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Research Journal of Finance and Accounting

ISSN 2222-1697 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2847 (Online)


Vol.6, No.11, 2015

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Conflict Management and Organizational Performance: A Case


Study of Askari Bank Ltd.
Abdul Ghafoor Awan
Dean, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Institute of Southern Punjab, Pakistan
ghafoor70@yahoo.com
Sehar Saeed
MS Research Scholar
Department of Business Administration, Institute of Southern Punjab, Pakistan
saeed.sahar@ymail.com
Abstract
In a society where people with a diverse interests, views, and values coexist, differences between such
individuals and groups are to be expected. The objective of this research study is to look at conflict situations
and its causes, as well as possible solution of improve working environment in an Organization. Our study shows
that Conflict stems from incompatibility of goals and interest and if it continued it will destroy the Organization.
Conflict affects the Organization in several ways such as decreased employee satisfaction, insubordination,
decreased productivity, economic loss, fragmentation, and poor performance. A formal questionnaire was
constructed and survey method was used to collect data from a target group of respondents. Descriptive
analytical techniques such as frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation & variance and factor analysis
were applied to analyze and interpret the data. Ratio Analysis is used to analyze Askari Banks performance. The
major findings are that Education does not have any effect on the opinion of respondents on Conflict
Management Strategies. Similarly, there is no significant difference between the opinion of male and female
respondents regarding the causes of conflict. However, there is a significant effect of conflict on organizational
performance. We suggest that Management must adopt Conflict Management strategies that improve the
Performance of the Organization, besides ensuring a free flow of communication between the management and
the employee as well as promote interpersonal relationships among co-workers to boost their morale.
Keywords: Conflict, causes, effects, conflict management, conflict management strategies, organizational
performance
1.
INTRODUCTION
Conflict among workers in an organization is inevitable. If it manages properly, it will bring catalyst for change
and can have a positive impact on employee satisfaction and performance of the organization. Conversely,
unmanaged conflict negatively impacts both employee satisfaction and job performance. When organizational
leaders ignore workplace conflict, they send a message that unsatisfactory job performance and inappropriate
behavior are acceptable.
Awan and Anjum (2015) says that properly managed conflict promotes open communication,
collaborative decision making, regular feedback, and timely resolution of conflict. Open communication and
collaboration enhance the flow of new ideas and strengthen work relationship, which can have a positive effect
on employee morale. Regular feedback and timely resolution of conflict has the potential of improving employee
satisfaction and job performance.
Awan and Anjum (2015) argue that a negative work environment that does not promote conflict
resolution can result in poor employee behavior and job performance. Unmanaged conflict promotes
dysfunctional communication and poor behavior among staff. Poor behavior on the part of one employee has the
power to affect overall employee morale, which results in lower productivity. According to Dana (2000),
conflict is not just an annoyance. It costs money and those costs can be calculated, in terms of wasted time, bad
decision, lost employees. In the health care industry, patients health and even their lives can be affected by
unmanaged conflict.
Awan and Ibrahim (2015) contend that if the individuals do not have the communication or
interpersonal skills to resolve their disputes, the conflict can grow and spread to others, eventually affecting their
job performance, which, in turn, affects the job satisfaction of others, as well in addition to the staff not having
the communication skills to address their disputes, their leaders often lack the necessary skills to be effective in
conflict resolution. Once human resources personnel are involved, the process becomes punitive and results in
disciplinary action, which contributes to an even greater reduction in employee morale and employee satisfaction.
Within any organization, there are usually different positions and jobs. People occupying these
positions have different perceptions, goals, thought and concerns. It is difficult to conceptualize society or an
organization without inherent differences and contradictions and these leads to conflict. In organization a
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Research Journal of Finance and Accounting


ISSN 2222-1697 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2847 (Online)
Vol.6, No.11, 2015

