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AGGREGATES

KH4444
ROAD CONSTRUCTION

1.1

INTRODUCTION

Natural rocks as outcrops near surface or gravel deposits along river


streams
Natural igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
Other lightweight (heated clay) and slag
Igneous crystalline, cooling of magma, classified based on grain
size or acidity
Sedimentary deposition of rock residue or inorganic remains,
classification based on predominant mineral calcareous,
siliceous, or argillaceous
Metamorphic rocks subjected to heat an/or pressure >> change
mineral structure, generally crystalline in nature
2

1.1

INTRODUCTION cont..

Gravel breakdown of natural rocks in waterways, smooth,


rounded >> need to be crushed B4 use
Sands the most resistant final residue of rocks, predominantly
quartz, often contain silt or clay >> maybe need to be washed
Slag byproduct of steel, copper or tin, glassy or honeycombed.
Good skid resistance but high absorption
Physical properties important, chemical properties to ensure bonding
Important to sample and test on regular basis to ensure properties
consistent and meet the specification

1.2

AGGREGATE PRODUCTION & SAMPLING

Agg physical characteristic determined by parent rock and production


process
The production process in the quarry can significantly improve the
quality of the aggregate by eliminating of the weaker rocks and by the
effect of crushing on the particle shape and gradation of the agg.
Inferior rock stripped, wasted tru grizzly
Aggregate processing:
Excavation
Transportation
Crushing
Sizing
Washing*
4

1.2.1 Quarry Operations

Basic purpose to remove sound rock from face via blast, then use
crushers, pulverizers, screening to separate into diff. size
Desirable to produce cube shaped not flat or elongated
Operation : remove overburden >> blast (danger) >> transport via
truck to feeder >> grizzly (waste <1) >> jaw >> screen (stockpile) >>
cone >> screen
Primary crusher reduce blasted rock to max size ranging from 8 - 1
Secondary & tertiary reduce to desired size

Stockpiled according to size

1.2.1 Quarry Operations

Four mechanical reduction mechanism impacts, attrition, shearing,


compression (refer figure 3-2 to 3-6)
1. Impact sharp, instantaneous impingement of object against
another (most crushers)
harder rocks use of more compression crushers than impact.
1. Attrition rubbing between two hard surfaces (hammermill,
gyratory, cone)
2. Shear trimming or cleaving action (single roll crusher combine
with other mechanisms)
3. Compression use compressive forces between surfaces (jaw)
Select crusher type based on rock type and production req.
6

1.2.2 Aggregate Sampling

B4 test, sample must be obtained from source random (QC) or


representative (mix design)
Tests are meaningless if improper sampling
Samples taken from stockpile, belts, bins, or truck
Avoid segregated samples (truck, bin) >> best from conveyor
Representative sample - combine random samples truout time/place
Stockpile coarse (bottom edge), climb to mid, take underneath
stockpile, taken at several location >> combine >> representative
Reduce sample prior testing via quartering or splitting
***TEST results depends on technique used

1.2.2 Aggregate Sampling

Why sampling is important?


1. To evaluate the potential quality of a proposed aggregate source.
Does new source meet aggregate specifications?
2. To determine compliance with project specification requirements.
Do current aggregates meet specifications?

1.3

AGGREGATE PROPERTIES

Physical properties is primary concern


Physical (density, porosity, strength) and chemical (wetting,
adhesion, stripping) are functions of composition and structure of
minerals in aggregate

1.3.1 Aggregate Mineralogy

Composed of minerals silica, feldspar, ferromagnesian, carbonate


and clay
Mineral composition also affect skid resistance quartz and feldspar
Presence of surface coating and deleterious substance affect
bonding and moisture susceptibility
Most important effect of mineralogy its influence on adhesion and
moisture damage (carbonate bonds better than siliceous)
9

1.4

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF AGGREGATES

Classification by size:
1. Coarse Aggregate
Retained on 4.75 mm (No. 4)
Retained on 2.38 mm (No. 8)
Retained on 2.00 mm (No. 10)

