You are on page 1of 67

CHRISTU JYOTI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE

(Affiliated to JNTU Hyderabad), Colombonagar, Janagoan :506167

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL &ELECTRONICS


ENGINEERING

Electrical engineering

LAB MANUAL
Website :http://www.cjits.org/

Ph no : 08716 202101

E mail id :cjits68@yahoo.co.in

Fax No:

Name of the Laboratory :

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Year/Semester

II/II

Branch

ECE

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

PREFACE

The significance of the Electrical Engineering Lab is renowned in the various


fields of engineering applications.

For an Electronics and Communication

Engineer, it is obligatory to have the practical ideas about the Electrical


Engineering Lab. By this perspective we have introduced a Laboratory manual
cum Observation for Electrical Engineering Lab.

The manual uses the plan, cogent and simple language to explain the fundamental
aspects of Electrical Engineering Lab in practical. The manual prepared very
carefully with our level best. It gives all the steps in executing an experiment.

2
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

INDEX

Name of the experiment

Page no

PART-A
11-13

Verification of KVL and KCL.

Series and Parallel resonance.

Two port network Parameters.

Superposition theorem & Reciprocity theorem.

Maximum Power Transfer theorem.

6
7

14-18
19-24
25-29
30-32

Thevinins and Nortons theorem.

33-38

Open circuit characteristics of DC Shunt generator.

39-41

PART-B
8
9
10
11

Swinburnes test on DC shunt machine.

42-47

Brake test on DC Shunt motor and to draw the


Performance curves.
Open and short circuit tests on a single phase Transformer.

48-53

Load test on single phase Transformer.

59-62

54-58

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS
12

Time response of first order for RC & RL Circuits.

13

Brake test on three phase squirrel cage induction


Motor.

65-68

3
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL


UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD
II Year B.Tech. ECE-II Semester
0 -/3/- 2

T/P/D C

(54606) Electrical Engineering Lab


Part A
1) Verification of KVL and KCL.
2) Series and Parallel Resonance Timing, Resonant Frequency, Band width and Q-Factor
determination for RLC Network.
3) Time Response of aFirst Order RC/RL network for periodic non-sinusoidal inputs Time constant
and steady state error determination.
4) Two Port network parameters Z, Y parameters, chain matrix and analytical verification.
5) Verification of superposition and reciprocity theorems.
6) Verification of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem. Verification on dc and ac excitation with
resistive and reactive loads.
7) Experimental determination of Thevenins and Nortons equivalent circuits and verification by
direct test.
Part - B
8) Constant - K low pass filter and high pass filter design and test.
9) Magnetization characteristics of DC shunt generator. Determination of critical field resistance.
10) Swinburnes test on DC shunt motor (predetermination of Efficiency of a given DC Shunt
Machine working as Motor and Generator)
11) Brake test on DC Shunt motor. Determination of performance characteristics.
12) OC and SC tests on single phase transformer (Determination of Efficiency and regulation at given
power factor and determination of equivalent circuit.
13) Load Test on single phase transformer.
4
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

Note: Any twelve of the above experiments are to be conducted


Experiments Conducted by the Department:Part A
1) Verification of KVL and KCL.
2) Series and Parallel Resonance Timing, Resonant Frequency, Band width and Q-Factor
determination for RLC Network.
3) Two Port network parameters Z, Y parameters, chain matrix and analytical verification.
4) Verification of superposition and reciprocity theorems.
5) Verification of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem. Verification on dc and ac excitation with
resistive and reactive loads.
6) Experimental determination of Thevenins and Nortons equivalent circuits and verification by
direct test.
Part - B
7) Magnetization characteristics of DC shunt generator. Determination of critical field resistance.
8) Swinburnes test on DC shunt motor (predetermination of Efficiency of a given DC Shunt
Machine working as Motor and Generator)
9) Brake test on DC Shunt motor. Determination of performance characteristics.
10) OC and SC tests on single phase transformer (Determination of Efficiency and regulation at given
power factor and determination of equivalent circuit.
11) Load Test on single phase transformer.
Additional Experiments conducted by the department
1) Time Response of aFirst Order RC/RL network for periodic non-sinusoidal inputs Time constant
and steady state error determination.
2) Constant - K low pass filter and high pass filter design and test.

5
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

SAFETY RULES

1.SAFETY is of paramount importance in the Electrical Engineering


Laboratories.
2. Electricity NEVER EXECUSES careless persons. So, exercise enough care and attention in handling

electricalequipment and followsafety practices in the laboratory. (Electricity is a good servant but
a bad master).
3. Avoid direct contact with any voltage source and power line voltages. (Otherwise, any such contact
may subject you to electricalshock)
4.Wear rubber-soled shoes. (To insulate you from earth so that even if you accidentally contact a live
point, current will not flow through your body to earth and hence you will be protected from

electricalshock)
5. Wear laboratory-coat and avoid loose clothing. (Loose clothing may get caught on an
equipment/instrument and this may lead to an accident particularly if the equipment happens to be a
rotating machine)
6. Girl students should have their hair tucked under their coat or have it in a knot.
7. Do not wear any metallic rings, bangles, bracelets, wristwatches and neck chains. (When you move
your hand/body, such conducting items may create a short circuit or may touch a live point and thereby
subject you toelectricalshock)
8. Be certain that your hands are dry and that you are not standing on wet floor. (Wet parts of the body
reduce the contact resistance thereby increasing the severity of the shock)
9. Ensure that the power is OFF before you start connecting up the circuit.(Otherwise you will be
touching the live parts in the circuit)
10. Get your circuit diagram approved by the staff member and connect up the circuit strictly as per the
approved circuit diagram.
11. Check power chords for any sign of damage and be certain that the chords use safetyplugs and do
not defeat the safety feature of these plugs by using ungrounded plugs.
6
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

