Electrical engineering
LAB MANUAL
Website :http://www.cjits.org/
Ph no : 08716 202101
E mail id :cjits68@yahoo.co.in
Fax No:
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
Year/Semester
II/II
Branch
ECE
PREFACE
The manual uses the plan, cogent and simple language to explain the fundamental
aspects of Electrical Engineering Lab in practical. The manual prepared very
carefully with our level best. It gives all the steps in executing an experiment.
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INDEX
Page no
PARTA
1113
6
7
1418
1924
2529
3032
3338
3941
PARTB
8
9
10
11
4247
4853
5962
5458
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS
12
13
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T/P/D C
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SAFETY RULES
electricalequipment and followsafety practices in the laboratory. (Electricity is a good servant but
a bad master).
3. Avoid direct contact with any voltage source and power line voltages. (Otherwise, any such contact
may subject you to electricalshock)
4.Wear rubbersoled shoes. (To insulate you from earth so that even if you accidentally contact a live
point, current will not flow through your body to earth and hence you will be protected from
electricalshock)
5. Wear laboratorycoat and avoid loose clothing. (Loose clothing may get caught on an
equipment/instrument and this may lead to an accident particularly if the equipment happens to be a
rotating machine)
6. Girl students should have their hair tucked under their coat or have it in a knot.
7. Do not wear any metallic rings, bangles, bracelets, wristwatches and neck chains. (When you move
your hand/body, such conducting items may create a short circuit or may touch a live point and thereby
subject you toelectricalshock)
8. Be certain that your hands are dry and that you are not standing on wet floor. (Wet parts of the body
reduce the contact resistance thereby increasing the severity of the shock)
9. Ensure that the power is OFF before you start connecting up the circuit.(Otherwise you will be
touching the live parts in the circuit)
10. Get your circuit diagram approved by the staff member and connect up the circuit strictly as per the
approved circuit diagram.
11. Check power chords for any sign of damage and be certain that the chords use safetyplugs and do
not defeat the safety feature of these plugs by using ungrounded plugs.
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12. When using connection leads, check for any insulation damage in the leads and avoid such
defective leads.
13. Do not defeat anysafety devices such as fuse or circuit breaker by shorting across it. Safety
devices protect YOU and your equipment.
14. Switch on the power to your circuit and equipment only after getting them checked up and
approved by the staff member.
15. Take the measurement with one hand in your pocket. (To avoid shock in case you accidentally touch
two points at different potentials with your two hands)
16. Do not make any change in the connection without the approval of the staff member.
17. In case you notice any abnormal condition in your circuit ( like insulation heating up, resistor heating
up etc ), switch off the power to your circuit immediately and inform the staff member.
18. Keep hot soldering iron in the holder when not in use.
19. After completing the experiment show your readings to the staff member and switch off the power
to your circuit after getting approval from the staff member.
20.Some students have been found to damage meters by mishandling in the following ways:
i.
ii.
Keeping unnecessary material like books, lab records, unused meters etc. causing
meters to fall down the table.
Putting pressure on the meter (specially glass) while making connections or while talking
or listening somebody.
STUDENTS ARE STRICTLY WARNED THAT FULL COST OF THE METER WILL BE RECOVERED
FROM THE INDIVIDUAL WHO HAS DAMAGED IT IN SUCH A MANNER.
Copy these rules in your Lab Record. Observe these yourself and
help your friends to observe...
I have read and understand these rules and procedures. I agree to abide by these
rules and procedures at all times while using these facilities. I understand that failure to
follow these rules and procedures will result in my immediate dismissal from the
laboratory and additional disciplinary action may be taken.
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The laboratory notebook is a record of all work pertaining to the experiment. This record should be
sufficiently complete so that you or anyone else of similar technical background can duplicate the
experiment and data by simply following your laboratory notebook. Record everything directly into the
notebook during the experiment. Do not use scratch paper for recording data. Do not trust your
memory to fill in the details at a later time.