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serious problem can be conflicts that are very serious. This is the bad practice that will be impossible for the
workers to at the same place for work.
Awan and Ahson (2015) say that conflict is a natural and inevitable part of people working together
and should be kept at a manageable level where it will not disorganize the activities of the organization
towards the attainment of its objectives.
Awan et al (2015) plead that conflict may also be beneficial to the organization where it brings about
radical change in the organizational power structure, current interaction pattern and entrenched attitude and also
can lead to increase in productivity. While some conflicts are functional others are not. It can also affect the
organization negatively when it is associated with decreased employee satisfaction, insubordination,
decreased productivity, leads to economic loss, fragmentation to mention but a few.
It is the management major responsibility to device strategies in bringing down conflict as low as
possible, which will enable the organization to still function to succeed (Robbins & Sanghi, 2006) against this
background the study was being carried out on the negative effect of conflict.
1.1 Main Research Problem
Our main research problem is the following:
Conflict Management and organizational performance: A case study of Askari Bank Ltd. in District MultanPakistan.
1.2 Research Objectives
The main research objectives are given below:
1. To ascertain how conflict will be managed effectively.
2. To ascertain the major causes of conflict.
3. To assess the effect of organizational conflict on performance of employees..
4. To understand which leadership style is the most effective in addressing conflict.
5. To make recommendations for solution of problem of problem in the light of the findings of this study.
1.3 Significance of the Study
The study is considered relevant Askari Banks in territory of District Multan, Punjab Pakistan. Since the effect
of conflict can hinder the performance of the Organization. The knowledge gained will also be vital the
government in making the right policies that will positively affect the Banking industries; it is also relevant to
business students in furthering their studies. The owners of banking industries will also benefit in this study,
which will provide a model for an effective means of managing Conflict.
1.4 Scope of the Study
The study covered conflict management in Askari Banks in the territory of District Multan, Punjab Pakistan, as a
financial services sector. Financial services sector is the largest sector in Pakistan. It has multiple departments
offering service to their client and the effects of conflict must be managed and kept low.
1.5 Research Gap and Rationale of the Study
We have found the research gap that there is little study has been conducted in Pakistan and those studies that
has been conducted in banking sector in Pakistan was limited to the few variables and now I have conducted
study on Askari Bank Ltd, Conflict Management and organizational performance; a case study of Askari Bank
Ltd. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between performance of the firms and
effective conflict management The research objectives of study are to ascertain how conflict will be managed
effectively; to ascertain the major causes of conflict; to access the effect of organizational conflict on
performance; to understand which leadership style is the most effective in addressing conflict and finally to
make recommendations for the stated problem based on the findings from the study. Unfortunately, there
appears to be a gap in the research identifying which leadership styles or skills are more effective in dealing with
conflict between individuals before the dispute escalates to more extreme behavior requiring disciplinary action.
1.6 Distinction of the Study
We have used the variables which is divided into three section, firstly causes of conflicts in which factors
characterizing poor communication/miscommunication, poor organizational structure, poor performance,
repetitive negative behavior, strong negative misperceptions, perceived breach of faith & trust between
individual, personality clashes/ego problem, differences in value, goal differences, unresolved disagreement that
was escalated to an emotional level, issues of wages and salaries, unfavorable government policies, lack of
cordial relationship between labor and management. Secondly effects of conflicts which including
communication breakdown, low morale, low quality, low productivity, lack of direction, lack of new ideas, leads

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Research Journal of Finance and Accounting


ISSN 2222-1697 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2847 (Online)
Vol.6, No.11, 2015

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to economic loss, competitive among conflicting parties, insubordination and fragmentation, And finally last
section is conflicts management techniques which characterizing improvement in communication, constant
dialogue, accommodating, compromising, avoidance, solving the problems, re-orientation and dominating by
force on other party respectively. We have applied descriptive and factor analysis to conclude the results that
there is a significant effect of Conflict on organizational performance.
We intend to find out the extent to which the impact of conflicts on organizational performance. The
research findings will be useful for the banking industry in Pakistan. Local companies and other service sectors
can improve their performances by adopting the techniques' of conflicts resolution. This study will be helpful for
the banking sector as well as business community in Pakistan. The consequences would be useful for banking
sector and other services industry to compete with multinational companies. The findings from this study will
inspire mangers in various organizations to develop best strategies on how to resolve conflicts in their
organizations: sprcifically managers should be in the position to understand the causes of organization conflicts
in their sphere of management and then develop appropiate strategies to resolve conflicts at the infancy stage.
Earlier studies have used few variables to enumerate organizational performance. On the other hand, I improved
the number of variables to judge and resolve the conflicts and that possible ways of handling conflict situation in
an organization is by constant dialogue where as no organization can adopt one strategy under different
situations. Strategy should be changed according to the demands of the situation and time.
1.6 Hypothesis of the Study
Hypothesis (i) Education has no effect on the opinion of respondents on conflict management strategies.
Hypothesis (ii) There is no significant difference between opinion of male and female respondents on the
causes of conflict in an organization.
Hypothesis (iii) There is no significant effect of conflict on an organizational performance.
2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2.1 Data and Type
In this quantitative study, primary data have been used for more reliable and authentic sources. The data were
collected through questionnaires that had experience with conflict management in a banking sector. Participants
were asked the same set of questions and were allowed to explain their answers by sharing their experiences,
perceptions, opinions, and ideas. The questionnaire includes three parts i.e. causes of conflicts, effects of
conflicts and conflict management techniques in which five point likert scale has been used for acquiring
responses where, 1 represent strong disagreement, 5 signifies the strong agreement by the respondent & 3 stands
for neither agree nor disagree..
2.2 Sample of Research
The study was conducted on all the employees of of Askari banks in the district of Multan. A total sample of 201
participants was contacted and scheduled face-to-face questionnaires, who agreed to fill out the questionnaire. So,
primary data have been used for more reliable and authentic sources.
2.3 Estimation Techniques
Descriptive analysis, ratio analysis and factor analysis were the method by which the data was analyzed and
organized. SPSS software was used to calculated and analyzed data through the percentage, frequency, mean,
and standard deviation and variance tables and to check the relation between dependent and independent
variables. A factor analysis was also used to compare the overall variance explained by the two statistical
techniques. Ratio analysis from annual report is used to analyze performance of Askari Bank This helped to give
the standardized ratio which declared the study of research.
2.4 Proposed Model of Study
Proposed model of study was to investigate the major causes of conflict and access the effects of organizational
conflict on performance and then how conflict will be managed effectively through conflict management
strategies to make recommendations for the stated problem based on the findings from the study and gathering
results in useful outcomes otherwise conflicts will remain unresolved if appropriate techniques were not
managed properly according to the situation and time and same conflicts might be there in organization which
can adversely affect the organizational performance.