12. When using connection leads, check for any insulation damage in the leads and avoid such
defective leads.
13. Do not defeat anysafety devices such as fuse or circuit breaker by shorting across it. Safety
devices protect YOU and your equipment.
14. Switch on the power to your circuit and equipment only after getting them checked up and
approved by the staff member.
15. Take the measurement with one hand in your pocket. (To avoid shock in case you accidentally touch
two points at different potentials with your two hands)
16. Do not make any change in the connection without the approval of the staff member.
17. In case you notice any abnormal condition in your circuit ( like insulation heating up, resistor heating
up etc ), switch off the power to your circuit immediately and inform the staff member.
18. Keep hot soldering iron in the holder when not in use.
19. After completing the experiment show your readings to the staff member and switch off the power
to your circuit after getting approval from the staff member.

20.Some students have been found to damage meters by mishandling in the following ways:
i.
ii.

Keeping unnecessary material like books, lab records, unused meters etc. causing
meters to fall down the table.
Putting pressure on the meter (specially glass) while making connections or while talking
or listening somebody.

STUDENTS ARE STRICTLY WARNED THAT FULL COST OF THE METER WILL BE RECOVERED
FROM THE INDIVIDUAL WHO HAS DAMAGED IT IN SUCH A MANNER.

Copy these rules in your Lab Record. Observe these yourself and
help your friends to observe...

I have read and understand these rules and procedures. I agree to abide by these
rules and procedures at all times while using these facilities. I understand that failure to
follow these rules and procedures will result in my immediate dismissal from the
laboratory and additional disciplinary action may be taken.
7
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORY NOTEBOOK

The laboratory notebook is a record of all work pertaining to the experiment. This record should be
sufficiently complete so that you or anyone else of similar technical background can duplicate the
experiment and data by simply following your laboratory notebook. Record everything directly into the
notebook during the experiment. Do not use scratch paper for recording data. Do not trust your
memory to fill in the details at a later time.
Organization in your notebook is important. Descriptive headings should be used to separate and identify
the various parts of the experiment. Record the data in chronological order. A neat, organized and
complete record of an experiment is just as important as the experimental work.
1. Heading:
The experiment identification (number) should be at the top of each page. Your name and date
should be at the top of the first page of each day's experimental work.
2.Object:
A brief but complete statement of what you intend to find out or verify in the experiment
should be at the beginning of each experiment
3. Diagram:
A circuit diagram should be drawn and labeled so that the actual experiment circuitry could be
easily duplicated at any time in the future. Be especially careful to record all circuit changes made
during the experiment.
4. Equipment List:
List those items of equipment which have a direct effect on the accuracy of the data. It may be
necessary later to locate specific items of equipment for rechecks if discrepancies develop in the results.
5. Procedure:
In general, lengthy explanations of procedures are unnecessary. Be brief. Short commentaries
alongside the corresponding data may be used. Keep in mind the fact that the experiment must be
reproducible from the information given in your notebook.

6. Data:
8
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

Think carefully about what data is required and prepare suitable data tables.Record
instrument readings directly. Do not use calculated results in place of direct data; however,
calculated results may be recorded in the same table with the direct data. Data tables should be clearly
identified and each data column labeled and headed by the proper units of measure.
7. Calculations:
Not always necessary but equations and sample calculations are often given to illustrate the
treatment of the experimental data in obtaining the results.
8. Graphs:
Graphs are used to present large amounts of data in a concise visual form. Data to be
presented in graphical form should be plotted in the laboratory so that any questionable data points
can be checked while the experiment is still set up. The grid lines in the notebook can be used for most
graphs. If special graph paper is required, affix the graph permanently into the notebook. Give all
graphs a short descriptive title. Label and scale the axes. Use units of measure. Label each curve
if more than one on a graph.
9. Results:
The results should be presented in a form which makes the interpretation easy. Large amounts
of numerical results are generally presented in graphical form. Tables are generally used for small
amounts of results. Theoretical and experimental results should be on the same graph or arrange in the
same table in a way for easy correlation of these results.

10. Conclusion:
This is your interpretation of the results of the experiment as an engineer. Be brief and
specific. Give reasons for important discrepancies.

1. VERIFICATION OF KVL AND KCL


9
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF KVL:V1

V22 MC
_
+
V

MC
_

V3 MC
+

_
V

+
+
VS

VS

_ MC

Fig-1
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OFKCL:-

A2-MC

R2

A1-MC
_
+

A
R1

A
_
1 __
A3-MC
1

R3

+
VS

A
A
1

Fig-1

1. VERIFICATION OF KVL AND KCL


10
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

AIM:- Verification of KVL and KCLtheoretically and practically.


APPARATUS:
S.No

Name of the equipment

1.

Multimeter

2.

Ammeter MC

3.