ASTM D692
Asphalt Institute
HMA Book

2. Fine Aggregate
Passing on 4.75 mm (No. 4)
Passing on 2.38 mm (No. 8)

ASTM D1073
Asphalt Institute

3. Mineral Filler
At least 70% passed 75 m

ASTM D242
10

For HMA need to be hard/tough/strong, durable/sound,


properly graded; consist of cubical, low WA; and have
clean, rough, and hydrophobic surfaces
Suitability for HMA determined by evaluating gradation,
cleanliness, toughness, soundness, surface texture,
particle shape, WA, and affinity
Characteristics, significant, tests and specification (T 3-6)
JKR/SPJ/1988 toughness, soundness, shape, WA,
polishing, cleanliness, gradation, affinity

11

1.4.1 Toughness/Abrasion Resistance

Agg transmit wheel load tru internal friction >> must


be abrasion, polishing, disintegration and crushing
resistant.
Agg undergo all this during manufacturing, placing,
construction and service life.
Tests involved ACV, LAAV
ACV 30, LAAV < 40

12

1.4.2 Durability and Soundness


Estimates resistance to weathering (breakdown and
disintegration) Soundness Test
* Simulates freeze/thaw action by successively wetting and
drying aggregate in sodium sulfate or magnesium
sulfate solution
+ One immersion and drying is considered one cycle
* Result is total percent loss over various sieve intervals for
a prescribed number of cycles
+ Max. loss values typically range from 10 to 20% per
5 cycles (depends on aggregate)
13

1.4.3 Particle Shape & Surface Texture

Cubical not flat or elongated shape (angular better interlock


and internal friction), rough texture increase bond with AC.

Tests particle index (ms 106 - time consuming), fractured


face, EI & FI

JKR/SPJ/1988 specifies material shall be crushed rock, or


crushed gravel, or mixture of crushed and natural
aggregates, which is hard, durable
Flaky 30, Fracture face 80%

14

1.4.4 Cleanliness & Deleterious Materials

Absence of foreign or deleterious material.


Tests sand equivalent, clay lumps, PI
JKR/SPJ/1988 aggregate shall be . clean and
essentially free from clay and any deleterious materials
PI 6
Clean?,
deleterious?

15

1.4.5 Specific Gravity

Ratio weight of mat. to water of equal volume at 23C, useful


in making weight-vol conversion
In metric units, G simply:
G = weight / vol
Four Gs apparent, bulk, effective, bulk impregnated: (F 3-9)
1. Apparent weight / vol solid Dry
2. Bulk weight / overall vol SSD
3. Effective weight / (overall vol asp asorb. pores)
4. Bulk impregnated eff. but immerse in asphalt
Gsb < Gse < Gsa
16

1.4.5 Specific Gravity, cont

G and absorption of coarse & fine


Weighted G, aggregate of various sizes/stockpiles
P1 + P2 + + Pn
G = P1 + P2 + + Pn
G1 + G2 + + G n
Example 3 -1 and 3 2, pages 114 -117

17

1.4.6 Gradation

Distribution of particle sizes expressed as a percentage of total


weight (total % passing various sieve sizes)
Determined by sieve analysis
Graphically presented on semi-log graph
3 gradations : well (dense), uniform (single), gap graded (F 3-10)
Gradation affect stiffness, stability, durability, permeability, workability,
fatigue, skid, and moisture damage resistance >> limits on the agg
gradation to be used in HMA
HMA need to have sufficient air voids in grading mix for durability (permits
enough AC to be incorporated) and avoid bleeding and rutting (yet
still have enough air space in mixture)

18

1.4.8 Gradation, cont

Two designation for max size


1. Max size smallest sieve tru which 100% particles pass
2. Nominal max size largest sieve retain some agg (<10%)
Mix designations in spec typically use nominal max size
Maximum size considerations
Most spec for HMA require well-graded, with middle portion approx
parallel to max density line
Expected problems when gradations outside limits (F3-13)
Gradation tolerances Malaysian refer JKR/SPJ/1988 Table 4-11

19

Sieve Analysis

To determine gradation dry sieve and washed-sieve


Washed more accurate but dry faster and often used
(measured amount passing 75 m lower)
Example 3-3 pg 122

20

Aggregate Blending

Two or more stockpile need to be blended to get max density and


desired void for HMA (or meet spec envelope)
Reasons for blending:
1. Obtain desired gradation
2. Single natural or quarried material not enough
3. Economical to combine natural and processed materials
Normally three or more stockpiles plus mineral filler
Most common method for determining proportion trial & error
Example 3-4 and 3-5
Blended aggregate specific gravity

21

Questions?