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Research Journal of Finance and Accounting


ISSN 2222-1697 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2847 (Online)
Vol.6, No.11, 2015

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Conflicts

Outcomes

Causes of Conflicts

Conflict
Management
Techniques

Effects of Conflicts

Proposed Model of Study


3.
DATA ANALYSIS
The first section is on the preliminary presentation of data which involves the demographic characters. The
second section is on research question while the last section is the test of hypothesis and ratio analysis of Askari
Bank Ltd. Whole analysis were done using computer software called SPSS (statistical package for social science
version 20).
3.1 Presentation of Data
This section presents the demographic characteristics of the respondents. Only
sex of respondents (gender), age distribution, marital status distribution
Percentages were used to further describe these features.
Table 1
Gender
Frequency
Percent
Valid
Percent
Male
111
55.2
55.2
Valid
Female 90
44.8
44.8
Total
201
100.0
100.0

four characteristics were treated,


and education / qualification.

Cumulative Percent
55.2
100.0

Source: Primary Data


In table 1, the sex distribution of the respondents is such that of the 201 responds, 111 representing 55.2% of the
respondents are males. 90 of the respondents are females representing 44.8%. This shows that majority of the
respondents are males.
Table 2
Age
Frequency Percent
Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
25-34
158
78.6
78.6
78.6
Valid
35-44
43
21.4
21.4
100.0
Total
201
100.0
100.0
Source: Primary Data
In table 2, out of total 201 respondents, there are 158 respondents who are aged between 25-34 years
representing 78.6% of the total respondents. Those in the age bracket of 35-44 years are 43 in number, making
about 21.4% of the total respondents. The above distribution shows that majority of the respondents are aged 2435 years and above, they constituted about 78.6% of the respondents. Askari bank have young work force.

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Research Journal of Finance and Accounting


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Vol.6, No.11, 2015

Table No. 3

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Educational Qualification
Frequency Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent
6.0
30.8
100.0

Matric
12
6.0
6.0
Bachelor
50
24.9
24.9
Valid
Master and above
139
69.2
69.2
Total
201
100.0
100.0
Source: Primary Data
The distribution of the respondents (table 3) by educational qualification shows that 12 of the respondents have
only matric education. This represents about 6.0% of the respondents while 50 that are about 24.9% have
bachelor of education. (139) of the respondents has Masters, this represents 69.2% of total respondents. Majority
of the respondents have master or its above.
Table 4
Marital Status
Marital Status
Frequency
Percentage
Single
76
37.8
Married
114
56.71
Separated
5
2.40
Widowed
2
1.0
Divorced
4
1.9
Total
201
100
Source: Primary Data
In table 4, there are 76 single males and females among the 201 respondents. This group represents about 37.8%
of the total respondents. Those that are married are about 56.71% of the respondents. The actual figure is 114 of
the total respondents, about 5 of the respondents are separated representing 2.4% while 2 about 1.0% of the
respondents are widows. Only 4 that is about 1.9% are divorced.
4. Analysis of Research Questions
4.1 What are the causes of organizational Conflict?
To answer this research question, about 13 variables were considered and the results of the analysis done are
summarized in the table below.
The table no. 5 given below shows the major causes of conflict in an organization. They are ranked in
order of the magnitude of their mean and standard deviation. Among the first top ranking causes are poor
communication / miscommunication with a mean of 4.61, Poor Organizational Structure with a mean of 4.11,
also Poor Performance has a standard deviation of 3.82, Repetitive negative behavior has a mean of 4.79 and
standard deviation of .17, strong negative misperception is accepted with mean of 4.48, Breach of trust and faith
between individuals, Personality clashes has standard deviation of .71 and .61 respectively.
Goal difference also has a standard deviation of .45 and mean of 3.95 is accepted a conflict.
Unresolved disagreement that has escalated to an emotional level is accepted and so the issue of wages and
salaries Mean (3.95), Unfavorable government policies has a mean of 3.05 and Lack of cordial relationship
between labor and management has a mean of 4.16 is also accepted as conflicts in an organization. One good
thing is to be noted that all the thirteen items presented are accepted as possible causes of Conflict in an
organization.