Connecting wires

Range

Type

Quantity

as per need

PROCEDURE:

KVL:- (1) Set the rheostats to given resistance values with the multimeter.
(2) Make connections as for diagram
(3) Verify the connections to the lab instructor.
(4) Switch on the DC supply with the help of DPST.
(5) Note down all meter readings, the sum of VI, V2 and V3 must be equal to the Vs.
KCL:- (1) Set the rheostats to given resistance values with the multimeter.
(2) Make connections as for diagram
(3) Verify the connections to the lab instructor.
(4) Switch on the DC supply with the help of DPST.
(5) Note down all meter readings, the sum of A2 and A3 must be equal to the A1.

CALCULATIONS:11
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

KCL-Total resistance of the circuit R=R1+R2+R3 --


Total currentof the circuit I= VsR -- Amp
The resistance are connected in series so the total current I will flow in every resistance.
So, Voltage drop in resistance R1= I R1-------Volts.
Voltage drop in resistance R2 = I R2-------Volts.
Voltage drop in resistance R3 = I R3-------Volts.
Now Supply voltage Vs = (I R1)+(I R2)+(I R3).
KVL- R2 and R3resistances are in parallel so effective resistanceRe= R2 R3 R3 +R2-- .
Now R1 and Reare inseries, so total resistance R = R1+Re ---------.
Total current of the circuit I = VsR -- Amp.
Current through R2 resistanceI1 = Total current (I) Opposite resistance (R3)
Total resistance (R2) + (R3) ------ Amps.
Current through R3 resistanceI2 = Total current (I)- (I1) ---------- Amps.
Now Total current (I) =

(I1)+ (I2) ----------------------------------Amps.

RESULT:-

2-SERIES AND PARALLEL RESONANCE


12
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF SERIES RESONANCE:


Is

Function
generato
r

Fig-1

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF PARALLEL RESONANCE:

Ip
A
Function
generato
r

Fig-2

13
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

2-SERIES AND PARALLEL RESONANCE


AIM: To verify resonant frequency, bandwidth & quality factor of RLC series and parallel
Resonant circuits.

APPARATUS:

S.No

Name of the equipment

1.

Multimeter

2.

Series and parallel resonance kit

3.

Connecting wires

Range

Type

Quantity

as per need

THEORY:

In a series RLC circuit. The current lags behind or leads the applied voltage depending upon the
values of XL and Xc. XL causes the total current to lag behind the applied voltage while Xc
causes the total current to lead the applied voltage.When XL >Xc the circuit is predominantly
inductive, and when XL <Xc the circuit is predominantly capacitive. In the series RLC circuit
resonance may be produced by varying the frequency keeping L and C constant. Otherwise
resonance may be produced by varying either L or C for fixed frequency .Parallel resonance
occurs when XL = Xc. when XL = Xc the two branch currents are equal in magnitude and 180
deg out of phase with each other .Hence two currents cancel each other and net current is zero.
THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:

14
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

PROCEDURE:
SERIES RESONANCE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the fig (1)
2. Apply a fixed voltage through function generator to the circuit.
3. The frequency of the signal is varied in steps and note down corresponding ammeter reading as Is.
observe that current is maximum at resonant frequency.
4. Draw a graph between frequency f and current Is .Mark Resonant frequency and
Current at half power frequencies.
Q

5. Find Bandwidth = (f2-f1.) & Quality factor from

f0
f 2 f1

graph.

6. Compare practical values of resonant frequency, Q-factor and Bandwidth with theoretical values.
PARALLEL RESONANCE:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in the fig (2)


2. Apply a fixed voltage through function generator to the circuit.
3. The frequency of the signal is varied in steps and note down corresponding ammeter reading as Is.
Observe that current is minimum at resonant frequency.
4. Draw a graph between frequency f and current Is .Mark resonant frequency and
current at half power frequencies.
Q

5. Find Bandwidth = (f2-f1.) & Quality factor from

f0
f 2 f1

graph.

6. Compare practical values of resonant frequency, Q-factor and Bandwidth with theoretical values.
Parallel resonance

S.No.

Frequency (f)

Current(Is)
15

Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

OBSERVATION
S: Series

S.No.

resonance

Frequency (f)

Current(Is)

MODEL GRAPH:

IS

I m ax

I m ax
2

f1

MODEL GRAPH:

fo

f2

IP

2I m in

I m in
f1

fo

f2

16
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

RESULT TABLE:

Series Resonance

Parallel Resonance

Theoretical

Theoretical

Practical

Practical

Resonant frequency
Bandwidth
Q-factor

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid making loose connections.
2. Readings should be taken carefully without parallax error.
3. Avoid series connection of voltmeters and parallel connection ammeters.

RESULT:

17
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

3. TWO PORT NETWORK THEOREM (Z,Y,ABCD AND HYBRID PARAMETERS)

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:_

R2

R2

VV

+
Vs1

Vs2

+
Fig-1

CALCULATION OF Z11AND Z21 :-

A
I1

+
Vs1

V2

+
Fig-2

18
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

CALCULATION OF Z22AND Z12 :-

V1

+
+

_
_
_
V

R2

+
A
I2

V2

+
Fig-3

CALCULATION OF Y11AND Y21:-

A
I1

+
Vs1

R2

AV

I2

+
Fig-4

19
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

CALCULATION OF Y22ANDY12 :-

I1

+
+

_
_
_
A

R2

+
A
I2

V2

+
Fig-5

20
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

3. TWO PORT NETWORK THEOREM(Z,Y,ABCD AND HYBRID PARAMETERS)

AIM: To obtain experimentally Z,Y parameters, ABCD and Hybrid parameters of a given two port
network.
APPARATUS:
S.No.

