
Internal structure
3
Atmosphere
3.1
Cloud layers
3.2
Great Red Spot and other vortice