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Vol.6, No.11, 2015

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Table 5
Responses to what are the causes of organizational Conflict?
Descriptive Statistics
Sr.
Std.
Causes of conflict
N
Mean
Variance Remarks
No
Deviation
1
Poor communication / miscommunication
201
4.61
0.49
0.24
Accepted
2
Poor organizational structure
201
4.11
0.32
0.1
Accepted
3
Poor performance
201
3.82
0.51
0.26
Accepted
4
Repetitive negative behavior
201
4.79
0.41
0.17
Accepted
5
Strong negative misperceptions
201
4.48
0.5
0.25
Accepted
6
Perceived breach of faith & trust between individual 201
4.00
0.71
0.5
Accepted
7
Personality clashes / ego problem
201
4.07
0.61
0.38
Accepted
8
Differences in values
201
3.47
0.87
0.75
Accepted
9
Goal differences
201
3.95
0.4
0.16
Accepted
10 Unresolved disagreement that was escalated to an
Accepted
emotional level
201
3.89
0.31
0.1
11 Issues of wages and salaries
201
3.95
1.12
1.25
Accepted
12 Unfavorable government policies
201
3.05
0.53
0.28
Accepted
13 Lack of cordial relationship between labor and
Accepted
management
201
4.16
0.37
0.14
Source: Primary Data
4.2 What are the effects of conflict on the organizational performance?
This research question was answered using ten variables extracted from the questionnaire; the summary is
presented in this table below. Table no.6 shows the major effects of conflict. According to the opinion pool,
communication breakdown with a mean of 4.77 is dominant factor that affecting the conflicts, low morale has a
mean of 4.54; low qualities has a standard deviation of 0.49 and mean 4.41. Productivity, Lack of direction Lack
of new ideas, Economic loss Competition among Conflicting parties and Insubordination, Fragmentation has
mean score of 4.46, 4.52, 4.11, 4.25, 3.71, 3.96, and 4.11 respectively. Leads to economic loss have highest
standard deviation within the factor effecting conflicts as 1.07. All the items asked in the questionnaire were
accepted as effects of conflict in an organization and they singly and collectively contribute to organizational
productivity with different intensity and variations.
Table 6 What are the effects of conflict on the organizational performance?
Sr.
Descriptive Statistics
No.
Effect of conflict
Std.
Remarks
N
Mean
Deviation
Variance
1
Communication breakdown
201 4.77
0.42
0.18
Accepted
2
Low morale
201 4.54
0.50
0.25
Accepted
3
Low quality
201 4.41
0.49
0.24
Accepted
4
Low productivity
201 4.46
0.50
0.25
Accepted
5
Lack of direction
201 4.52
0.50
0.25
Accepted
6
Lack of new ideas
201 4.11
0.61
0.38
Accepted
7
Leads to economic loss
201 4.25
1.07
1.15
Accepted
8
Competitive among conflicting parties
201 3.71
0.84
0.71
Accepted
9
Insubordination
201 3.96
0.81
0.65
Accepted
10
Fragmentation
201 4.11
0.61
0.38
Accepted
Source: Primary Data
4.4 What technique do managers adopt in solving such Conflict?
In this research question, the techniques adopted by managers in solving organizational conflict are as presented
in table no.7.

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Table 7 What technique do managers adopt in solving such Conflict?


Descriptive Statistics
Conflict Management Techniques
Std.
Remarks
N
Mean
Deviation
Variance
1
Improvement in communication
201 4.89
0.31
0.10
Accepted
2
Constant dialogue
201 4.75
0.43
0.19
Accepted
3
Accommodating
201 4.04
0.51
0.26
Accepted
4
Compromising
201 4.18
0.61
0.37
Accepted
5
Avoidance
201 4.06
0.24
0.06
Accepted
6
Solving the problem
201 4.73
0.44
0.20
Accepted
7
Re- orientation
201 3.75
0.43
0.19
Accepted
8
Dominating by force on other party
201 2.31
0.91
0.84
Rejected
Source: Primary Data
From the table no. 7 above the whole items in the question are the possible ways or the Methods of handling
conflict situations in an organization. They range from improvement in communication with a mean of 4.89 to
constant dialogue with a standard deviation of .43, Accommodating is accepted and Compromising also,
Avoidance has a standard deviation of .24, Solving the problem also of .44, Re-orientation has a mean of 3.75
and 2.31 is for Dominating by force on the other party. All the items are accepted as techniques used in solving
the management conflicts except dominating by force on the third party. Improvement in communication ranked
high with mean of 4.89. Respondents suggest this as the best technique to improve conflicts within the Askari
bank.
5. Factor Analysis and Hypothesis Testing
A factor analysis was also made to compare the overall variance explained by the two statistical techniques.
Factor analysis was employed to identify latent dimensions underlying indicators that measured respondent
participation (Table no.9). This statistical approach involves finding a way to condense information about a
number of original variables into a smaller set of dimensions (factors) with a minimum loss of information (Hair
et al., 1998). Each factor is interpreted according to its loadings, that is, the strength of the correlations between
the factor and the original variables (Tabachnick and Fidell, 1996).
Creating a small set of factors can reveal latent patterns of relationships among the variables. In this
respect, a factor can be regarded as a single (unobserved) variable that reflects the variations in a set of variables
with high loadings. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to extract factors using Varimax rotation to
ensure that the extracted factors were independent and unrelated to each other, and to maximize the loading on
each variable and minimize the loading on other factors (Bryman and Cramer, 2005).
A principal Component analysis (PCA) was computed to determine underlying structures of 13
facilitators (n = 201). Factor analysis was conducted independently for the above one set of variables by using
SPSS. Analysis of the constructs included two stages: factor extraction and factor rotation. Factor extraction was
conducted through principal axis factoring. In the current research, PCA was chosen as the extraction method
because it is easy to interpret and has accurate results (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2001). Hair, Black, Babin,
Anderson, and Tatham (2005) and Tabachnick and Fidell both suggested the method for deciding on the number
of factors is the screen test of eigenvalues plotted against factors by looking for the point where a line drawn
through the points changes slope. As Gorsuch (cited in Tabachnick & Fidell) reported, results of the screen test
are obvious and reliable. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test was also performed to test the factorability of the
correlation matrices.
Table No. 8
KMO and Bartlett's Test
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.
Approx. Chi-Square
Df
Sig.