22

Igneous Rock

23

Sedimentary Rock

24

Metamorphic Rock

25

Gravel, Sand, Slag

26

Simplified Crusher Set-up

27

Blasting

28

Impact (F3-2)

29

Impact and Attrition (F3-4)


Hammermill

30

Shear, Impact and Compression (F3-5)


Single-roll Crusher

31

Compression and Impact (F3-6)


Jaw

32

Excavation

Natural sands and gravels 2 sources, underwater


and land
1. Underwater sources lakes and river
Use barge-mounted dredges, draglines,
scoops, conveyors or pumps
Relatively clean
2. Land sources gravel or sand pits
Use bucket loaders and back hoes

33

Excavation

34

Excavation

Crushed stone and rock


1. Rock depths < 50, overburden washed out during
processing
2. Rock depths > 50, remove overburden (soil stripped
with bulldozers and scrapers
Blasting required

35

Excavation

36

Crushing

37

Crushing
Partially Crushed
River Gravel

River Gravel

Crushed Rock

38

Land Transportation

39

Rail Transportation

40

Barge / Water
Transportation

41

Sizing

42

Stockpiling
* Prevent segregation and contamination
* Good stockpiling = uniform gradations
-

Short drop distances


Minimize moving
Don't use "single cone" method
Separate stockpiles

43

Stockpiling

44

Sampling from Stockpile

Sampling from Fine


Aggregate Stockpile

45

Sampling from Conveyor

46

Splitter

47

Classification based on Surface Charges


F3-7

48

Characteristics & Tests of Aggregate for HMA


Characteristics

Test

Malaysian Requirement

Hardness/Toughness MS-30, ASTM C131

ACV < 30, LAAV < 40

Soundness

AASHTO T104

Loss < 12%

Shape & Texture

MS-30

FI < 30, > 80% fracture

Polishing resistance

MS-30

PSV > 40

Stripping resistance

AASHTO T182

Coated > 95%

SG and WA

MS-30

WA < 2%

Gradation and size

BS 1377

Minimum & maximum


depends on use & mix

Cleanliness &
deleterious material

BS 1377

Free from dust, clay,


vegetative and organic, and
deleterious substances
PI < 6%
49

Toughness
* Aggregate Crushing Value (MS 30: Part 8: 1995)
Relative measure of the resistance of an aggregate to
crushing under a gradually applied compressive load
Test specimen compacted into steel cylinder
subjected to load applied tru plunger.
Degree of crushing assessed by sieving test and
taken as a measure of aggregate crushing value
(ACV)
50

ACV

51

Abrasion Resistance
* Los Angeles Abrasion (AASHTO T96, ASTM C131):
Resistance of coarse agg to abrasion and
mechanical degradation during handling,
construction and use
* Aggregate at standard gradation subjected to
damage by rolling with prescribed number of steel
balls in large drum for a given number of rotations
* Result expressed as % changes in original weight

52

LA Abrasion Test

- Approx. 10% loss for extremely hard igneous rocks


- Approx. 60% loss for soft limestones and sandstones
53

Soundness
(AASHTO T 104)

54

Soundness

Before

After
55

Flakiness & Elongation

56

Flakiness & Elongation

(MS 30)

