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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study
Vocabulary is one of language components studied by students at all
level of schools in Indonesia. It is impossible to be successful English
learners without mastering the English vocabulary. Vocabulary is a central
aspect of language and of critical importance of typical language. Without
having sufficient vocabulary, people can not communicate effectively or
express his ideas in both oral and written form. To support the speakers
interaction in communication, vocabulary becomes important because it can
be used as basic foundation to construct a word into a good sequence of
sentence.
Vocabulary is one of important component in English, so learners
need to master it well. The learner should comprehend and have high
confident to use it in front of speaker especially when the learner
communicate. Vocabulary has important role to use as tool of
communication. Since vocabulary is very important for the student who
study English, higher interest should be given to it.
At MTsN Kute the student have potential to speak or write but the
student have a problem to support their potential that is the student still low
on vocabulary skill, it is because the students do not know how the exactly
way to learn vocabulary and acquire it.
So to solve the problem the researcher use the metacognive strategy
in this research to increase the students vocabulary skill. This strategy have
advantage in teaching vocabulary, that is the student can be control their

own and setting a plant how to learn vocabulary and metacognition also
develops higher learning and problem solving skill. Specifically, this
research would like to finding out the effect of using metacognitive strategy
toward students vocabulary achievement at MTsN Kute.
B. Statement of problem
From the background of the study stated above, the reearcher
formulates the question as follows:
Is the metacognitive strategy effective toward the students vocabulary
achivement?
C. Purpose of study
Based on the statement of the problem above, the purpose of this
study as follows:
To finding out whether or not the effect of metacognitive strategy toward
the students vocabulary achievementat MTsN Kute exist
D. Significance of Study
1. Theoritical Significance
This strategy is expected to overcome the difficulties in teaching
and learning process, especially for vocabulary achievement.

2. Practical significance
a. Teacher
This study is expected to show the teacher to find out the way in
teaching vocabulary.
b. Student

This study is expected to show the students to find out the way
how to learn vocabulary.
E. Scope of the study
The research is limited to eight grade students of MTsN Kute, and
Vocabulary achievement using metacognitive strategy. There are two
variables in this study; they are independent variable and dependent
variable. Independent variable is metacognitive strategy and dependent
variable is students vocabulary achievement.
F. Definition of Key Terms
a. Metacognitive strategy is thinking about thinking. As Anderson states
the use of metacognitive strategies ignites one's thinking and can lead to
higher learning and better performance (Anderson, 2002: 1). Its mean
using metacognitive strategy the learner will be more think about the
way how to learn until the learner get the exactly way to learn, so the
learner will be more easy to learn.
b. Vocabularry is a core component of language proficiency and provides
much of the basis for how well learner speaks, listen, read, and write
(Richard and Renandya, 2002: 255)

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. General Concept of Vocabulary


1.
Definition of Vocabulary

Whute (1986:337 in Pujiningsih, 2010) states vocabulary is the


words that are used in language. They are elements that are combined
to make sentences or discourse. The more vocabulary will be needed in
order to intake accurate words choice, so it will effectively convey
thought and ideas. Hornby (1995:1331) states vocabulary is total
number of words which make up language with rules for combining
them. Vocabulary of language consists of lexical forms (words) that
refer to part of our experience. In English, these words consist of
consonants and vowel (Nasr, 1985:36). Julian Edge (1993:27 in Ika
Devi, 2012) states knowing many words in foreign language are
important as it enables us to have more chance in understanding the
language.
Cameron (2001:74 in Pujiningsih, 2010) states mastery of
vocabulary deals with learning words is a cyclical process of meeting
new words and initial learning, followed by meetings those words
again and again, each time extending knowledge of what the words
mean and how they are used in the foreign language.
Hocket (in Celce-Murcia and Mc Intosh,1978:129 in Sofika
Chandra Nilawati, 2008) states vocabulary is the easiest aspect at a
second language to learn and it hardly requires formal attention in the
classroom.
Based on the definition above, the researcher conclude that
vocabulary is words that are combined to express idea through
sentence or discourse.