Bartlett's Test of Sphericity

.737
521.712
210
.000

To test the relevance of factor analysis for the data set, the Bartlett Test of Sphericity and the KaiserMeyer
Olkin (Kaiser, 1974) measure of sampling adequacy were applied. KaiserMeyerOlkin's overall measure of
sampling adequacy for our dataset (0.642) was well above the recommended threshold value of 0.5 (Kaiser,
1974), indicating that patterns of correlation in the dataset are relatively compact and that factor analysis can be
validly applied. The results of a Bartlett Test of Sphericity were also highly significant (2 = 3124.420, df = 435,
p 0.000), again suggesting that factor analysis can be validly applied to the dataset, and supporting the
factorability of the correlation matrix. Causes of conflicts Factor analysis was first conducted on the 13

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facilitator items. The KMO value was equal to .737.


In table 9, the number of significant factors was determined by calculating the eigenvalue (variance
accounted by each factor). Factors with eigenvalues exceeding 1.0 were considered significant following
Kaiser's criterion.
In statistical analysis, when two or more predictors in the model are correlated and provide redundant
information about the response, this situation or problem is known as multi-collinearity. Existence of high multicollinearity increases the standard error (S.E.) of estimates of the betas. Hence, betas reliability decreases.
Ultimately, high multi-collinearity often induces confusing and misleading results. So, to detect the existence of
multi-collinearity, Variance Inflation Factors (VIFs) of each predictor are calculated. If a predictor has VIF value
greater than and equal to 10 then there is a problem with multi-collinearity. Multi-collinearity can be ignored if
the interest is only in estimation and prediction, but if the wish is to establish association patterns between X and
Y variables, then the analyst can eliminate some predictors from the model. Hence there is no problem of multicollinearity.
The principal component factoring was then conducted, and factor rotation was performed through the
varimax (orthogonal) rotation procedure. Factor analysis follows its own procedure or criteria to summarize the
variables/indicators into the factors. In our case, the factor analysis summed up originally 13 variables in 6
factors (table no.9). These 6 factors explained those factors which are causes of organizational Conflicts. We are
interested in all these factors. The reason of our interest is the existence of resemblance between these factors
and the categories of factors we made.
Table No. 9
Rotated Component Matrix

Component Matrix
Component
Factor
Initial
Loadings
Eigen
Values

*Variance
Explained %

**Variance
Explained %

Unresolved disagreement that


was escalated to an emotional 0.984
level
Goal differences
0.851
Factor 1
3.844
29.572
25.038
Lack of cordial relationship
between
labor
and -0.735
management
Differences in values
0.707
Strong negative misperceptions 0.865
Factor 2
3.002
23.096
16.173
Repetitive negative behavior
0.852
Poor
communication
/
0.945
Factor 3 miscommunication
2.086
16.047
16.15
Poor performance
0.692
Issues of wages and salaries
0.958
Factor 4 Perceived breach of faith &
1.746
13.431
15.464
0.836
trust between individual
Unfavorable
government
Factor 5
0.984
1.27
9.769
13.958
policies
Poor organizational structure
0.911
Factor 6 Personality clashes / ego
1.051
8.085
13.217
0.745
problem
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
*Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings
**Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings
Source: Primary Data
Explaining 25.038% variation, factor one is comprised of the variables more or less relating to the condition of
unresolved disagreements, goal differences, lack of cordial relations etc. of among the employees at the banks.
The constituents of factor 2 are related to the respondents negative behavior and misperception in relation to the
workplace issue and manager related matters. This factor explained 16.17% variation. Explaining 16.15%
variation, factor 3 is carrying two variables related to poor communications and miscommunications. Factor 4 is
about the issues related to the wages and salaries and breaches of trust etc. of respondents and explains 15.464%

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variance. Factor 5 is about unfavorable government policies explaining 13.95% variation. Factor 6 contains two
variables related to organizational culture and personality clashes/ego etc. Robbins and Sanghi (2005) have the
same findings in their research and my finding is also supporting the factors that cause the organizational
conflicts in the organizations.
This factor explains 13.21% variation. Comrey and Lee (1992) suggest that loadings in excess
of .71(50% overlapping variance) are considered excellent, .63(40% overlapping variance) very good, .55(30%
overlapping variance) good, .45(20% overlapping variance), fair. The factor loadings for the rotated solution can
be found in Table no. 9. The results show that most of the variable loadings reached an acceptable standard.
Table No. 10
Rotated Component Matrixa
Component

Insubordination
Lack of direction
Low productivity
Factor 1
Competitive among conflicting
parties
Communication breakdown
Low quality
Leads to economic loss
Low morale
Factor 2
Fragmentation
Lack of new ideas
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
*Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings
**Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings

Factor
Loading
1
.925
.895
.880
.870
.812
.577
.935
.865
.805
.805

Initial
Eigen
Values
2

*Variance
Explained %

**Variance
Explained %

5.84

58.401

47.876

2.571

25.706

36.231

Source: Primary Data


In this case, the factor analysis summed up originally 10 variables in 2 factors (table no.10). These two factors
explained those factors which are effects of organizational Conflicts. We are interested in all these factors. The
reason of our interest is the existence of resemblance between these factors and the categories of factors we
made.
Explaining 47.87% variation, factor 1 is comprised of the variables more or less relating to the Lacking
productivity, direction, & communication etc. among employees at the banks. The constituents of factor 2 are
related to the respondents Low morale, ideas, economic loss in relation to the workplace issue and manager
related matters. This factor explained 36.231% variation. This is also consistent with the findings of the
Onwuchekwa, (2007) indicating the effects of conflicts on the organizational employees and its effect on the
productivity of the employees.
Table No .11
Rotated Component Matrixa
Component
Factor
Loading
Compromising
Accommodating
Improvement in communication
Re- orientation
Factor 2
Constant dialogue
Dominating by force on other
party
Factor 3
Avoidance
Solving the problem
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
*Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings
**Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings
Factor 1