57

Clay Content
(Sand Equivalent Test)
* ASHTO T176, ASTM D2419

- Used to estimate the relative proportions


of fine agg. and clay-like or plastic fines
and dust.
SE =

Sand Reading
x 100
Clay Reading

Flocculating
Solution
Clay Reading
Sand
Reading

Suspended
Clay
Sedimented
Aggregate

58

Bottle of Solution on Shelf


Above Top of Cylinder
Hose and
Irrigation Tube

Measurement Rod

59

Marker on Measurement Rod

Top of Suspended Material


Top of Sand Layer

60

Clay Lumps and Friable Particles


ASTM C 142

Clay and friable particles may cause stripping, pitting


and affect durability
Normally removed during crushing operation at
grizzly or washing
1. Washed and dried a given mass of aggregate
2. Soaks for 24 hrs
3. Rubs each particle
4. Performs washed sieve over several screens
5. Dries the aggregate
6. Report percent loss as % of clay and friable
particles
61

Plasticity Index
ASTM D4318

Difference between LL and PL of material passing 42


m
PI is measure of degree of plasticity of fines, can
indirectly indicate amount and type of plastic fines

62

Specific Gravity, G
Ratio of the mass to volume of an
object to that of water at the same
temperature

Mass Solid
Volume
G=

Mass Water
Volume

63

Densities
Density is the unit weight of a material
lb/ft3 or kg/m3
Unit weight = g w G

gw = 1.000 g/cm3

gw = 62.4 lb/ft3

gw = 1000 kg/m3

Bulk density means sample contains


more than one mass and/or volume 64

Apparent Specific Gravity

Mass of oven dry agg


Gsa =
Vol of agg
65

Bulk Specific Gravity


Surface Voids

Gsb =

Mass of oven dry agg


Vol of agg, + perm. pores

Vol. of water-perm. pores

66

Effective Specific Gravity


Mass oven dry agg

Gs, eff =

Vol of agg, + perm. pores not absorb. asphalt

Surface Voids

Solid Agg.
Particle

Vol. of water-perm. voids


not filled with asphalt
Absorbed asphalt
67

Phase Diagram (F 3-9)


Phase: a change in state (e.g. solid, liquid, gas)
Oven dry weight of agg = Ws
Unit weight of water, gw = 1 g/cm3
Vpp

Vap
Vpp - Vap

Water
permeable
pores

Gsa = Ws / (Vs x gw )
Vs

Aggregate
Solids

Gsb = Ws / (Vs + Vpp) gw


Gse = Ws / (Vs + Vpp -Vap) gw

68

Specific Gravity Tests for


Aggregates

Two tests are needed:


1. Coarse aggregate (retained on the 4.75
mm sieve)
2. Fine aggregate (passing the 4.75 mm
sieve)

69

Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity

ASTM C127
1. Dry aggregate
2. Soak in water for 24 hours
3. Decant water
4. Use pre-dampened towel to get SSD
condition
5. Determine mass of SSD aggregate
6. Determine mass under water
7. Dry to constant mass
8. Determine oven dry mass

70

Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity

71

Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity

72

Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity


Calculations
Gsb = A / (B - C)
A = mass oven dry
B = mass SSD
C = mass under water

Gsa = A / (A - C)
Water absorption, %
Absorption % = [(B - A) / A] * 100

73

Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity

ASTM C128
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

7.
8.

Dry aggregate
Soak in water for 24 hours
Spread out and dry to SSD
Add 500 g of SSD aggregate to pycnometer of known
volume
Pre-filled with some water
Add more water and agitate until air bubble have been
removed
Fill to line and determine the mass of the pycnometer,
aggregate and water
Empty aggregate into pan and dry to constant mass
Determine oven dry mass
74

Fine Aggregate Specific


Gravity

75

Fine Aggregate Specific


Gravity

76

Fine Aggregate Specific


Gravity

77

Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity


Calculations
Gsb = A / (B + D - C)

A = mass oven dry


B = mass of pycnometer filled with water
C = mass pycnometer, SSD aggregate and water
D = mass SSD aggregate

Gsa = A / (B + A - C)
Water absorption, %
Absorption % = [(D - A) / A] * 100

78

Types of Gradations
1. Well graded (dense)

Good interlock
Low permeability

2. Uniformly graded (single size)


Few points of contact
Poor interlock (shape dependent)
High permeability

3. Gap graded

Only limited sizes


Good interlock
Low permeability
79

Aggregate Gradations
100
90
80
70

Gap-graded

60

(open)

50

Uniformly graded

40

(single-size)
30
20

Well-graded

10

(dense)