Organization in your notebook is important. Descriptive headings should be used to separate and identify
the various parts of the experiment. Record the data in chronological order. A neat, organized and
complete record of an experiment is just as important as the experimental work.
1. Heading:
The experiment identification (number) should be at the top of each page. Your name and date
should be at the top of the first page of each day's experimental work.
2.Object:
A brief but complete statement of what you intend to find out or verify in the experiment
should be at the beginning of each experiment
3. Diagram:
A circuit diagram should be drawn and labeled so that the actual experiment circuitry could be
easily duplicated at any time in the future. Be especially careful to record all circuit changes made
during the experiment.
4. Equipment List:
List those items of equipment which have a direct effect on the accuracy of the data. It may be
necessary later to locate specific items of equipment for rechecks if discrepancies develop in the results.
5. Procedure:
In general, lengthy explanations of procedures are unnecessary. Be brief. Short commentaries
alongside the corresponding data may be used. Keep in mind the fact that the experiment must be
reproducible from the information given in your notebook.
6. Data:
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Think carefully about what data is required and prepare suitable data tables.Record
instrument readings directly. Do not use calculated results in place of direct data; however,
calculated results may be recorded in the same table with the direct data. Data tables should be clearly
identified and each data column labeled and headed by the proper units of measure.
7. Calculations:
Not always necessary but equations and sample calculations are often given to illustrate the
treatment of the experimental data in obtaining the results.
8. Graphs:
Graphs are used to present large amounts of data in a concise visual form. Data to be
presented in graphical form should be plotted in the laboratory so that any questionable data points
can be checked while the experiment is still set up. The grid lines in the notebook can be used for most
graphs. If special graph paper is required, affix the graph permanently into the notebook. Give all
graphs a short descriptive title. Label and scale the axes. Use units of measure. Label each curve
if more than one on a graph.
9. Results:
The results should be presented in a form which makes the interpretation easy. Large amounts
of numerical results are generally presented in graphical form. Tables are generally used for small
amounts of results. Theoretical and experimental results should be on the same graph or arrange in the
same table in a way for easy correlation of these results.
10. Conclusion:
This is your interpretation of the results of the experiment as an engineer. Be brief and
specific. Give reasons for important discrepancies.
CJITS
V22 MC
_
+
V
MC
_
V3 MC
+
_
V
+
+
VS
VS
_ MC
Fig1
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OFKCL:
A2MC
R2
A1MC
_
+
A
R1
A
_
1 __
A3MC
1
R3
+
VS
A
A
1
Fig1
CJITS
1.
Multimeter
2.
Ammeter MC
3.
Connecting wires
Range
Type
Quantity
as per need
PROCEDURE:
KVL: (1) Set the rheostats to given resistance values with the multimeter.
(2) Make connections as for diagram
(3) Verify the connections to the lab instructor.
(4) Switch on the DC supply with the help of DPST.
(5) Note down all meter readings, the sum of VI, V2 and V3 must be equal to the Vs.
KCL: (1) Set the rheostats to given resistance values with the multimeter.
(2) Make connections as for diagram
(3) Verify the connections to the lab instructor.
(4) Switch on the DC supply with the help of DPST.
(5) Note down all meter readings, the sum of A2 and A3 must be equal to the A1.
CALCULATIONS:11
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RESULT:
CJITS
Function
generato
r
Fig1
Ip
A
Function
generato
r
Fig2
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APPARATUS:
S.No
1.
Multimeter
2.
3.
Connecting wires
Range
Type
Quantity
as per need
THEORY:
In a series RLC circuit. The current lags behind or leads the applied voltage depending upon the
values of XL and Xc. XL causes the total current to lag behind the applied voltage while Xc
causes the total current to lead the applied voltage.When XL >Xc the circuit is predominantly
inductive, and when XL <Xc the circuit is predominantly capacitive. In the series RLC circuit
resonance may be produced by varying the frequency keeping L and C constant. Otherwise
resonance may be produced by varying either L or C for fixed frequency .Parallel resonance
occurs when XL = Xc. when XL = Xc the two branch currents are equal in magnitude and 180
deg out of phase with each other .Hence two currents cancel each other and net current is zero.
THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:
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PROCEDURE:
SERIES RESONANCE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the fig (1)
2. Apply a fixed voltage through function generator to the circuit.
3. The frequency of the signal is varied in steps and note down corresponding ammeter reading as Is.
observe that current is maximum at resonant frequency.
4. Draw a graph between frequency f and current Is .Mark Resonant frequency and
Current at half power frequencies.
Q
f0
f 2 f1
graph.
6. Compare practical values of resonant frequency, Qfactor and Bandwidth with theoretical values.
PARALLEL RESONANCE:
f0
f 2 f1
graph.
6. Compare practical values of resonant frequency, Qfactor and Bandwidth with theoretical values.
Parallel resonance
S.No.
Frequency (f)
Current(Is)
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OBSERVATION
S: Series
S.No.
resonance
Frequency (f)
Current(Is)
MODEL GRAPH:
IS
I m ax
I m ax
2
f1
MODEL GRAPH:
fo
f2
IP
2I m in
I m in
f1
fo
f2
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RESULT TABLE:
Series Resonance
Parallel Resonance
Theoretical
Theoretical
Practical
Practical
Resonant frequency
Bandwidth
Qfactor
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid making loose connections.
2. Readings should be taken carefully without parallax error.
3. Avoid series connection of voltmeters and parallel connection ammeters.
RESULT:
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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:_
R2
R2
VV
+
Vs1
Vs2
+
Fig1
A
I1
+
Vs1
V2
+
Fig2
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V1
+
+
_
_
_
V
R2
+
A
I2
V2
+
Fig3
A
I1
+
Vs1
R2
AV
I2
+
Fig4
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CALCULATION OF Y22ANDY12 :
I1
+
+
_
_
_
A
R2
+
A
I2
V2
+
Fig5
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AIM: To obtain experimentally Z,Y parameters, ABCD and Hybrid parameters of a given two port
network.
APPARATUS:
S.No.
Volt meter
Ammeter
Rheostat
Digital Multimeter
Range
Type
Quantity
PROCEDURE:
1. Open Circuiting Output Terminals (I2 = 0):
Connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in fig (1). Output terminals are kept
Open via a voltmeter. Supply is given to input port. Note the readings of ammeter as I1and Voltmeter
as V2.
2. Short circuiting output terminals (V2 = 0):
Connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in fig (2). Output terminals are short circuited
via an ammeter. Supply is given to input port. Note the readings of ammeters as I1 andI2.
3. Open circuiting input terminals (I1= 0):
Connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in fig (3). Input terminals are kept open via a
voltmeter. Supply is given to output terminals. Note the readings of ammeter as I2 and voltmeter as V1.
CJITS
5. Calculate Z, Y, ABCD, Hybrid parameters using formulae and verify them with theoretical values.
OBSERVATIONS:
When I1=0
When I2=0
V1
I2
V2
V1
I1
V2
V1
I1
I2
S.No.
S.No.
When V1=0
When V2=0
I2
I1
V2
S.No.
S.No.
RESULT TABLE:
Z Parameters
Z11
Z12
Y Parameters
Z21
Z22
Y11
Y12
Y21
Y22
Theoretical
Practical
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ABCD Parameters
A
Hybrid Parameters
D
h11
h12
h21
h22
Theoretical
Practical
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid making loose connections.
2. Readings should be taken carefully without parallax error.
3. Avoid series connection of voltmeters and parallel connection ammeters.
RESULT:
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1.
Ammeter
2.
Rheostats
3.
DC Power Supply
4.
Multimeter
5.
Connecting wires
Range
Type
Quantity
THEORY:
i.e. While considering the effect of individual sources, the other ideal voltage
sources and ideal current sources in the network are replaced by short circuit and open
circuit across the terminals. This theorem is valid only for linear systems.