.986
.864
.684
.978
.978

Initial
Eigen
Values

*Variance
Explained %

**Variance
Explained %

3.783

47.28983

30.652468

1.644

20.54686

30.540727

1.460336

18.2542

24.897693

.844
.789
-.759

Source: Primary Data

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In this case, the factor analysis summed up originally 8 variables in 3 factors (table 11). These three
factors explained those factors which are techniques of management in resolving organizational Conflicts. We
are interested in all these factors. The reason of our interest is the existence of resemblance between these factors
and the categories of factors we made.
Explaining 30.65% variation, factor 1 is comprised of the variables more or less relating to the
Communication & Compromising etc. among employees at the banks. The constituents of factor two are related
to the respondents reorientation and dialogue in relation to the workplace issue and manager related matters.
This factor explained 36.231% variation. The third factor is related o the force on the third party and avoidance
and solving the problems of banking employees. The dominating factors those may use as techniques to solve
the organizational conflicts are compromising, accommodating related variables. The finding of Stoner et al.,
(1995) is also support the finding related to the conflicts management techniques.
6. Financial Performance of Askari Bank Ltd
In annual report 2014, that it gives immense pleasure to report a year of exceptional performance in the history
of Askari Bank. Following the change of ownership and the reorganizational initiatives, the resulting turnaround
of the Bank testifies that change creates opportunity.
The Bank posted a healthy growth in revenues that enabled a strong bottom line for full year 2014
profit after taxation reported at Rs.4.015 billion. Based on the financial results for 2014, the Board is pleased to
announce a final cash dividend of Rs.1.0 per share (i.e. 10%) bringing the total cash dividend for the year to
Rs.2.0 per share (i.e. 20%). These financial results are attributable to successful execution of business strategies
effectively capitalizing on available opportunities.
6.1
Financial Indicators of Askari Banks Ltd
The financial indicators showing the performance of Askari Bank Limited during a period of 2009 and 2014 are
given below:Table 12 Financial indicators, 2009-2014 (Rs.Million)
Rs. in million
31-Dec
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Deposits
205,970 255,937 291,503
Advances-net
135,034 152,784 150,711
Total Assets
254,327 314,744 343,757
Share Capital
5,073
6,427
7,070
Reserves
8,070
8,393
9,439
Total Shareholder's funds
14,949
16,004
17,776
Profit/ (loss) before taxation
1,632
1,273
2,413
Profit/ (loss) after taxation
1,098
943
1,628
Earnings/ (loss) per share
*( Rupees)
2.18
1.48
2.3
*based on no. of weighted average shares outstanding at each year
end

306,937
143,727
353,056
8,131
9,456
19,688
1,729
1,255

335,241
163,557
394,827
12,603
4,030
18,729
-8,441
-5,480

387,587
170,496
447,083
12,603
6,686
23,707
5,781
4,015

1.54

-5.9

3.19

According to annual report 2014, amongst the factors that contributed towards a successful 2014, the most
significant is the association of the Askari brand with the Fauji Group, that enabled a strong governance culture,
strategic direction and much needed capacity for growth and expansion.
During the year, the Bank posted a profit before and after tax of Rs. 5.78 billion and Rs.4.01 billion,
respectively, compared to loss before and after tax of Rs. 8.44 billion and Rs.5.48 billion in 2013. Operating
profit (profit before provisions against non-performing assets and taxation) increased by 129 percent, mainly due
to an increase in net revenues; net interest / mark-up income increased by 38 percent, and non-fund income
increased by 48 percent. Within non-fund income, business related revenues; income from dealing in foreign
currencies and fee, commission and brokerage income increased by 76 percent and 23 percent, respectively.
Return on core equity and return on assets remained in line with the peers, and are reported at 22.4 percent and
1.0 percent respectively.
We are pursuing an aggressive branch expansion plan and during the year under review, the branch
network reached 321 a total of 60 new branches have been added to the network since June 2013 i.e. postacquisition by the Fauji Group. Further expansion for 2015 has been planned and work has already been initiated
on some locations. . In addition to our wholesale banking branch in Bahrain, the Bank has also initiated opening
a representative office in China during 2015. While we focus on expansion, we remain committed towards

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bringing further efficiencies in our processes through the extended use of technology supported by a robust and
effective governance and risk management framework.
6.3 Ratio Analysis of Askari Bank Ltd
We analyze the performance of Askari Bank Ltd by applying ratio analysis to different financial indicators of the
bank. The results are shown in the Table 13.
Table 13 Ratio analysis of key financial indicators of Askari Bank Ltd
Percentage
31-Dec
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Profitability Ratios
Profit / (loss) before tax
7.23
4.66
7.36
5.34
-30.19 16.71
Gross Yield on Earning Assets
11.48
11.42
11.55 10.74 8.67
10.15
Return on average assets (RoA)
0.48
0.33
0.49
0.36
-1.47
0.95
Gross Spread
39.99
34.37
30.72 29.10 30.75
34.37
Cost to income (CIR)
60.73
64.42
67.28 67.39 78.17
64.54
Return on average shareholders
funds (RoE)
7.94
6.09
9.64
6.70
-28.53 18.92
Return on Capital employed
1.43
1.00
1.06
0.59
-2.39
1.51
Liquidity Ratios
Advance to deposits (CDR)
Current
Cash to Current Liabilities