2.

The Importance of Vocabulary


According Thornbury (2007:13) without grammar very little
can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. This is
how linguist David Wilkins summed up the importance of vocabulary
learning. His view is echoed in this advice to students from a recent
course book (Deller H and Hocking D, Innovation, LTP): if you spend
most of your time studying grammar, your English will not improve
very much. You will see most improvement if you learn more words
and expression. You can say very little with grammar, but you can say
almost anything with words.
Of all the language skills, it is widely acknowledged that
vocabulary is a very important part in English language learning, and
that no one can communicate in any meaningful way without
vocabulary. Bowen et al. (1985: 322) and McCarthy (1990: iix in
Siriwan Mayuree, 2007) indicate that the single, biggest component of
any language course is vocabulary. This is consistent with Nation
(1990: 2) who affirms that learners also see vocabulary as being a very,
if not the most, important element in language learning. Learners feel
that many of their difficulties, in both receptive and productive
language use, result from the lack of vocabulary knowledge. Kitajima
(2001: 470) affirms that without words that label objects, actions, and
concepts, one cannot express intended meanings.

3.

Types of Vocabulary
a. Receptive vocabulary

Receptive or recognition, vocabulary is that set of words for


which an individual can assign meanings when listening or
reading. There are words that are often less well known to students
and less frequent in use. Individual may able assign some short of
meaning to them, ever though they may not know the full subtleties
of the distinction. Typically, there are also words that individuals
do not use spontaneously. However, when individuals encounter
these words, they recognize them, even if imperfectly (Hiebert &
Kamil, 2005: 14).
b. Productive vocabulary
Productive vocabulary is the set of words that an individual
can use when writing or speaking. They are words that are well
known, familiar, and used frequently (Hiebert & Kamil,2005: 14).
B. Teaching Vocabulary
Vocabulary is very important for second language learners; only with
sufficient vocabulary learners can effectively express their ideas both in oral
and written form. Thus they should have a good idea of how to expand their
vocabulary so that they can improve their interest in leaning the language.
Language teachers, therefore, should posses considerable knowledge on how
to manage an interesting classroom so that the learners can gain a great
success in their vocabulary learning.
Teaching vocabulary plays an important role in language acquisition
because the mastery of vocabulary will help students to master all the
language skills; speaking; listening; writing; and reading. The vocabulary will
make the students practice life and will strengthen belief that English can be

used to express the same ideas or feeling they express in their native
language.
Furthermore(Finochiaro, 1974:38 in Sofika Chandra Nilawati, 2008) in
teaching vocabulary the teacher can introduce the list of vocabulary that is
taken from the book. The teacher uses and adds other vocabulary which is
relevant to the students. Teacher needs a good knowledge on their teaching
materials. When they have to teach the students about vocabulary, teachers
should know the general knowledge of vocabulary, words and also the
meaning. The words or vocabulary can be spoken and written.
Wallace (1982:207 in Sofika Chandra Nilawati, 2008) explainsteaching
vocabulary should consider as follows:
a. Aims
The aim of teaching vocabulary is to make the teacher easy to
formulate thematerials, which will be taught to the students.
b. Quantity
The teacher has to decide the number of vocabulary items to be
learned. Thelearners will get confuse or discouraged if they get many new
words.Therefore, the teacher should select new words, which can easy to
understandby the learners.
c. Need
In teaching vocabulary, the teacher has to choose the words really
needed bythe students in communication.
d. Frequent exposure and repetition