RECIPROCITY THEOREM STATEMENT
In any linear bilateral network containing the response at any branch (or) transformation ratio is
same even after interchanging the sources is V/ I1 = V/ I2
THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:
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PROCEDURE:
SUPERPOSITION THEOREM:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig (1)
2. Current through load resistor is noted as IX by applying both the voltages V1 and V2 through RPS.
3. Make the supply voltage V2 short circuited and apply V1 as shown in fig (2) and note down the current
through load resistor as IY.
4. Make the supply voltageV1 short circuited and apply V2 as shown in fig (3) and note down the current
through load resistor as IZ.
5. Now verify that IX = IY + IZtheoretically and practically which proves Superposition theorem
RECIPROCITY THEOREM:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig (1)
2. From fig (2) of Superposition theorem note down I2=IY.
3. Now interchange the source and ammeter as in fig (4).
4. Note down the ammeter reading as I1.
5. Now verify thatVs/ I1 = Vs/ I2theoretically and practically which proves reciprocity theorem.
Observations:
When both the sources are acting:
V1
V2
Theoretical
Practical
IX
IX
V1
V2
Theoretical
Practical
IZ
IZ
V1
V2
Theoretically
Practical I
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I2
Practical values
Vs/ I2
I2
Vs/ I2
I1
Practical values
Vs/ I1
I1
Vs/ I1
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid making loose connections.
2. Readings should be taken carefully without parallax error.
3. Avoid series connection of voltmeters and parallel connection ammeters.
RESULT:
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CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:
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APPARATUS :
S.No
1.
Ammeter
2.
Voltmeter
Rheostats
4.
DC Power Supply
5.
Multimeter
6.
6.
Connecting wires
Range
Type
Quantity
THEORY:
THEOREM STATEMENT
It states that the maximum power is transferred from the source to the load, when the load
resistance is equal to the source resistance.
THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:
PROCEDURE:
Make the connections as shown in fig (1).
By varying RL in steps, note down the reading of ammeter IL in each step.
Connect the circuit as shown in fig (2), measure the effective resistance Rth.with the help of digital
multimeter.
Calculate power delivered to load PL in each step.
Draw a graph PLVsRL and find the RL corresponding to maximum power from it.Verify that
RLcorresponding to maximum power from the graph is equal to the Rth( which is nothing but source
resistance RS).
MODEL GRAPH
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PL
Pm
RL corresponding to Pm
RL
OBSERVATIONS:
Tabular column:
Theoretical values
S.No
Practical values
RL
IL
PL= IL2RL
IL
PL= IL2RL
MODEL CALCULATIONS:
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid making loose connections.
2. Readings should be taken carefully without parallax error.
3. Avoid series connection of voltmeters and parallel connection of ammeters.
RESULT:
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R3
+
A
R2
Vs
RL
+
Fig1(Original circuit)
R3
R1
R2
DM
M
RL
+
R1
_
V
R2
Vs
_
Vth
R3
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R1
CJITS
R2
Vs
_
RL
+
Fig3 (FindingIL)
R1
R3
_
A
R2
Vs
_
Isc
+
Fig4 (Finding Isc)
Rth
RL
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+
Vth
+
Fig5 Circuit diagram for Thevenins equivalent circuit.
+
IN
Rth
RL
A

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APPARATUS:
S.No
1.
Ammeter
2.
Voltmeter
3.
Rheostats
4.
DC Power Supply
5.
Digital Multimeter
6.
Connecting wires
Range
Type
Quantity
THEORY:
STATEMENT OF THEVENINS THEOREM:
Any two terminal linear bilateral network containing of energy sources and impedances can be
replaced with an equivalent circuit consisting of voltage source Vthin series with an impedance, Zth.,
where Vthis the open circuit voltage between the load terminals and Zthis the impedance measured
between the terminals with all the energy sources replaced by their internal impedances.
