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Abstract of over current Protection of Transformer (NEC 450.

3)
Introduction:

The over current protection required for transformers is consider for Protection of
Transformer only.Such over current protection will not necessarily protect the primary or secondary conductors or
equipment connected on the secondary side of the transformer.

When voltage is switched on to energize a transformer, the transformer core normally saturates. This results
in a large inrush current which is greatest during the first half cycle (approximately0.01 second) and becomes
progressively less severe over the next several cycles (approximately 1 second) until the transformer reaches its
normal magnetizing current.

To accommodate this inrush current, fuses are often selected which have time-current withstand values of at
least 12 times transformer primary rated current for 0.1 second and 25 times for 0.01 second. Some small drytype transformers may have substantially greater inrush currents.

To avoid using over sized conductors, over current devices should be selected at about 110 to 125 percent
of the transformer full-load current rating. And when using such smaller over current protection, devices should be
of the time-delay type (on the primary side) to compensate for inrush currents which reach 8 to 10 times the fullload primary current of the transformer for about 0.1 s when energized initially.

Protection of secondary conductors has to be provided completely separately from any primary-side
protection.

A supervised location is a location where conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only
qualified persons will monitor and service the transformer installation.

Over current protection for a transformer on the primary side is typically a circuit breaker. In some instances
where there is not a high voltage panel, there is a fused disconnect instead.

It is important to note that the over current device on the primary side must be sized based on the
transformer KVA rating and not sized based on the secondary load to the transformer

Over current Protection of Transformers > 600 V (NEC 450.3-A)


1) Unsupervised Location of Transformer (Impedance <6%)

Over Current Protection at Primary Side (Primary Voltage >600V):

Rating of Pri. Fuse at Point A= 300% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next higher Standard size. or

Rating of Pri. Circuit Breaker at Point A= 600% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next higher Standard size.

Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (Secondary Voltage <=600V):

Rating of Sec. Fuse / Circuit Breaker at Point B= 125% of Sec. Full Load Current or Next higher Standard
size.

Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (Secondary Voltage >600V):

Rating of Sec. Fuse at Point B= 250% of Sec. Full Load Current or Next higher Standard size. or

Rating of Sec. Circuit Breaker at Point B= 300% of Sec. Full Load Current.

Example: 750KVA, 11KV/415V 3Phase Transformer having Impedance of Transformer 5%

Full Load Current At Primary side=750000/(1.732X11000)=39A

Rating of Primary Fuse = 3X39A= 118A, So Standard Size of Fuse =125A.

OR Rating of Primary Circuit Breaker =6X39A=236A, So Standard Size of Circuit Breaker =250A.

Full Load Current at Secondary side=750000/ (1.732X415) =1043A.


Rating of Secondary of Fuse / Circuit Breaker = 1.25X1043A=1304A, So Standard Size of Fuse =1600A.

2) Unsupervised Location of Transformer (Impedance 6% to 10 %)

Over Current Protection at Primary Side (Primary Voltage >600V):

Rating of Pri. Fuse at Point A= 300% of Primary Full Load Current or Next higher Standard size.

Rating of Pri. Circuit Breaker at Point A= 400% of Primary Full Load Current or Next higher Standard size.

Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (Secondary Voltage <=600V):

Rating of Sec. Fuse / Circuit Breaker at Point B= 125% of Sec. Full Load Current or Next higher Standard
size.

Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (Secondary Voltage >600V):

Rating of Sec. Fuse at Point B= 225% of Sec. Full Load Current or Next higher Standard size.

Rating of Sec. Circuit Breaker at Point B= 250% of Sec. Full Load Current or Next higher Standard size.

Example: 10MVA, 66KV/11KV 3Phase Transformer, Impedance of Transformer is 8%

Full Load Current At Primary side=10000000/(1.732X66000)=87A

Rating of Pri. Fuse = 3X87A= 262A, So Next Standard Size of Fuse =300A.

OR Rating of Pri. Circuit Breaker =4X87A=348A, So Next Standard Size of Circuit Breaker =400A.

Full Load Current at Secondary side=10000000/ (1.732X11000) =525A.

Rating of Sec. Fuse = 2.25X525A=1181A, So Next Standard Size of Fuse =1200A.