Frequent exposure and repetition here means that the teacher should
givemuch practice on repetition so that the students master the target
words well.They also give opportunity to the students to use words in
writing orspeaking.
e. Meaningful presentation
In teaching vocabulary the teacher should present target words in such
a way. That the meaning of the target words is perfectly clear and
unambiguous.
f. Situation and presentation
The teachers tell the students that they have to use the words
appropriately.The use of words depends on the situation in which they are
used anddepends on the person to whom they are speaking. From the
expalnation above the researcher conclude that the teachers must know the
different kinds of vocabulary. In addition, understanding the above factors
is very important for the teacher before teaching vocabulary to elementary
school.
In teaching vocabulary, a teacher also should be aware on some
principles. Harmer (1991: 154) states One of the problems of teaching
vocabulary is how to select what words to teach. Furthermore, he says
other criteria which are rather more scientific have been used; two of the
more important are frequency and coverage.
Based on the statements, in teaching vocabulary, a teacher is expected
to select words which are frequently used by the speakers of the language
and are covered in many other words.

1. Indicators of Vocabulary
According to Thornbury (2007: 27) there are four indicators of
vocabulary follow as:
a. Pronunciation
Research shows that words that are difficult to pronounce are
more difficult to learn. Potentially difficult words will typically be
those that contain sounds that unfamiliar to same groups of learners
such as Regular and Lorry for Japanese speakers. Many learners find
that words with clusters of consonants, such as strength or scrip or
breakfast, are also problematic.
b. Spelling
Sound spelling mismatches are likely to be the coused of
errors, either of pronunciation or of spelling, and can contribute to a
words difficulty. While most English spelling is fairly law abiding,
there are also some glaring irregularities. Words that contain silent
letters are particularly problematic: foreign, listen, headache,
climbing, bored, honest, cupboard, muscle, etc.
c. Meaning
When two words overlap in meaning, learners are likely to
confuse them. Make and here are a case in points: you make breakfast
an make an appointment, but you the housework and do a
questionnaire. Words with multiple meaning, such as since and still. It
also can be troublefor some learners. Heaving learned one meaning of
the word, they may be reluctant to accepts a second, totally different
meaning. Unfamiliar concepts may make a word difficult to learn.
Thus, culture specific items such as word and expressions associated
with the game cricket (a sticky wicket, a hat trick, a good innings)

will seem fairly opaque to most learners and are unlikely to be easily
learned.
d. Using word
The letter is the most authentic, but even that talk is
constrained by a contrived situation in which the test taker, usually in
matter of second has to come up with an appropriate sentence, which
may or may not indicate that the test taker known the word.
Based on the explanations above, it can concluded that
vocabulary is a list of words or total numbers of words that make up
language and often prhases usually arranged alphabetically and
defined or translated as a lexicon or glossary, that it come in at least
two forms: oral and written and one of the important elements in
language learning besides sound, structure and grammar in which
consists of some indicators such as pronunciation, spelling, meaning
and how to using the word. Vocabulary can be defined as the stock of
words used by person, class or profession and it can make the basic
words in English necessary for communication with another persons.
2. Testing Vocabulary
Harold (1983:12) states the purpose of vocabulary tests is to
measure the comprehensionand production of words.
To know directly the progress of vocabulary teaching or
thestudents achievements, the writer should test the students. The writer
inthis section present only with thedescription of what to test and thetypes
of test that could be developed.
Harold (1983:12) states there are four general kinds of vocabulary
test. They are :

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a. Limited Response.These test items require either a simple physical


action like pointing at something or a very simple verbal answer such
as "yes" or "no." .
In testing children and beginning-level adults, we often use
directed physical responsesand visuals.We do this to avoid language
skillsthat have not been mastered yet. For these tests,students don't
have to knowhow to read or write. In fact, they don't even have to
know how to speak.
b. Multiple-choice completion. It is a test in which a sentence with a
missing word is presented; students choose one of four vocabulary
items given to complete the sentence.
A good vocabulary test type for students who can read in the
foreign language is multiple-choice completion. It makes the student
depend on context clues and sentence meaning. This kind of item is
constructed by deleting a word from a sentence.
c. Multiplechoice paraphrase. It is a test in which a sentence with one
word underlined is given. Students choose which of four words is the
closest in meaning to the underlined item.
Multiple-choice paraphrase tests of vocabulary items offer much
of the same advantage that multiple-choice completion tests do, and
the contexts are much easier to prepare. Understanding is checked by
the student's having to choose the best synonym or paraphrase of the
vocabulary item. A sentence context is still used. However, choosing
the right word depends more on knowing the key vocabulary item