Name of the equipment

Volt meter

Ammeter

Rheostat

Digital Multimeter

Range

Type

Quantity

PROCEDURE:
1. Open Circuiting Output Terminals (I2 = 0):
Connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in fig (1). Output terminals are kept
Open via a voltmeter. Supply is given to input port. Note the readings of ammeter as I1and Voltmeter
as V2.
2. Short circuiting output terminals (V2 = 0):
Connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in fig (2). Output terminals are short circuited
via an ammeter. Supply is given to input port. Note the readings of ammeters as I1 andI2.
3. Open circuiting input terminals (I1= 0):
Connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in fig (3). Input terminals are kept open via a
voltmeter. Supply is given to output terminals. Note the readings of ammeter as I2 and voltmeter as V1.

4. Short circuiting input terminals (V1=0):


Connections are made as per the circuit diagram shown in fig (4). Input terminals are short circuited via
an ammeter. Supply is given to output port. Note the readings of ammeters as I1and I2.
21
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

5. Calculate Z, Y, ABCD, Hybrid parameters using formulae and verify them with theoretical values.
OBSERVATIONS:
When I1=0

When I2=0

V1

I2

V2

V1

I1

V2

V1

I1

I2

S.No.

S.No.

When V1=0

When V2=0

I2

I1

V2

S.No.

S.No.

RESULT TABLE:

Z Parameters
Z11

Z12

Y Parameters

Z21

Z22

Y11

Y12

Y21

Y22

Theoretical

Practical

22
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

ABCD Parameters
A

Hybrid Parameters
D

h11

h12

h21

h22

Theoretical
Practical

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid making loose connections.
2. Readings should be taken carefully without parallax error.
3. Avoid series connection of voltmeters and parallel connection ammeters.

RESULT:-

23
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

4. SUPERPOSITION THEOREM AND RECIPROCITY THEOREM


CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS OF SUPERPOSITION THEOREM:

24
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS OF RECIPROCITY THEOREM:


a) Before inter changing.

b) After inter changing.

25
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

4. SUPERPOSITION THEOREM AND RECIPROCITY THEOREM


AIM: Verification of Superposition theorem and reciprocity theorem theoretically and practically.
APPARATUS:
S.No

Name of the equipment

1.

Ammeter

2.

Rheostats

3.

DC Power Supply

4.

Multimeter

5.

Connecting wires

Range

Type

Quantity

THEORY:

SUPERPOSITION THEOREM STATEMENT


In any linear bilateral network containing two or more energy sources the response at any
element is equivalent to the algebraic sum of the responses caused by the individual sources.

i.e. While considering the effect of individual sources, the other ideal voltage
sources and ideal current sources in the network are replaced by short circuit and open
circuit across the terminals. This theorem is valid only for linear systems.
RECIPROCITY THEOREM STATEMENT
In any linear bilateral network containing the response at any branch (or) transformation ratio is
same even after interchanging the sources is V/ I1 = V/ I2

THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:

26
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

PROCEDURE:
SUPERPOSITION THEOREM:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig (1)
2. Current through load resistor is noted as IX by applying both the voltages V1 and V2 through RPS.
3. Make the supply voltage V2 short circuited and apply V1 as shown in fig (2) and note down the current
through load resistor as IY.
4. Make the supply voltageV1 short circuited and apply V2 as shown in fig (3) and note down the current
through load resistor as IZ.
5. Now verify that IX = IY + IZtheoretically and practically which proves Superposition theorem
RECIPROCITY THEOREM:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig (1)
2. From fig (2) of Superposition theorem note down I2=IY.
3. Now interchange the source and ammeter as in fig (4).
4. Note down the ammeter reading as I1.
5. Now verify thatVs/ I1 = Vs/ I2theoretically and practically which proves reciprocity theorem.

Observations:
When both the sources are acting:

V1

V2

When V1 source alone is acting:

Theoretical

Practical

IX

IX

V1

V2

Theoretical

Practical

IZ

IZ

When V2 source alone is acting:

V1

V2

Theoretically
Practical I

27
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

TABULAR COLUMN OF RECIPROCITY THEOREM:

Before interchanging the sources:


Theoretical values
Vs

I2

Practical values
Vs/ I2

I2

Vs/ I2

After interchanging the sources:


Theoretical values
Vs

I1

Practical values
Vs/ I1

I1

Vs/ I1

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid making loose connections.
2. Readings should be taken carefully without parallax error.
3. Avoid series connection of voltmeters and parallel connection ammeters.

RESULT:

28
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

5. MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

29
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

5. MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM.


AIM: To verify maximum power transfer theorem theoretically and practically.

APPARATUS :
S.No

Name of the equipment

1.

Ammeter

2.

Voltmeter

Rheostats

4.

DC Power Supply

5.

Multimeter

6.

Double Pole Double Throw Switch

6.