OR Rating of Sec. Circuit Breaker =2.5X525A=1312A, So Next Standard Size of Circuit Breaker =1600A.

3) Supervised Location (in Primary side only) of Transformer:

Over Current Protection at Primary Side (Primary Voltage >600V):

Rating of Pri. Fuse at Point A= 250% of Primary Full Load Current or Next higher Standard size.

Rating of Pri. Circuit Breaker at Point A= 300% of Primary Full Load Current or Next higher Standard size.

4) Supervised Location of Transformer (Impedance Up to 6%):

Over Current Protection at Primary Side (Primary Voltage >600V):

Rating of Pri. Fuse at Point A= 300% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next Lower Standard size.

Rating of Pri. Circuit Breaker at Point A= 600% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next Lower Standard size.

Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (Secondary Voltage <=600V):

Rating of Sec. Fuse / Circuit Breaker at Point B= 250% of Sec. Full Load Current or Next higher Standard
size.

Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (Secondary Voltage >600V):

Rating of Sec. Fuse at Point B= 250% of Sec. Full Load Current or Next Lower Standard size.

Rating of Sec. Circuit Breaker at Point B= 300% of Sec. Full Load Current or Next Lower Standard size.

Example: 750KVA, 11KV/415V 3Phase Transformer having Impedance of Transformer 5%

Full Load Current At Primary side=750000/(1.732X11000)=39A

Rating of Primary Fuse = 3X39A= 118A, So Next Lower Standard Size of Fuse =110A.

OR Rating of Primary Circuit Breaker =6X39A=236A, So Next Lower Standard Size of Circuit Breaker
=225A.

Full Load Current at Secondary side=750000/ (1.732X415) =1043A.

Rating of Secondary of Fuse / Circuit Breaker = 2.5X1043A=2609A, So Standard Size of Fuse =2500A.

5) Supervised Location of Transformer (Impedance 6% to 10%):

Over Current Protection at Primary Side (Primary Voltage >600V):

Rating of Pri. Fuse at Point A= 300% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next Lower Standard size.

Rating of Pri. Circuit Breaker at Point A= 400% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next Lower Standard size.

Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (Secondary Voltage <=600V):

Rating of Sec. Fuse / Circuit Breaker at Point B= 250% of Sec. Full Load Current or Next higher Standard
size.

Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (Secondary Voltage >600V):

Rating of Sec. Fuse at Point B= 225% of Sec. Full Load Current or Next Lower Standard size.

Rating of Sec. Circuit Breaker at Point B= 250% of Sec. Full Load Current or Next Lower Standard size.

Example: 750KVA, 11KV/415V 3Phase Transformer having Impedance of Transformer 8%

Full Load Current At Primary side=750000/(1.732X11000)=39A

Rating of Primary Fuse = 3X39A= 118A, So Next Lower Standard Size of Fuse =110A.

OR Rating of Primary Circuit Breaker =4X39A=157A, So Next Lower Standard Size of Circuit Breaker
=150A.

Full Load Current at Secondary side=750000/ (1.732X415) =1043A.

Rating of Secondary of Fuse / Circuit Breaker = 2.5X1043A=2609A, So Standard Size of Fuse =2500A.

Difference in C.B between Supervised & Unsupervised Location

Here we see two notable conditions while we select Fuse / Circuit Breaker in Supervised Location and
Unsupervised Location.

First notable Condition is Primary Over current Protection. In Unsupervised Location Fuse in Primary side is
300% of Primary Current or Next Higher Standard size and in Supervised Location is 300% of Primary Current
or Next Lower Standard size. Here Primary Over current Protection is same in both conditions (300%) But
Selecting Size of Fuse/Circuit Breaker is Different.

Lets us Check with the Example for 750KVA, 11KV/415V 3Phase Transformer.

Full Load Current At Primary side=750000/(1.732X11000)=39A

In Unsupervised Location: Rating of Primary Fuse = 3X39A= 118A, So Next Higher Standard Size
=125A

In Supervised Location: Rating of Primary Fuse = 3X39A= 118A, So Next Lower Standard Size =110A

Second notable Condition is Secondary Over current Protection increased from 125% to 250% for
unsupervised to Supervised Location.