0
0.01

0.1

10

100

80

Aggregate Gradation
Use 0.45 Power Gradation Chart
Blend Size Definitions
maximum size
nominal maximum size

Gradation Limits
control points
restricted zone

81

0.45 Power Grading Chart


Percent Passing
100
80
60

Example:

40

5.00 mm sieve plots at (5.00)0.45 = 2.25

20
0
0

Sieve Size (mm) Raised to 0.45 Power


82

0.45 Power Grading Chart


Percent Passing
100

80

max
size

60
40
20

maximum density line

0
0 .075 .3 .6 1.18 2.36

4.75

9.5 12.5

19.0

Sieve Size (mm) Raised to 0.45 Power


83

Aggregate Size Definitions


100
100
90
72
65
48
36
22
15
9
4

Nominal Maximum Aggregate


Size
one size larger than the first sieve
to retain more than 10%

Maximum Aggregate Size


one size larger than nominal
maximum size

100
99
89
72
65
48
36
22
15
9
4
84

Gradations Considerations
Considerations:

Max. size < 1/2 lift thickness


Larger max size:1. Increase strength
2. Improve skid resistance
3. Increase volume and surface area of agg which
decreases required AC content
4. Improve rut resistance
5. Increase problem with segregation of particles
Smaller max size:1. Reduces segregation
2. Reduces road noise
3. Decreases tire wear
85

Expected Problems

86

T 4.11 Tolerances for Asphaltic Concrete Mixes


JKR/SPJ/1988
Parameter

Permissible Variation
(% by weight of total mix)

Bitumen

0.2 %

Fraction of combined agg.


passing 5 mm and larger sieves

5.0 %

Fraction of combined agg.


passing 3.35 mm and 1.18 mm
Fraction of combined agg.
passing 425 m and 150 m
Fraction of combined agg.
passing 75 m sieve

4.0 %
3.0 %
2.0 %
87

Restricted Zone
Percent Passing
100
max density line

restricted zone
control point

.075

.3

2.36

4.75

9.5

nom
max
size

max
size

12.5

19.0

Sieve Size (mm) Raised to 0.45 Power


88

Superpave Aggregate Gradation


Percent Passing
100

Design Aggregate Structure


0

.075 .3

2.36

12.5

19.0

Sieve Size (mm) Raised to 0.45 Power


89

Superpave Mix Size


Designations
Superpave
Designation
37.5 mm
25 mm
19 mm
12.5 mm
9.5 mm

Nom Max Size


(mm)
37.5
25
19
12.5
9.5

Max Size
(mm)
50
37.5
25
19
12.5
90

Target Gradation
Acceptable gradation band specified
Mix design selects a job mix formula (JMF) which falls
within band and meets design criteria
Superpave
5 nominal sizes (37.5, 25, 19, 12.5, and 9.5 mm)
Four sieve sizes used to set upper and lower limits
Staying out of the restricted zone in suggested to minimize
problems with natural sands

91

Washed sieve analysis


Part 1 - Washing
1. Dry aggregate and determine mass
2. Wash and decant water through 0.075 mm sieve
until water is clear
3. Dry aggregate to a constant mass
Part 2 - Sieving
1. Place dry aggregate in standard stack of sieves
2. Place sieve stack in mechanical shaker
3. Determine mass of aggregate retained on each
sieve
Part 3 - Computation
1. Add mass washed into mass passing 0.075 mm
2. Calculate percent passing as usual
92

Washed Sieve

93

Mechanical Sieve

Individual Sieve

Stack of Sieves
94

Mechanical Sieve

Stack in
Mechanical
Shaker

95

Blending Stockpiles
Basic formula for combining stockpiles to
achieve a target gradation is:
p = Aa + Bb + Cc + .
where:
p

= percent of material passing given sieve


size for the combined agg
A, B, C, .. = percent passing given sieve for each agg.
a, b, c, = proportion (decimal fraction) of A, B, C,
to be used in blend, a + b + c + = 1.00

96

Blending Stockpiles
1. Plot individual gradations
2. Plot specification limits
3. Can be used for initial assessment
Can blend be made from available
materials?
Identification of critical sieves
Estimate trial proportions

Possible outcome (F 3-15)


97

All possible combinations fall between A and B


Control points for
12. 5 nominal max. size

Percent Passing, %
100
90

Gradation B

80
70
60
50
Gradation A

40
30
20
10
0
0.075 0.3

1 .18

4.75

9.5

12.5

19

Sieve Size, mm
98

No poss. combination of A and B will meet spec.