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than on finding meaning in the sentence. In 'fact, the context may


simply show that the item is a noun.
d. Simple completion (words) has students write in the missing part of
words that appear in sentences.
Word-formation items require students to fill in missing parts of
words that appear in sentences. These missing parts are usually
prefixes and suffixes, for example, the un- in untie or the -ful in
thankful. A related task is to use words like the following in a sentence
and have students supply missing syllables of any kind, such as the
rei- in relative or the -ate in deliberate. We can see, then, that there is a
different emphasis in simple-completion tests than in those we have
just looked at. Context is still useful, but the emphasis is on word
building. Moreover, this is a test of active not passive skills.
The steps in preparing a simple-completion vocabulary test are
similar to those followed in the two previous sections, but with one
difference: Now no distractors are needed. Here are the steps: (1) List
the prefixes and suffixes that you have taught to your students. Then
match these with content words that they have studied (including even
their passive vocabulary). (2) Prepare sentences that clarify the
meaning of these words. (3) Then write your instructions and
examples. If the test is quite important, try it out ahead of time. You
can have other teachers take it, or possibly native English speakers.
Then revise it and use it in your class.

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According to Thornbury (2007:132) says there are three kinds of


testing vocabularyachievements, such as:
1) Multiple Choice Test
Multiple choice test are a popular way of testing in that they are
easy to score (a computer can do it), and they are easy to design.
Moreover, the multiple choice format can be used with isolated words,
words in a sentence context, or words in whole context.
2) Gap-fill Test
Gap-fill test require learners to recall the word from
memory in order to complete a sentence in a text.
3) Selective (or open) type
This of test often use grammar than vocabulary.
C. Metacognitive Strategy
1. Metacognition
Metacognition can be loosely defined as thinking about ones own
thinking. More specifically, metacognition is an appreciation of what
one already knows, together with a correct apprehension of the learning
task and what knowledge and skills it requires combined with the ability to
make correct inferences about how to apply ones strategic knowledge to a
particular situation and to do so efficiently and reliably (Peirce, 2003: 2).
(Nelson & Conner, 2008) states in general, metacognition is the
engine that drives self-directed learning. In the late 1970, John Flavell
came up with an innovative word, metacognition, to describe the method
thinking about ones own process of thinking (Livingston, 1997, Walhs &
Sattes, 2005 in Donna M. Steuver, 2006). According to Flavells own
definition in 1981,metacognition has usually been broadly and rather

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loosely defined as any knowledge or cognitive activity that takes as its


object, or regulates, any aspect or any cognitive enterprise (Flavell,
Miller & Miller, 2002: 164).
In additional (Ahari, Sheshkelani, Aidinlou, 2012: 129) states
metacognition has been identified as a significant factor that impact on
learning. Metacognition refers to higher order thinking which involves
active control over the cognitive process engaged in learning.
Metacognition can be simply defined as thinking about thinking or as
a persons cognition about cognition. The term Metacognition first
appeared around 1975 in the work of elemental psychologist (John the
pioneer of Metacognition research in Ahari, Sheshkelani, Aidinlou, 2012:
130) described Metacognition refers to ones knowledge concerning ones
cognitive processes or anything related to them, e.g., the learning relevant
properties of information or data.
Metacognition regulation consists of sequential processes that help
to regulate learning. Activities such as planning how to approach a giving
learning task, monitoring comprehension, and evaluating progress toward
the completion of a task are metacognitive in nature.
Defines Metacognition as thinking about thinking. According to
definition above, the use of metacognitive strategies ignites ones thinking
and can lead to higher learning and better performance. Furthermore,
understanding and controlling cognitive process may be one of the most
essential skills that teachers can help second language learners develop.
Based on the all of definition above about metacognitive the
researcher can be make conclution that metacognitive strategy is a strategy
yang dapat membantu pelajar untuk merancang dan menentukan suatu