STATEMENT OF NORTONS THEOREM:
Any two terminal linear bilateral network containing of energy sources and impedances can be
replaced with an equivalent circuit consisting of current source IN in parallel with an admittance, YN.,
where IN is the short circuit current through the load terminals and YNis the admittance measured
between the terminals with all the energy sources replaced by their internal admittance.
CALCULATIONS:(i)
For RthAs for the circuit diagram, fig2, Resisters R1 and R2are in parallel so effective
Resistance
Rp = R1 R2 R1 + R2 .
CJITS
(ii) For Vth  As for the circuit diagram, fig3, Resisters R1 and R2 are in series so total
Resistance
As for the circuit diagram, fig1, Resisters R3 and RLare in series so effective
Resistance
Rse = R3 +RL .
Rp = Rse R2 Rse + R2 .
(iv) For Isc or IN  As for the circuit diagram, fig4, Resisters R2 and R3are in parallel so effective
Resistance
Rp = R2 R3 R2 + R3 .
Tabulation
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Rth
Vth
Theoretical Practical
Theoretical Practical
IL
Theoretical Practical
Theoretical Practical
IL
Theoretical
Isc or IN
Theoretical
Practical
Practical
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid making loose connections.
2. Readings should be taken carefully with out parallax error.
3. Avoid series connection of voltmeters and parallel connection ammeters.
RESULT:
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Circuit diagram:
3 point starter
A
F
L
DPST Switch
DPST Switch
+
+
400/
1.7A
230 V
DC
Supply
(0300)V
MC
A
M
AA
+
V
A
A
A
(02)A
MC
DC
Exciter
G
M
AA
FF
FF
Fuse
Fuse
Aim: To conduct an experiment on a D.C shunt generator and draw the magnetization characteristics
(OCC) and to determine the critical field resistance and critical speed.
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Apparatus:
S. No
Apparatus
Voltmeter
Ammeter
Rheostats
Tachometer
Type
Range
Qty
Theory:
Open circuit characteristics or magnetization curve is the graph between the generated emf
and field current of a dc shunt generator. For field current is equal to zero there will be residual
voltage of 10 to 12V because of the residual magnetism present in the machine .If this is absent
there the machine can not build up voltage to obtain residual magnetism the machine is separately
excited by a dc source from OCC we can get critical field resistance and critical speed.
Critical field resistance: It is the resistance above which the machine cannot build up emf.
Critical speed: It is the speed below which the machine cannot build up emf.
Procedure:
CJITS
Tabular column:
Average Eg
If
Increasing
Decreasing
Graph:
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CJITS
Eg (V)
R
Rf
If (A)
= OB/OC
= OR
= OM
Result:
CJITS
(05)A
MC
DPST Switch
3 point starter
A
400/
1.7A
+
230 V DC
Supply
(0250)V
MC
+
(02)A
A
MC
A
F
M
AA
FF
Fuse
DPST Switch
100/5A
+
A
230 V DC
Supply
(05)A
MC
+
M
AA
Fuse
V
A
(030)V
MC
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PREDETERMINATION OF EFFICIENCIES
S.No
Apparatus
Voltmeter
Voltmeter
Ammeter
Ammeter
Rheostats
Type
Range
Qty
Theory:
It is simple indirect method in which losses are measured separately and the efficiency at
any desired load can be predetermined. This test applicable to those machines in which flux is practically
constant i.e. shunt and compound wound machines. The no load power input to armature consist iron
losses in core, friction loss, windage loss and armature copper loss. It is convenient and economical
because power required to test a large machine is small i.e. only no load power. But no account is taken
the change in iron losses from no load to full load due to armature reaction flux is distorted which
increases the iron losses in some cases by as 50%
Procedure:
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by adjusting field
Observations:
IL
IF
IA
For Ra
S.NO
Ra=V/I
Model Graph:
(%)
Generator
Motor
Output
Efficiency Vs Output
CJITS
GENERATOR:
Voltage= Load
Armature
Current=
Current Ia
V
IL
=
Armature
Cu loss=
Ia XIaXRa
(IL+If) S.No
Total
losses
Input OutputVxIL
Wt=Wc+
Inputtotal
losses=
=
Output
Input.