Summary of over current Protection for more than 600V:


Maximum Rating of Over current Protection for Transformers more than 600 Volts

LocationLimitat

TransformerR

Primary Protection

ions

ated

(More than 600 Volts)

Secondary Protection

Impedance

More than 600 Volts

Less
than
600
Volts

Any location

Circuit

Fuse

Circuit

Fuse

C.B or

Breaker

Rating

Breaker

Rating

Fuse

600%

300%

300 %

250%

125%

(NH)

(NH)

( NH)

(NH)

(NH)

400%

300%

250%

225%

125%

(NH)

(NH)

(NH)

(NH)

(NH)

300%

250%

Not

Not

Not

(NH)

(NH)

required

required

required

Less than 6%

600%

300%

300%

250%

250%

6% To 10%

400%

300%

250%

225%

250%

Less than 6%

6% To 10%

Supervisedlocati

Any

ons
only

NH: Next Higher Standard Size.

Over current Protection of Transformers< 600 V (NEC 450.3-B)


1) Only Primary side Protection of Transformer:

Over Current Protection at Primary Side (Less than 2A):

Rating of Pri. Fuse / C.B at Point A= 300% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next Lower Standard size.

Example: 1KVA, 480/230 3Phase Transformer, Full Load Current at Pri. Side=1000/(1.732X480)=1A

Rating of Primary Fuse = 3X1A= 3A, So Next Lower Standard Size of Fuse =3A.

Over Current Protection at Primary Side (2A to 9A):

Rating of Sec. Fuse / C.B at Point A= 167% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next Lower Standard size.

Example: 3KVA, 480/230 3Phase Transformer, Full Load Current at Pri. Side=3000/(1.732X480)=4A

Rating of Primary Fuse = 1.67X4A= 6A, So Next Lower Standard Size of Fuse =6A.

Over Current Protection at Primary Side (More than 9A):

Rating of Pri. Fuse / C.B at Point A= 125% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next Higher Standard size.

Example: 15KVA, 480/230 3Phase Transformer, Full Load Current at Pri. Side=15000/(1.732X480)=18A

Rating of Primary Fuse = 1.25X18A= 23A, So Next Higher Standard Size of Fuse =25A.

2) Primary and Secondary side Protection of Transformer:

Over Current Protection at Primary Side (Less than 2A):

Rating of Pri. Fuse / C.B at Point A= 250% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next Lower Standard size.

Over Current Protection at Primary Side (2A to 9A):

Rating of Sec. Fuse / C.B at Point A= 250% of Pri. Full Load Current or Next Lower Standard size.

Over Current Protection at Primary Side (More than 9A):

Rating of Pri. Fuse / C.B at Point A= 250% of Pri. Full Load Current or Lower Higher Standard size.

Example: 25KVA, 480/230 3Phase Transformer, Full Load Current at Pri. Side=125000/(1.732X480)=30A

Rating of Primary Fuse = 2.50X30A= 75A, So Next Lower Standard Size of Fuse =70A.

Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (Less than 9A):

Rating of Pri. Fuse / C.B at Point B= 167% of Sec. Full Load Current or Lower Standard size.

Example: 3KVA, 480/230 3Phase Transformer, Full Load Current at Sec. Side=3000/(1.732X230)=8A

Rating of Primary Fuse = 1.67X8A= 13A, So Next Lower Standard Size of Fuse =9A.

Over Current Protection at Secondary Side (More than 9A):

Rating of Pri. Fuse / C.B at Point A= 125% of Pri. Full Load Current or Higher Standard size.

Example: 15KVA, 480/230 3Phase Transformer, Full Load Current at Sec. Side=15000/(1.732X230)=38A

Rating of Primary Fuse = 1.25X38A= 48A, So Next Higher Standard Size of Fuse =50A.

Summary of over current Protection for Less than 600V:

Maximum Rating of Over current Protection for Transformers Less than 600 Volts

ProtectionMethod

Primary Protection

More than

2A to 9A

9A

Primary only

Secondary Protection

Less

More than 9A

than 2A

Less than
9A

125%(NH)

167%

300%

Not required

Not required

250%

250%

250%

125%(NH)

167%

protection

Primary and
secondary protection

NH: Next Higher Standard Size.