Connecting wires

Range

Type

Quantity

THEORY:
THEOREM STATEMENT
It states that the maximum power is transferred from the source to the load, when the load
resistance is equal to the source resistance.
THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:
PROCEDURE:
Make the connections as shown in fig (1).
By varying RL in steps, note down the reading of ammeter IL in each step.
Connect the circuit as shown in fig (2), measure the effective resistance Rth.with the help of digital
multimeter.
Calculate power delivered to load PL in each step.
Draw a graph PLVsRL and find the RL corresponding to maximum power from it.Verify that
RLcorresponding to maximum power from the graph is equal to the Rth( which is nothing but source
resistance RS).
MODEL GRAPH
30
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

PL
Pm

RL corresponding to Pm

RL

OBSERVATIONS:
Tabular column:
Theoretical values
S.No

Practical values

RL
IL

PL= IL2RL

IL

PL= IL2RL

MODEL CALCULATIONS:
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid making loose connections.
2. Readings should be taken carefully without parallax error.
3. Avoid series connection of voltmeters and parallel connection of ammeters.

RESULT:-

31
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

6. THEVENINS AND NORTONS THEOREMS.


CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:R1

R3
+
A

R2

Vs

RL

+
Fig-1(Original circuit)

R3

R1

R2

DM
M
RL

+
R1

Fig-2 (Finding Rth)


R3

_
V

R2

Vs
_

Vth

Fig-3 (Finding Vth)


R1

R3
32

Department of EEE

R1

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

R2

Vs
_

RL
+
Fig-3 (FindingIL)

R1

R3

_
A

R2

Vs
_

Isc

+
Fig-4 (Finding Isc)

Rth

RL
33

Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

+
Vth

+
Fig-5 Circuit diagram for Thevenins equivalent circuit.

+
IN

Rth

RL

A
-

Fig-5 Circuit diagram for Nortonsequalent circuit.

6. THEVENINS AND NORTONS THEOREMS

34
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

AIM: Experimental determination of Thevenins and Nortons equivalent circuits and


verifying theoretically and practically.

APPARATUS:
S.No

Name of the equipment

1.

Ammeter

2.

Voltmeter

3.

Rheostats

4.

DC Power Supply

5.

Digital Multimeter

6.

Connecting wires

Range

Type

Quantity

THEORY:
STATEMENT OF THEVENINS THEOREM:
Any two terminal linear bilateral network containing of energy sources and impedances can be
replaced with an equivalent circuit consisting of voltage source Vthin series with an impedance, Zth.,
where Vthis the open circuit voltage between the load terminals and Zthis the impedance measured
between the terminals with all the energy sources replaced by their internal impedances.
STATEMENT OF NORTONS THEOREM:
Any two terminal linear bilateral network containing of energy sources and impedances can be
replaced with an equivalent circuit consisting of current source IN in parallel with an admittance, YN.,
where IN is the short circuit current through the load terminals and YNis the admittance measured
between the terminals with all the energy sources replaced by their internal admittance.
CALCULATIONS:(i)

For Rth-As for the circuit diagram, fig-2, Resisters R1 and R2are in parallel so effective

Resistance

Rp = R1 R2 R1 + R2 .

Then Rp is in series with R3, so Rth= Rp R3 .


35
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

(ii) For Vth - As for the circuit diagram, fig-3, Resisters R1 and R2 are in series so total
Resistance

R = R1 + R2 .(R3 Will not play any roll because of open circuit.)

Total current of the circuit I = Vs R Amp.


The current I will flow through R1 and R2 because of series connection.
Then open circuit voltage Vth = I R2 Volts.
(iii) For IL-

As for the circuit diagram, fig-1, Resisters R3 and RLare in series so effective

Resistance

Rse = R3 +RL .

Then Rseisin parallel with R2 so effective


Resistance

Rp = Rse R2 Rse + R2 .

Then Rp is in series to R1 resistance so total Resistance R = Rp+ R1 .


Total current of the circuit I = Vs R Amp .
Total current of the circuit Iis divided in to two paths after R1 resistance
So the current throughRL resistance branch
IL

=( Total current) I opposite resistance total Resistance --Amp

(iv) For Isc or IN - As for the circuit diagram, fig-4, Resisters R2 and R3are in parallel so effective
Resistance

Rp = R2 R3 R2 + R3 .

Then Rp is in series to R1 resistance so total Resistance R = Rp+ R1 .


Total current of the circuit I =Vs R Amp.
Total current of the circuit Iis divided in to two paths after R1 resistance
So the current throughR3resistance branch
Isc= (Total current) I oppositeresistance total Resistance Amp.

Tabulation-

36
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

Rth

Vth

Theoretical Practical

Theoretical Practical

IL
Theoretical Practical

Thevenins equivalent circuit.

Theoretical Practical

Nortons equivalent circuit.


IL

IL
Theoretical

Isc or IN

Theoretical

Practical

Practical

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid making loose connections.
2. Readings should be taken carefully with out parallax error.
3. Avoid series connection of voltmeters and parallel connection ammeters.