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strategi yang tepat dalam proses pembelajaran sehingga dapat menunjang


dan membantu mereka untuk mendapatkan hasil yang bagus dalam belajar
dan sekaligus meningkatkan pengetahuan pelajar.
2. Components of Metacognitive Strategies
According to Ulrike, Thomas, & Frenzel (2012: 2) there are trhee
components of Metacognitive strategies those are:
a. Planning
The strategy of planning includes the setting of goals, selecting
adequate cognitive strategies to achieve this goal, as well as the
allocation of personal resources such as effort or time.
b. Monitoring
Monitoring refers to being aware of ones comprehension and task
performance-monitoring ones learning and continually comparing
ones current state of learning to ones learning or achievement goals.
c. Evaluation
In response to monitoring feedback, evaluation involves the
correction of learning problems and adjustments in learning plans. For
example, an evaluation of unsatisfactory progress occurs when, as a
result of monitoring ones learning strategy use and comprehension, an
individual concludes that they will not achieve their learning goals by
persisting in the use of the present learning behaviors.
3. Techniques of applying Metacognitive Strategy
There are some steps of how to apply metecognitive strategy, such
as:
a. Choose an appropriate metacognitive strategy. In this research will use
linkword strategy.
b. Describe and model the strategy at least three times
c. Check student understanding. Ensure they understand both the strategy
and how to use it.
d. Provide ample opportunities for students to practice using the strategy.

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e. Provide timely corrective feedback and remodel use of strategy as


needed.
f. Provide

students

with

strategy

cue

sheetsas

students

begin

independently using the strategy.


g. Make a point of reinforcing students for using the strategy
appropriately.
h. Implicitly model using the strategy when performing the corresponding
4.

vocabulary skill in class.


Strategies in metacognitive
According to Muhammad Nur (2005: 10) there are some strategies
that are able to use in metacognitive:
a. Rehearseal strategy
In this strategy consist of underline strategy and marginal note
strategy
b. Elaboration strategy
In this strategy consisit of analogy, matrix and PQ4R strategy
c. Organization strategy
In this strategy consist of outlining, maping and mnemonics
strategy. In mnemonics strategy there are some methods that are able
to use in teaching, that are:

akronim, chugking and linkword or

keyword method.

5. Concept of metacognitive strategy


Applying metacognitive in research, the researcher will be choose
the one of appropriate strategy or method in metacognitive when the
researcher give students treatment.
In this research, the researcher will be applying the one of
mnemonics strategies that is linkword or keyword method also known as
the keyword mnemonic. The researcher use this method in this research
because this method it is one of the most powerful methods for learning
the meaning of foreign language vocabulary, and can also be used for

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remembering the pronunciation of a foreign language word when given a


word in ones native language.
The method, at the first stage, requires students to associate the
spoken foreign word to a native word (the keyword) that sounds
approximately like some part of the foreign word. At the second stage, it
requires students to form a mental image of the keyword interacting
with the English translation (Atkinson & Raugh, 1975 in international
journal of English linguistic, 2012: 102). In additional (Atkinson &
Raught, 1975) keyword method is a way of associating or linking two
words together. It is based on the finding that when people form an
interactive image between two concepts, one item becomes an excellent
cue for retrieving the second item. As applied to foreign vocabulary
learning, the purpose of the link word method is to learn a working
vocabulary and basic grammar of a foreign language as quickly as
possible.
6. Advantages of metacognitive strategy:
There are some advantages of metacognitive strategy, as follows:
a. "Metacognition enhances and enriches the learning experience"(St.
Clair, 2004)
b. "Applying metacognitive strategies such as self-awareness and self
monitoring is to develop independent learners who can control their
own learning and learn how to learn for life"(Papaleontiou-Louca,
2008).
c. Metacognition provides self-monitoring, which is a step-by-step
process of evaluation during the learning process.
d. Metacognition develops higher learning and problem solving skills
D. Conceptual Framework

