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Modeling of Shoreline Changes of Tulamben Coast, Bali Indonesia

Nita Yuanita (1), Roka Pratama (1), and Semeidi Husrin (2)
(1) Coastal Engineering Research Group, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia (nita@ocean.itb.ac.id), (rokapratama@yahoo.com),
(2) Research Institute for Coastal Resources and Vulnerability, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Indonesia (semeidi@yahoo.com)

A. Introduction

C2. Model Results and Proposed Mitigation

B. Methods

Tulamben coast is located in Lombok Strait on the northeastern coast of Bali island,
Indonesia (Figure 1), as part of Karang Asem district. Severe erosion along the
coastline has long been occurred in Karang Asem area and threatening houses,
religious buildings (Hindu temples), and a national heritage site (Figure 2).

Simulation of Scenario 1 Existing Condition is applied during year 2014-2024.


The purpose of Scenario 1 is to investigate shoreline changes of existing
condition, without any protection, in the next 10 years. From the simulation, it is
presented that if the protection is not applied, shoreline will be decreased with
rate 0.5 m per year in the shipwreck area (Figure 9). To find solution for erosion
problems, several alternative layout of coastal protection structures are
proposed as indicated in Scenario 2.

Figure 6. Flowchart of research methodology

Figure 2. Tulamben shoreline


Changes 1989-2014
11503534 E,
801625 S

Shipwreck

Shipwreck

Shipwreck

Figure 1. Study Location at Tulamben, Bali Indonesia

Tulamben is one of most popular diving site in Bali


Island, attracted many local and international tourist
since 1980, about 150 divers per day. The main
attraction of diving site is the USAT Liberty ship that
was shipwrecked in Tulamben beach in 1942, after
attacked by Japanese torpedo in Lombok Strait. Due
to coastal erosion, sliding, and scouring, the shipwreck
is vulnerable and had been slipped off the beach
several times and is predicted would be moved to
deeper offshore oor if it is not protected (Hasanah
et.al, 2013).
Previous erosion study using numerical model had
been applied in many shoreline changes cases in the
world. Literature review from several similar studies in
Indonesian coasts i.e. Wiguna (2008), Antara (2007),
Panjaitan (2005), Suteja (2007), Setiyawan (2008),
and Hakim (2008), as well as literatures regarding
studies in Tulamben coast i.e. Hasanah (2013), Husrin
(2014) and Putra (2014).
Hanson (1989) and Gravens et. al. (1991) described a
numerical one-line model (GENESIS of Army Corps of
Engineers, USA) for shoreline evolution.

Figure 9. Simulated shoreline position, shoreline changes and transport volume during period 2014-2024 for Scenario 1

Figure 3. Tulamben beach condition

Figure 4. Shipwreck at Tulamben nearshore

Breakwater
Shipwreck

Resort

Figure 10. Proposed structure layout


(breakwater and revetment)

Shipwreck

Shipwreck

Resort

Resort

C1. Model Calibration


Figure 5. Beach profile survey

Regarding the above matters, objectives of this study are as follow: 1) To study the
magnitude of cross-shore and long-shore sediment transport in Tulamben coast by
using numerical model. 2) To determine the main cause of coastal erosion in
Tulamben coast. 3) To propose and determine the best solution concept.

D. Conclusion and Recommendation


1. Based on observation from map, rate of shoreline change in Tulamben coast is -0.5 m per
year.
2. From site survey and model it is found that both cross shore and longshore sediment are
contributed to Tulamben erosion. Cross shore sediment transport significantly occurred
after storm.
3. Simulated rate of shore line changes is -0.5 m per year and net longshore transport is
4000 m3/year (Southeast to Northwest). Simulated rate of cross shore sediment transport is
250 m3/year.
4. Recommended solution from coastal engineering perspective is by applying sandbag
protection at the offshore part of shipwreck about 100 m length. Further engineering
analysis is required.
Poster template by ResearchPosters.co.za

In general scope of works are as follow (figure 6):


1. Literature Review: similar study related to coastal erosion modeling and other study
regarding Tulamben coast from othe perspective.
2. Primary Data collection: position, coastal profile and sediment sampling survey (Figures
3, 4, and 5).
3. Secondary Data Collection: bathymetry map, shoreline position, met-ocean data (wind,
wave, and tidal) and sediment characteristic data.
4. Data processing: wave prediction, tidal analysis, coastal profiles and grain size lab
analysis.
5. Model Setup: domain configuration and input data preparation (GENESIS)
6. Model Calibration: by comparing simulated and observed shoreline between year 20012007.
7. Model Simulation of 2 scenarios: 1) Scenario 1 Existing Condition (2014-2024) to predict
existing condition and obtain erosion rate and shoreline changing; 2) Scenario 2 Proposed
Mitigation (2014-2024) to present future condition of proposed mitigation layout
8. Conclusion and Recommendation

Alternative 1 is by applying 100 m offshore protection


at the offshore part of shipwreck. Alternative 2 is by
applying 500 m coastal revetment near the shipwreck
area. Alternative 3 is by applying combination of
coastal revetment near shipwreck and offshore
protection near the resort area.
Based on the design criteria that is coastal protection
that will solved erosion problem near shipwreck area,
as well as it will not caused negative impact to
economic facilities along the shore area i.e resort
complex or housing, the alternative 1 is selected as
the solution (Figure 10 and 11).

Figure 10. Simulated shoreline position and shoreline changes for proposed layout

In general model input consists of shoreline and wave


condition. Model Domain covers area of Tulamben
coasts as presented in Figure 7 About 1200m length of
shoreline. There are 2 main areas i.e area of shipwreck
and Tulamben resort complex. Shoreline data that is
applied in calibration is year 2001 shoreline data as
initial condition, and year 2007 data as reference
shoreline. After calibration, 10 years simulation between
2014-2024 is applied, using 2014 shoreline data as
initial condition.
Model calibration was done by comparing simulated and
observed shoreline condition in 2007. Various values of
calibration parameters (K1 and K2) were applied in
order to get best fit between simulated and referenced
shoreline (Figure 8). Calibration parameters are K1=0.1
& K2=0.2. After model was calibrated, model simulation
is performed.

E. References
sea

Shipwreck
Resort

land

Figure 7. Initial Shoreline in modeling

Shipwreck

Figure 8. Simulated shoreline using various


value of K1 and K2

EGU General Assembly 2015 @ Vienna, Austria. Session OS2 Coastal Oceans, Semienclosed and Marginal Seas

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