RESULT:

7.Magnetization Characteristics of DC Shunt Generator

37
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

Circuit diagram:

3 point starter
A
F
L

DPST Switch

DPST Switch
+
+

400/
1.7A

230 V
DC
Supply

(0-300)V
MC

A
M
AA

+
V
A

A
A

(0-2)A
MC
DC
Exciter

G
M
AA

FF

FF

Fuse

Fuse

Aim: To conduct an experiment on a D.C shunt generator and draw the magnetization characteristics
(OCC) and to determine the critical field resistance and critical speed.
38
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

Apparatus:

S. No

Apparatus

Voltmeter

Ammeter

Rheostats

Tachometer

Type

Range

Qty

Name plate details:

Theory:
Open circuit characteristics or magnetization curve is the graph between the generated emf
and field current of a dc shunt generator. For field current is equal to zero there will be residual
voltage of 10 to 12V because of the residual magnetism present in the machine .If this is absent
there the machine can not build up voltage to obtain residual magnetism the machine is separately
excited by a dc source from OCC we can get critical field resistance and critical speed.

Critical field resistance: It is the resistance above which the machine cannot build up emf.

Critical speed: It is the speed below which the machine cannot build up emf.

Procedure:

Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.


39
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

Start the motor and bring it to rated speed.


The switch SPST is opened and If=0
For the different values of excitations (If) the generated voltage (Eg)from the voltmeter is taken at rated
speed, with increasing and decreasing orders.
Calculate average Eg from increasing and decreasing orders.
A graph is drawn between AvgEg& If. From the graph (OCC) Critical field resistance and critical speed are
calculated.

Tabular column:

Generated Voltage (Eg)


Field current
S.NO

Average Eg
If

Increasing

Decreasing

Graph:

40
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

Eg (V)

R
Rf

If (A)

Critical field resistance (Rc)

= OB/OC

Field resistance (Rf)

= OR

The maximum voltage the Generator can induce


With this field resistance.

= OM

Result:

8. SWINBURNE S TEST ON DC SHUNT MACHINE


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:41
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

(0-5)A
MC

DPST Switch

3 point starter
A

400/
1.7A

+
230 V DC
Supply

(0-250)V
MC

+
(0-2)A
A
MC

A
F
M
AA
FF

Fuse

CICUIT DIAGRAM FOR Ra:-

DPST Switch
100/5A

+
A

230 V DC
Supply

(0-5)A
MC

+
M
AA

Fuse

V
A

(0-30)V
MC

8.SWINBURNE S TEST ON DC SHUNT


MACHINE
42

Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

PREDETERMINATION OF EFFICIENCIES

Aim: To perform no load test on dc motor and to predetermine the efficiencies of


the machine acting as a motor and generator.
Equipment:

S.No

Apparatus

Voltmeter

Voltmeter

Ammeter

Ammeter

Rheostats

Type

Range

Qty

Name plate details:

Theory:
It is simple indirect method in which losses are measured separately and the efficiency at
any desired load can be predetermined. This test applicable to those machines in which flux is practically
constant i.e. shunt and compound wound machines. The no load power input to armature consist iron
losses in core, friction loss, windage loss and armature copper loss. It is convenient and economical
because power required to test a large machine is small i.e. only no load power. But no account is taken
the change in iron losses from no load to full load due to armature reaction flux is distorted which
increases the iron losses in some cases by as 50%

Procedure:
43
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

1.Make connections as per the circuit diagram.


2.Show the connections to the lab instructor.
3.Keeping both rheostats at minimum, Start the motor with the help of starter,and
rheostat bring the motor to rated speed.

by adjusting field

4. Note down all the meter readings at no load.


5.Do necessary calculations and find out the efficiency of the Machine as a motor and as a generator.
6.Draw the graphs between output Vs efficiency of the Machine as a generator and as a motor.

Observations:
IL

IF

IA

For Ra
S.NO

Ra=V/I

Model Graph:-

(%)
Generator
Motor

Output
Efficiency Vs Output

Tabular Column to find out efficiency:


44
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

GENERATOR:

Voltage= Load
Armature
Current=
Current Ia
V
IL
=

Armature
Cu loss=
Ia XIaXRa

(IL+If) S.No

Total
losses

Input- OutputVxIL

Wt=Wc+

Input-total
losses=

=
Output
Input.

IaXIaXRa

VxIL-Wt

Motor:

S.No Voltage= Load


Armature Armature
Current=
CurrentIa Cu loss=
V
IL
=
Ia XIaXRa
(IL-If)

Total
losses

Output= Input=output =

Wt=Wc+

+total
losses=

IaXIaXRa

VxIL+Wt

VxIL

Output
Input.

Model calculations:
No load input=VIL
No load armature copper losses =Ia2 Ra =(Il If)2 Ra
Constant losses Wc=V l(Il-If )2 Ra
Efficiency as a motor:
I= Assumed load current
45
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

Motor i/p=VI
Ia=IL-If
Motor armature losses=I2a .Ra
Total losses=I2a Ra+ Wc
Efficiency of motor= VI- I2a Ra+ Wc / VI x 100

Efficiency as generator:

I=assumed load current


Generator O/P =VI

Generatorarmaturecu. Losses= I2a .Ra


Total losses= I2a Ra+ Wc
Efficiency of generator=VI / VI+ I2a Ra+ Wc

Results:

46
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

9. BRAKE TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR. DETERMINATION OF ITS PERFORMANCE CURVES

Circuit diagram:

(0-20)A
MC

DPST Switch

3 point starter
A
L
F

400/
1.7A

+
230 V
DC
Supply

V
A

(0-250)V
MC

S1

S2

(0-2)A
MC

F
M
AA
FF

Fuse

47
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

9. BRAKE TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR. DETERMINATION OF ITS PERFORMANCE CURVES

Aim: To conduct brake test on DC Shunt motor. And to determine its performance curves.