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Students problem

Treatment
(Using linkword or keyword method)
Vocabulary achievement
In learning English vocabulary for the second language and foreign
language teachers and students will find out many difficulties and
problems. The researcher found many problems based on the teaching
practice done by the researcher in the school some students lacked in
vocabulary and the students still not understand if the teacher asked them
in English. Students did not know what they would say to respond the
teacher because the students lack vocabulary. Students were confused to
choose the words to make sentences. To solve these problems, the
researcher must have a good method in teaching English vocabulary for
the students.
One of the teaching strategies in teaching English vocabulary is
using Metacognitive Strategy. Metacognitive Strategy is able to help the
student to choose the correct strategy in learning vocabulary and to help
the students to increase their capability in mastering English vocabulary.
Metacognitive Strategy can be used with students at all levels it is most
useful with beginning students who understand little or no English.
Metacognitive Strategy is good strategy in teaching English because has

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steps as follow: the teacher will help the student to know what the good
strategy in learning vocabulary.
E. Empirical Review
This subheading discusses about the previous relevant study. The
research was conducted by Alfiyani khoiri (2012) onThe Use of
Metacognitive Strategy in Teaching Reading for the Eleventh Grade Students
of SMAN 2 Kudus in the Academic Year 2011/2012. The subjects of the
study were the eleventh grade students of SMAN 2 Kudus in the academic
year 2011/2012 and teaches how to implement Metacognitive Strategy when
they are reading. The researcher took the eleventh grade students of SMAN 2
Kudus in the second

semester of academic year 2011/2012. The number

of the students in the classroom was 32 students; 26 female and 6 male as a


sample in her experiment.The data of this research was taken from the result
of reading comprehension test conducted before and after being taught by
using Metacognitive Strategy. The findings of the research showed that: (1)
the reading ability of the eleventh grade students of SMAN 2 Kudus before
being taught by using metacognitive starategy, there were only 30 percent of
the students passed the KKM score. The mean score was 71.16 and the
standard deviation was 9.04. Based on the data, the reading ability of the
students was categorized as sufficient. (2) The reading ability of the elenth
grade students in SMAN 2 Kudus after being taught by using Metacognitive
Strategy, the students who did not pass KKM score were only 13 percent of
the students. The mean was 82.56 and the deviation standard was 7.21. It
means the reading ability of the students was good. (3) There is significant
difference between the reading ability of the eleventh grade students of

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SMAN 2 Kudus in the academic year 2011/2012 before and after being taught
by using Metacognitive Strategy.
The second research was conducted by Chayada Danuwong (2006) on
the role of metacognitive strategies in promoting learning English As a
foreign language independently. In the area of language learning, two
approaches have been used in previous research. One involving
metacognition has yielded very successful results in learning while another,
without metacognition, has yielded mixed results. Some very successful
training projects have made cognitive and metacognitive strategies explicit to
learners, whereby learners have been introduced to what, why, how, when
and where of strategies and how to evaluate their effectiveness. Learners
background knowledge and the selection of strategies to suit particular
learners needs were reported as the main obstacles.
The third research was conducted by Dr. Feryal (2008) on how to
enhance reading comprehension through metacognitive strategies. The
subject of the study was 130 students (15 males and 115 females) joined the
study voluntarily and 65 students took metacognitive instruction for five
weeks. The other 65 students did not take any training at all.
This study had an intact group, pretest-posttest, experimental design.
The subjects were already assigned in groups by the institution. Two classes
were selected for this study and one was randomly assigned as experimental
and the other as the control group. The homogeneity of the two groups in
terms of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension was checked
using a vocabulary achievement test and the comprehension test respectively.