65.56
1.22
0.17

59.70
0.97
0.13

51.70
1.84
0.24

46.83
1.99
0.26

48.79
1.91
0.23

43.99
1.77
0.17

12.52
0.16

11.95
0.4

4.35
0.02

11.18
0.04

-2.37
0.04

7.23
0.07
0.09
2.72
10.00
10.00

20.00
2.18
27.30
28.69
12.15

10.00
1.48
17.69
31.14
12.70

15.00
2.30
10.03
19.25
8.50

1.54
17.22
17.75
9.89

-5.9
14.00
19.69
10.76

3.19
23.07
23.14
13.37

Capital Structure Ratios


Income / Expense
Capital Adequacy (CAR)
Earning assets to total assets
Weighted average cost of deposits
Net assets per share
Operating fixed assets to average shareholders funds

1.07
11.75
85.71
6.19
29.47
66.35

1.04
10.3
86.34
6.51
24.90
64.54

1.07
11.35
86.05
6.87
25.14
55.35

1.05
11.81
86.90
6.77
24.21
47.20

0.79
10.03
84.07
5.62
14.86
44.60

1.17
13.03
90.32
5.90
18.81
39.12

Other Information
Number of employees (Regular)
Number of branches

4,393
226

4,473
235

4470
245

4,272
261

4,411
281

Numbers
5,581
321

Investment/Market Ratios
Price Earning (PE)
Price to Book
Dividend yield
Dividend payout
Interim cash dividend
Final cash dividend *
Stock dividend *
Earnings per share (EPS)** - Rupees
Market value per share - year end - Rupees
Market value per share - high - Rupees
Market value per share - low - Rupees

*post balance sheet event


**based on number of weighted average shares outstanding at each year end
According to the financial review in annual report 2014, operating profit of the Bank registered a healthy
increase of 129 percent over last year. This increase is attributable to 38.3 percent rise in net interest income,
47.8 percent jump in non-interest income, while the rise in operating expenses was contained at 16.5 percent.
These results were achieved on the back of improvement in net spread and business volumes, and also prudently
capitalizing on the available market opportunities while implementing austerity and cost control measures. Profit

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before and after tax for the year 2014 remained at Rs.5.78 billion and Rs.4.01 billion respectively compared with
the loss before and after tax of Rs.8.44 billion and Rs.5.48 billion in 2013. The aggregate increase in operating
expenses contained at 16.51 percent despite additional cost of 40 new branches added to the existing network
during 2014 and general inflationary upsurge. This was achieved by inculcating a more cost conscious culture
across the Bank and also by eliminating structural redundancies and controlling leakages. As a result, the cost to
income ratio for the year 2014 of 64.54 percent, showed a significant improvement over last year, which was
78.17 percent.
The shareholders funds registered an increase of 26.58 percent over last year reflecting the
accumulation of profit after taxation for the year 2014 of Rs.4, 015 million and the effects of increase of 110.82
percent in surplus on revaluation of assets, which stood at Rs.4.4 billion as on December 31, 2014 against Rs.2.1
billion at the end of 2013. The increase in surplus on revelation of assets was primarily due to improved mark-tomarket position of available-for-sale securities, PIBs, on the back of improvement in the trend of benchmark
rates. Consequently, the net book value per share of the Bank increased to Rs.18.81 as on December 31, 2014
from Rs.14.86 at end 2013.
The ROA of the Bank for the year 2014 increased mainly due to increase posting highest ever after tax
profit of Rs.4.01 billion, partly offset by increase in average assets of 12.6 percent. Customer deposits as on
December 31, 2014, registered a growth of around 15.6 percent over last year. The major increase was in current
and saving accounts (CASA), which climbed by 17.26 percent. The average deposit size almost maintained its
level. EPS reflects profit after taxation generated per share. The EPS of the Bank for the year 2014 was recorded
at Rs.3.19 against loss per share of Rs.5.90 of the corresponding period, last year. This was mainly due to high
provisions / impairment against non-performing assets of Rs.11.1 billion booked during 2013.
6.4 Change Management and its effect on the profitability of Bank
2014 was the first full year for Askari Bank under the new Sponsors, the Fauji Group. (Fauji Group comprising
of Fauji Foundation, Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited and Fauji Fertilizer Bin Qasim Limited collectively
acquired 71.91 percent w.e.f. June 21, 2013). Askari bank earned a highest-ever profit after tax amounting to
Rs.4,015 million during the year ended December 31,2014 comparing to a loss after tax of Rs.5,480 million in
the previous year. The overall balance sheet size grew by 13 percent, from Rs. 395 billion at end 2013 to 447
billion at the close of December 31, 2014.Earnings per share for 2014 were recorded at Rs.3.19 per share
compared to a loss per share of Rs.5.90 per share for the full year 2013. The return on average assets and return
on average core equity remained strong and comparable with industry averages at 1.0 percent and 22.4 percent,
respectively for the year 2014. In addition to the above, the Board has recommended a final cash dividend of 10
percent for the year ended December 31, 2014.
Capital adequacy ratio under the Base-III guidelines, implemented by the State Bank of Pakistan w.e.f.
December 31, 2013, stood at 13.03 percent at the close of 2014 compared to 10.39 percent as at end 2013.The
Bank was able to grow customer deposits to Rs.388 billion at December 31, 2014 from Rs. 355 billion at the
close of previous year, a healthy increase of 16 percent despite a targeted reduction in cost of deposits. The
deposits growth was made possible by effective market communication and a series of regional activities
penetrating in the savings space. During the year under review, savings deposits grew by 13.6 percent followed
by fixed deposits which increased by 10.6 percent. Deposits in foreign currencies declined by 9 percent
compared to last year, reflecting the impact of strengthening of Pak Rupee during 2014.
7 FINDINGS AND RESULTS
Research methodology and analysis applied on the data to access the impact of organizational conflict on
performance. The results show that organizational performance is more influenced by the conflict management
techniques. This research work was conducted against the backdrop of conflict situations that have disrupted
many peaceful and profitable organizations, with its consequences, and effects as the case may be the findings as
follows:
1. That Education does not have any effect on the opinion of respondents on Conflict Management
Strategies.
2. That there is no Significant different between the opinion of male and female respondents on the causes
of Conflict.
3. That there is a significant effect of Conflict on Organizational performance
4. That there are different causes of Conflict and the top ranked was poor Communication.
5. That based on the responses the effect of Conflict is that of low morale.
6. That having constant dialogue is one of the techniques for handling conflict situations.
Therefore, the collected data indicates that conflict is inevitable in the said organizations. Mostly, the
conflicts arise between management and employees in these organizations. There are many factors responsible
for arising conflicts. Findings suggest that the most common reasons of conflicts are lack of communication,