Apparatus:

S. No

Equipment

1.

Voltmeter

2.

Ammeter

Ammeter

Rheostat

5.

Tachometer

6.

Connecting wires

Range

Type

Qty

Name plate details:


Theory:
When if is required to determine directly efficiency if comparatively small motors, the motor is
loaded directly by means of Mechanical Break. Hence in the case of shunt motor there is no drastic
change in speed. The Torque T = (S1 ~S2) g. r Nm. where S1S2 is the spring balance reading, r = Break
drum Radius
and g=9.81.
P = Power developed. Hence directly the efficiency = Po/ Pi x 100

48
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

Procedure:Make Connections as per the circuit diagram.


Start the motor with the help of the starter.
Then bring the motor to rated speed by adjusting field rheostat.
Put the mechanical load on the motor in steps and note down corresponding readings of all meters.
Do calculations accordingly.

Tabular columns:

S.No

Voltage

Current

Speed

Spring

Torque=

Pout =

Pin =

(V)

(I)

(N)

Balance

9.8 1(S1 ~
S2) .r -Nm

2nT/60

Vi Watts

Readings
S1

-Watts

Eff =
op/ip
x100.

S2

49
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

EXPECTED GRAPHS:-

Ta vs Ia.

50
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

N vs Ia.

N vs T

51
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

Vs O/P

Result:

52
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

10.OC & SC TESTS ON 1- TRANSFORMER


CIRCUITDIAGRAM FOR OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:-

Ph

DPST

(0-2)A
MI
A

115V
V

2A, 150V, 60W, LPF


M

230V
V

V
C
1-
230V
50 Hz AC
Supply

(0-150)V
MI

Open
Circuit

Variac
3KVA, 230V/ (0-270)V

1 -Transformer
3KVA, 230V/ 115V

Fig -1

CIRCUITDIAGRAM FOR SHORT CIRCUITTEST:-

Ph

DPST

(0-15)A
MI
A

15A, 50V, 600W, UPF 230V


V
M
L

115V
V

V
C
1-
230V
50 Hz AC
Supply

(0-50)V
MI

Short
Circuit

53
N
Department of EEE

Variac
3KVA, 230V/ (0-270)V
Fig -2

1 -Transformer
3KVA, 230V/ 115V

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

10.OC & SC TESTS ON 1- TRANSFORMER


Aim: To conduct OC & SC tests on the given 1- Transformer and to calculate its equivalent circuit
parameters, efficiency & regulation.

Name plate details:


1- TRANSFORMER
Capacity
I/P voltage
I/P current
O/P voltage
O/P current
Frequency
Apparatus required:
S.No
DESCRIPTION
OC TEST
1
Voltmeter
2
Ammeter
3
Wattmeter
4
Auto T/F

RANGE

TYPE

qTY

SC TEST
1
Voltmeter
2
Ammeter
3
Wattmeter
4
Auto T/F
5
Fuses

Theory: Transformer is a static device which transfers electrical powerfrom one circuit to another circuit
either by step up or step down the voltage with corresponding decrease increase in the current, with
out changing the frequency.

54
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

OC Test
The main aim of this test is to determine the Iron losses & No- load current of the T/F which are helpful
in finding Ro & Xo.In this test generally supply will be given to primary and secondary kept open. Since
secondary is opened a small current (magnetizing current will flow and it will be 5 to 10% of full load
current. The wattmeter connected in primary will give directly the Iron losses (core losses).
SC Test
The main aim of this test is to determine the full load copper losses which are helpful in finding the R01,
X01, Z01, efficiency and regulation of the T/F. Generally low voltage side will be short circuited and supply
will be given to high voltage side & it will be of 5-10% of the rated voltage. The wattmeter connected in
primary will give directly the full load copper losses of the T/F.

55
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

Procedure:
OC Test:
1) Give connections as per the circuit diagram.
2) Switch-ON the supply and apply rated voltage to the primary of the winding by using the auto
transformer.
3) Note the readings of Ammeter, Voltmeter & Wattmeter
SC Test:
1) Give connections as per the circuit diagram.
2) Switch-ON the supply and vary the Dimmerstat till rated full load current flows through transformer.
3) Note the readings of Ammeter, Voltmeter & Wattmeter
Graph:
Y-axis.

A graph is drawn between P.F and % regulation by taking P.F on X- axis and % regulation on

Observations:
O.C Test:

S.C Test:

V0

I0

W0

VSC

ISC

WSC

volt

ampere

Watt

volt

ampere

Watt

O/P power

Calculations:
Load

Cu losses

Total losses I/P power

Full

56
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

% Regulation
P.F
Lag

PRECAUTIONS:

Lead

1) The Dimmer stat should be kept at minimum O/P position initially.


2) In OC test, rated voltage should be applied to the Primary of the Transformer.
3) In SC test, the Dimmer stat should be varied up to the rated load current only.
4) The Dimmer stat should be varied slowly & uniformly.