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Two instruments were used in this study. The first one was a 20 item
multiple-choice test of vocabulary, which was developed by the researcher.
The test was used as the assessment tool in the pre-test and the post-test phase
of the study. The second test was the reading comprehension test developed
by TOEFL(http://www.newtoefl.net/reading.html). It was used in the pre-test
and post-test stage of the study. The result of this study based on mean score
of the students in vocabulary is for pre-test is 34, 47 and post-test is 37, 07
and for reading comprehension the mean score of the students for pre-test is
116, 32 and post-test is 118, 86.
Based on the researched above, metacognitive strategy is the point and
the result of the researched above, showed the metacognitive strategies could
increase the students ability on reading and vocabulary. It is related with this
research will use metacognitive strategy in the research to increase students
vocabulary.
F. Hypothesis of the study
The hypothesis of this research is formulated as follows:
1. Alternative hypothesis (Ha): Metacognitive Strategy is effective toward
studentsvocabularyachievement for the second grade students of MTsN
Kute.
2. Null hypothesis (Ho): Metacognitive Strategy is not effective toward
students vocabulary achievement for the second grade students of MtsN
Kute.

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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

A. Research Design
This study is aimed to find out the effect of Metacognitive Strategy
towards students vocabularyachievement. The study will apply an
experimental research which use statistical analysis. Arikunto (2006: 3) says
experimental is a means to show the corellation cause and effect between
two factors that intentional surface by the researher with eliminate or reduce
another factors that disturb.
This research concludes as quasi-experimental that the researcher
needs to establish regular instruction into two groups. Namely experimental
group and control group. Both groups were treated by using same test (pretest and post-test) and the researcher given treatment for both groups with
different stategies. The experimental group is treated by using linkword or
keyword method and for the control group is treated by using discussion
method.

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In the process of conducting the study, the researcher analyzes the


students vocabulary achievement. In this case, the researcher will give
instruction and prepare a test of vocabulary material. The instruction and the
test are giving two twice to both experimental group and control group. Pretest is given at the first meeting before treating them by using each of the
define stategies for the two groups and post-test will be given to the groups
using the same test after completing the treatment. Then, the researcher
analyzes and compares the result of the test for the two groups to measure
the independent variable.
The research design of the two groups was formulated as follows:
Table: 1. the pre-test and post-test design.
Group
E
C

Pre-test
Y1
Y1

Independent variable
Post-test
X (using linkword strategy) Y2
- (using vocabulary self- Y2
collection strategy)

Where:
E: the experimental group
C: the control group
Y1: pre-test
Y2: post-test
X: the treatment of the experimental group using linkword method
- : the treatment for the control group using discussion method
(Ary, et. al 2002: 308)
B. Population
1. Population
A population is the all of the subject in the research (Arikunto
2006: 130). In this case, the number of population in this study is 78

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students, consist of 3 classes, they are VIII A consist of 25, VIII B


consist of 27, VIII C consist of 26.
2. Sample
Sugiyono (2012: 62) states that sample is part of population or
number of people who are less than number of population.
The sampling technique used in this study is cluster sampling.
According to (Sugiyono, 2012: 65) cluster sampling is atechnique
thatused by the researcher todetermine the samplewhenthe object to
beexaminedorthe datasourceis verywide, for examplethe populationofa
country, provinceor district. After the researcher conducts the cluster
sampling, so the result is A class and B class. After determines the
sample that consist of experiment and control group, the researcher
determines which class will be the experimental group and control
group.
C. Research Instrument
Instrument is the tool or facilities are used by the researchers in
collecting the data so that research more easier and the result isbetter, in the
sense that a more thorough, complete, and systematic so more easily to be
processed. In this study the instrument that the researcher will be use three
instruments, those are: multiple choice test, easay, and text book.
1. Multiple choise test
The researcher will give the students multiple choice test for pre-test
on vocabulary for two groups in the first meeting and post-test on last
meeting.

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Furthermore, the researcher will use 20 items for the test. The
content material of the test is spelling. The score of one question is 1. If the
students wrong one question the score is 0.