IaXIaXRa
VxILWt
Motor:
Total
losses
Output= Input=output =
Wt=Wc+
+total
losses=
IaXIaXRa
VxIL+Wt
VxIL
Output
Input.
Model calculations:
No load input=VIL
No load armature copper losses =Ia2 Ra =(Il If)2 Ra
Constant losses Wc=V l(IlIf )2 Ra
Efficiency as a motor:
I= Assumed load current
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Motor i/p=VI
Ia=ILIf
Motor armature losses=I2a .Ra
Total losses=I2a Ra+ Wc
Efficiency of motor= VI I2a Ra+ Wc / VI x 100
Efficiency as generator:
Results:
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Circuit diagram:
(020)A
MC
DPST Switch
3 point starter
A
L
F
400/
1.7A
+
230 V
DC
Supply
V
A
(0250)V
MC
S1
S2
(02)A
MC
F
M
AA
FF
Fuse
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Aim: To conduct brake test on DC Shunt motor. And to determine its performance curves.
Apparatus:
S. No
Equipment
1.
Voltmeter
2.
Ammeter
Ammeter
Rheostat
5.
Tachometer
6.
Connecting wires
Range
Type
Qty
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Tabular columns:
S.No
Voltage
Current
Speed
Spring
Torque=
Pout =
Pin =
(V)
(I)
(N)
Balance
9.8 1(S1 ~
S2) .r Nm
2nT/60
Vi Watts
Readings
S1
Watts
Eff =
op/ip
x100.
S2
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EXPECTED GRAPHS:
Ta vs Ia.
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N vs Ia.
N vs T
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Vs O/P
Result:
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Ph
DPST
(02)A
MI
A
115V
V
230V
V
V
C
1
230V
50 Hz AC
Supply
(0150)V
MI
Open
Circuit
Variac
3KVA, 230V/ (0270)V
1 Transformer
3KVA, 230V/ 115V
Fig 1
Ph
DPST
(015)A
MI
A
115V
V
V
C
1
230V
50 Hz AC
Supply
(050)V
MI
Short
Circuit
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Variac
3KVA, 230V/ (0270)V
Fig 2
1 Transformer
3KVA, 230V/ 115V
CJITS
RANGE
TYPE
qTY
SC TEST
1
Voltmeter
2
Ammeter
3
Wattmeter
4
Auto T/F
5
Fuses
Theory: Transformer is a static device which transfers electrical powerfrom one circuit to another circuit
either by step up or step down the voltage with corresponding decrease increase in the current, with
out changing the frequency.
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OC Test
The main aim of this test is to determine the Iron losses & No load current of the T/F which are helpful
in finding Ro & Xo.In this test generally supply will be given to primary and secondary kept open. Since
secondary is opened a small current (magnetizing current will flow and it will be 5 to 10% of full load
current. The wattmeter connected in primary will give directly the Iron losses (core losses).
SC Test
The main aim of this test is to determine the full load copper losses which are helpful in finding the R01,
X01, Z01, efficiency and regulation of the T/F. Generally low voltage side will be short circuited and supply
will be given to high voltage side & it will be of 510% of the rated voltage. The wattmeter connected in
primary will give directly the full load copper losses of the T/F.
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Procedure:
OC Test:
1) Give connections as per the circuit diagram.
2) SwitchON the supply and apply rated voltage to the primary of the winding by using the auto
transformer.
3) Note the readings of Ammeter, Voltmeter & Wattmeter
SC Test:
1) Give connections as per the circuit diagram.
2) SwitchON the supply and vary the Dimmerstat till rated full load current flows through transformer.
3) Note the readings of Ammeter, Voltmeter & Wattmeter
Graph:
Yaxis.