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personal beliefs, miscommunication, sudden change in a policy, difference of opinions and misunderstanding.
The results reveal that miscommunication or communication gap is one of the main reasons of conflict between
employees and management.
8 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
8.1 Conclusions
From the findings the study concluded that the conflict management strategies are crucial for the attainment and
achievement of organizational goals and objectives. In other words, if the management is not knowledgeable in
conflict resolution strategies, it will affect the performance of organizations negatively but if conflict is
constructively managed, it will enhance organizational performance.
From the data gathered an analyzed by the researcher and following the major research finding above, the
researcher drew the following conclusions:
1. That management strategies adopted in handling Conflict will not be affected by differences in
Educational Qualification of the respondents
2. That the causes of Conflict in an Organization will not have any difference whether it came from the
male or female respondents.
3. That Conflict has an adverse effect on Organizational Performance.
4. That Poor Communication is a major cause of Conflict.
5. That low Morale is amongst the most ranked in the effects of Conflict.
6. That possible ways of handling Conflict situation in an Organization is by Constant dialogue.
8.2 Recommendations
Although conflicts have both negative and positive effects, the management and the employees should work
towards achieving the positive effects rather than the negative. According to Adomi and Anie (2005), managers
should develop appropriate strategies to resolve conflicts as they arise in their organizations.In the light of the
research findings and conclusions above, the researcher hereby recommends the following suggestions:
1. That Management must adopt Conflict Management strategies that will improve on the Performance of
the Organization.
2. That management should ensure a free flow of communication between the management and the
employee.
3. Management should encourage and promote interpersonal relationships among co-workers to improve
on their morale
4. There is need for constant dialogue between management and the employees to clarify issues and
exchange ideas.
5. Management should re-orient employees on the effect of conflict on organizational performance.
6. Group interaction and activities should be followed up so as to ensure a degree of functionality
compatible to conflicts. Positive conflicts will only be possible if particularities of the organization are
analyzed.
7. Efforts should be made by the management to organize seminars/workshops on organizational conflict
management from time to time for the employees. This will enable employees learn about conflict and
how it can be effectively managed for individual and organization effectiveness.
8. Finally, good leadership on the part of management and employee representatives can be a strategy for
preventing conflicts.
9.3 Limitations of Study
The limitations of this research should be addressed in the light of findings that research conducted on conflict
management might be applied to the banking sector rather than other industries and cultures for that it must be
investigated according to need in future. As my study was limited to only Askari Bank, using the different
samples may produce different results in future. The collected data may be biased and could affect the accuracy
of these results. Future research may need to take the longitudinal approach or use other samples to limit the
amount of bias in the results. Finally, this study was conducted under strict time constraints: within a five to six
month period in 2014-15 and reseach was carried out only on Askari banks in Mutan District, data collection is
difficult from the employees of banking sector because of their busy routine. Many other areas were remaining
untouched due to limited resources and as a female constraint at some time face problems regarding data
collection. The longitudinal approach in a different time period might provide another perception of the conflict
management strategies under different situation and time. The major weakness of study is that it focus on sample
size which does not give a comprehensive view on conflicts due to constraint of time and so that reseach was
carried out only on Askari banks. Therefore there is a need to conduct a comprehensive study with focus groups
discussion to make concrete conclusions on organization conflicts and develop appropiate interventions to

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manage it effectively.
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