2. Easay
The researcher will give the students easay test for pre-test on
vocabulary for two groups in the first meeting and post-test on last meeting.
Furthermore, the researcher used 30 items for the test. The content
materials of the test are meaning and using word. The score of one
question is 2. If the students wrong one question the score is 0.
3. Text
The researcher will give the students text about story at pre-test
and poetry at post-test for student read. Pre-test in the first meeting and
post-test in last meeting for two groups.
Furthermore, the researcher will use 10 items of the key words will
the researcher evaluate student pronounce in the text. The content material
of the test is pronounce. The score of every word are 2 if the students
correct in pronounce and if the students wrong the score is 0.
D. Method of Collecting Data
The data for this research areobtained from the participants of
students inthe second grade of MTsN Kute by the following steps:
1. Pre-test
It is the first step of data gathering that is use by the researcher.
The researcher gives pre-test for both groups experimental and control

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group as the sample of research. Pre-test which is aimed at knowing


thestudents vocabulary achievement, before treating by method.

2. Treatment
In the research the rerearcher give both of group three times for
treatment where for experimental group the researcher teach by using
linkword or keyword method and for the control group the researcher
teach by using discussion method.
3. Post-test
After giving treatment for the experimental group by using
linkwork or keyword method and for the control group by using
discussion method the researcher will give them post-test to know the
ability of the students after teaching by linkword or keyword method and
to know there is or not the effect of Metacognitive strategy after giving
treatment.
E. Data Analysis
To analysis the data, the researcher will apply:
1. Descriptive Statistics
a. Mean
To calculate the main score the researcher will apply the formula as
follow:
-

For experimental group


M X=

X
N

For control group

26

M y=

y
N

Where:

Mx

= the mean score of experimental group

M y = the mean score of control group


x

= the sum of deviation

= the total number of sample


(Sudijono, 2006: 81).

b. Median
N
cfb
2
M e =L+ i
fw

( )

Where:

Me

= the median score of experimental group


=the lower limit of the interval within which the
Median lies

i
cfb

=interval (class width)


= the cumulative frequency in all interval containing
the median

fw

=the frequency of cases within the interval


containing the median
(Arikunto, 2003: 271 in Imran, 2013: 32)

c. Mode
M o=L+i

( f +fi f )
i

Where:
Mo
L

= the mode score of experimental group


=the lower limit of the interval within which the
mode lies

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fi

=the frequency of interval containing mode


reduced by that of previous interval

f2

=the frequency of interval containing mode


reduced by that of following interval
(Arikunto, 2003: 369 in Imran, 2013: 32)

d. Standard deviation
To know standard deviation scores of both group, the researcher
will use the formula as follow:
SD D =

D2 D
N

( )
N

Where:
SDD = Standard Deviation
D

= Deviation

= the Number of Sample

= the Sum of
(Sudijono, 2006: 157 in Imran, 2013: 33).

2. Inferential statistic
According to Sudijono (2010: 278) test "t" or "t" test is one test
used to test the truth or falsity of the null hypothesis stated that the mean
between two samples taken at random from the same population, not
there are significant differences.

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To calculate the row score of experimental and control group to


know the significant of both group after giving the treatment.
To infer the data the writer will apply the t-test, the formula is as follow:
M x M y
t=
X 2 + Y 2 1 + 1
N x + N y 2
Nx N y

)(

Where:
t

= t-test

Mx = the standard deviation score of experimental group


My = the standard deviation score of control group
X2

= the square deviation of experimental group

Y2

= the square deviation of control group

NX

= the number sample of experimental group

Ny

= the number sample of control group

= symbol for summation


(Arikunto, 2010: 311 in Imran, 2013: 22)

To determine the data analysis, the researcher will use software SPSS for
Windows versi 16.00. If the result of t-test > t-tabel for significance 0,05%, it is
mean Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected, and if the result of t-test < t-tabel for
significant 0,05% it is mean Ha is rejected and Ho is accepted.

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