Percent Passing, %
100
90

Gradation B

Gradation A

80
70
60

Control points for


12. 5 nominal max. size

50
40

30
20
10
0
0.075 0.3

1 .18

4.75

9.5

12.5

19

Sieve Size, mm
99

All poss. combinations pass through cross-over point


Blends containing more A than B will be closer to A
Percent Passing, %
Gradation A

100
90
80
70
60

Gradation B

50
40

30
20
10

Control points for


12. 5 nominal max. size

0
0.075 0.3

1 .18

4.75

9.5

12.5

19

Sieve Size, mm
100

Trial and Error

Aided by experience and plots of indiv. gradation


curves and spec limits
Calculated grading compared with spec adjust
until pass
Guided by reasoning, maths, experience
Use of spreadsheet now common
Steps in trial and error:
1. Select critical sieves in blend
2. Determine initial proportions which will meet
critical sieves
3. Check calc. blend against specification
4. Adjust if necessary and repeat above steps
101

Blending of Aggregates
Material

Agg. A

Agg. B
Blend Target

% Used
U.S. Sieve

%
Passing

3/8
No. 4
No. 8
No. 16
No. 30
No. 50
No. 100

100
90
30
7
3
1
0

100
100
100
88
47
32
24

No. 200

10

%
Batch

%
Passing

%
Batch

102

Blending of Aggregates
Material

Agg. A

Agg. B

% Used

50 %

50 %

U.S. Sieve

%
Passing

%
Batch

%
Passing

3/8
No. 4
No. 8
No. 16
No. 30
No. 50
No. 100

100
90
30
7
3
1
0

50
45
15
3.5
1.5
0.5
0

100
100
100
88
47
32
24

No. 200

First Try
(remember trial & error)

Blend Target

%
Batch

100 * 0.5 = 50
90 * 0.5 = 45
30 * 0.5 = 15
7 * 0.5 = 3.5
3 * 0.5 = 1.5
1 * 0.5 = 0.5
0 * 0.5 = 0

10 0

* 0.5 = 0

100
80 - 100
65 - 100
40 - 80
20 - 65
7 - 40
3 - 20

2 - 10
103

Blending of Aggregates
Material

Agg. A

Agg. B

% Used

50 %

50 %

U.S. Sieve

%
Passing

%
Batch

3/8
No. 4
No. 8
No. 16
No. 30
No. 50
No. 100

100
90
30
7
3
1
0

50
45
15
3.5
1.5
0.5
0

No. 200

%
Passing

Blend Target

%
Batch

100
50
100
50
Lets Try
100
50
and get
88
44
a little closer
47the middle
23.5of
to
32target values.
16
the
24
12
10

100
95
65
47.5
25
16.5
12

100
80 - 100
65 - 100
40 - 80
20 - 65
7 - 40
3 - 20

2 - 10
104

Blending of Aggregates
Material

Agg. A

Agg. B

% Used

30 %

70 %

Blend Target

U.S. Sieve

%
Passing

%
Batch

%
Passing

%
Batch

3/8
No. 4
No. 8
No. 16
No. 30
No. 50
No. 100

100
90
30
7
3
1
0

30
27
9
2.1
0.9
0.3
0

100
100
100
88
47
32
24

70
70
70
61.6
32.9
22.4
16.8

100
97
79
63.7
33.8
22.7
16.8

100
80 - 100
65 - 100
40 - 80
20 - 65
7 - 40
3 - 20

No. 200

10

2 - 10
105

Blended Aggregate Specific


Gravities
Once the percentages of the stockpiles have
been established, the combined aggregate
specific gravities can also be calculated
100
Combined G =

P1
G1

P2 + . Pn
G2

Gn

106