A graph is drawn between P.F and % regulation by taking P.F on X axis and % regulation on
Observations:
O.C Test:
S.C Test:
V0
I0
W0
VSC
ISC
WSC
volt
ampere
Watt
volt
ampere
Watt
O/P power
Calculations:
Load
Cu losses
Full
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% Regulation
P.F
Lag
PRECAUTIONS:
Lead
Result:
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CJITS
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
Ph
115V
V
DPST
(015)A
MI
230V
V
A
C
1
230V
50 Hz AC
Supply
(0V
300)VMI
Resistive
load
load
load
1 Transformer
3KVA, 230V/ 115V
Fig 1
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AIM:To conduct Load test on single phase Transformer and find out the efficiency.
APPARATUS:
S.NO
NOMENCLATURE
Ammeter
Volt meter
Watt meter
Auto transformer
Patch cards
TYPE
RANGE
QTY
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THEORY:
RESULT:
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O/P
CRO
For RL
R=10
(01)mHZ
O/P
CRO
For RC
R=10
L=10MH
(01)mHZ
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RL & RC CKTS
T
T/2
OUTPUT
3T/2
4T
RL CKT
4T
0
T
T/2
OUT PUT
3T/2
RC CKT
T/2
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OBSERVATIONS:
Type of
circuit
Voltage
Time period
Time constant
Time constant
Practical
theoretical
RESULT:
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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
3
415V
50 Hz
AC
Supply
(015)A
MI A
L1
B
V (0600)V
MI
Y/1
Start
er
L2
Y
3
415V
50 Hz
AC
Supply
B
A
2
S1
S2
A
2
B
C
C
V
L3 B
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Apparatus required:
S.NO
NOMENCLATURE
Volt meter
Ammeter
Watt meter
Tachometer
Patch cards
TYPE
RANGE
QTY
Theory: As a general rule, conversion of electrical energy to mechanical energy takes place in to the
rotating part on electrical motor. In DC motors, electrical power is conduct directly to the armature, i.e,
rotating part through brushes and commutator. Hence, in this sense, a DC motor can be called as
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'conduction motor'. However, in AC motors, rotor does not receive power by conduction but by
induction in exactly the same way as secondary of a two winding T/F receives
its power from the primary. So, these motors are
known as Induction motors. In fact an induction motor can be taken as rotating
T/F, i.e, one in which primary winding is stationary and but the secondary is free.
The starting torque of the Induction motor can be increase by improving its p.f
by adding external resistance in the rotor circuit from the stator connected rheostat, the rheostat
resistance being progressively cut out as the motor gathers speed. Addition of external resistance
increases the rotor impedance and so reduces the rotor current. At first, the effect of improved p.f
predominates the current decreasing effect of impedance. So, starting torque is increased. At time of
starting, external resistance is kept at maximum resistance position and after a certain time, the effect of
increased impedance predominates the effect of improved p.f and so the torque starts decreasing. By
this during running period the rotor resistance being progressively cutout as the motor attains its
speed. In this way, it is possible to get good starting torque as well as good running torque.
Procedure:
4) When the Star /Delta starter converts to Delta position Note the noload readings of
ammeter, voltmeter, wattmeter, speed & loads.
5) Gradually increase the load on the motor by tightening the
handswivels and note the corresponding meters readings.
6) Remove the load completely & SwitchOff the power.
Graph: A graph is drawn b/w O/P power in watts (on Xaxis) verses speed, torque, current, slip,
efficiency &p.f (on Yaxis).
Precautions:
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negative.
Observations:
Voltmeter
Ammeter
Net
Wattmeter
Reading
I/P
Force
reading
Torque
%
Slip
2NT/6
0
O/p/i
/p
NsNa/
Ns
rpm
watt
Speed O/P
Force
W1
W2
F1
F2
F1~F2
9.81xFe.R
e
Volt
ampere
wat
t
Wat
t
wat
t
K
g
k
g
Kg
FxRe
Radius,
R = C/2 =
Result:
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p.f