Result:

57
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

11. LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-

Ph

115V
V

DPST

20A, 300V, 6000W, UPF

(0-15)A
MI

230V
V

A
C

1-
230V
50 Hz AC
Supply

(0V
300)VMI

Resistive
load
load

load

Variac 3KVA, 230V/


(0-270)V

1 -Transformer
3KVA, 230V/ 115V
Fig -1

58
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

11.LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

AIM:-To conduct Load test on single phase Transformer and find out the efficiency.

Name plate details:


1- TRANSFORMER
Capacity
I/P voltage
I/P current
O/P voltage
O/P current
Frequency

APPARATUS:-

S.NO

NOMENCLATURE

Ammeter

Volt meter

Watt meter

Auto transformer

Patch cards

TYPE

RANGE

QTY

59
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

THEORY:-

PROCEDURE:(i) Make Connections as per the circuit diagram.


(ii) Verify the Connections to the Instructor.
(iii) Keeping the Autotransformer at zero position switch on the DPST, Then adjust the
Autotransformer to rated value of secondary winding by seeing the volt meter
(iv) Note down the no load readings of the all the meters ,Then switch on the load step By
step and note down the readings of the all the meters up to full load.

RESULT:-

60
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

12. Time response of RL & RC Circuits.

O/P
CRO

For R-L
R=10

(0-1)mHZ

O/P
CRO

For R-C
R=10

L=10MH

(0-1)mHZ

61
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

Model graph:IN PUT

RL & RC CKTS

T
T/2

OUTPUT

3T/2

4T

RL CKT

4T
0
T

T/2

OUT PUT

3T/2

RC CKT

T/2

62
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

12. Time response of RL & RC Circuits.


AIM:- To draw the time response of first order R-L & R-C Networks for periodic non sinusoidal functions
and determination of time constant.

APPARATUS:PROCEDURE:1. Make connections as per the circuit diagram.


2. Give 2V Peak to peak square wave supply through function generator with suitable frequency.
3.

Take out put across inductor in RL Circuit, across capacitor in RC Circuits.

4. Calculate the time constant from CRO.


5. For deferent values of T and V Calculate corresponding (L/R) Values.
6. Compare the time constant theoretically and practically.

OBSERVATIONS:-

Type of
circuit

Voltage

Time period

Time constant

Time constant

Practical

theoretical

RESULT:-

63
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

13 - BRAKE TEST ON 3-SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-

3-
415V
50 Hz
AC
Supply

(015)A
MI A

10A, 600V, 3KW,


UPF
L
M

L1
B

V (0600)V
MI

Y/1
Start
er
L2

Y
3-
415V
50 Hz
AC
Supply
B

A
2

S1

S2

A
2

B
C

C
V

L3 B

10A, 600V, 3KW,


UPF

64
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

13 - BRAKE TEST ON 3-SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR


Aim: To conduct a brake test on the given 3-Squirrel Cage Induction motor and to
draw its performance Characteristics.
Nameplate details:
3-INDUCTION MOTOR
CAPACITY
VOLTAGE
CURRENT
SPEED
FREAQUENCY
ROTOR VOLTAGE
ROTOR CURRENT

Apparatus required:

S.NO

NOMENCLATURE

Volt meter

Ammeter

Watt meter

Tachometer

Patch cards

TYPE

RANGE

QTY

Theory: As a general rule, conversion of electrical energy to mechanical energy takes place in to the
rotating part on electrical motor. In DC motors, electrical power is conduct directly to the armature, i.e,
rotating part through brushes and commutator. Hence, in this sense, a DC motor can be called as
65
Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

'conduction motor'. However, in AC motors, rotor does not receive power by conduction but by
induction in exactly the same way as secondary of a two winding T/F receives
its power from the primary. So, these motors are
known as Induction motors. In fact an induction motor can be taken as rotating
T/F, i.e, one in which primary winding is stationary and but the secondary is free.
The starting torque of the Induction motor can be increase by improving its p.f
by adding external resistance in the rotor circuit from the stator connected rheostat, the rheostat
resistance being progressively cut out as the motor gathers speed. Addition of external resistance
increases the rotor impedance and so reduces the rotor current. At first, the effect of improved p.f
predominates the current- decreasing effect of impedance. So, starting torque is increased. At time of
starting, external resistance is kept at maximum resistance position and after a certain time, the effect of
increased impedance predominates the effect of improved p.f and so the torque starts decreasing. By
this during running period the rotor resistance being progressively cut-out as the motor attains its
speed. In this way, it is possible to get good starting torque as well as good running torque.

Procedure:

1) Give all the connections as per the circuit diagram.


2) Switch ON the 3 supply and press the ON button of the Star /Delta starter.

4) When the Star /Delta starter converts to Delta position Note the no-load readings of
ammeter, voltmeter, wattmeter, speed & loads.
5) Gradually increase the load on the motor by tightening the
hand-swivels and note the corresponding meters readings.
6) Remove the load completely & Switch-Off the power.

Graph: A graph is drawn b/w O/P power in watts (on X-axis) verses speed, torque, current, slip,
efficiency &p.f (on Y-axis).
Precautions:

1) There should not be any load on the motor initially.


2) The brake drum should be filled with water to cool it.
3) If the wattmeter shows negative deflection, reverse either
pressure coil or current coil and take that reading as
66

Department of EEE

CJITS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB MANUAL

negative.

Observations:

Voltmeter

Ammeter

Net
Wattmeter

Reading

I/P

Force

reading

Torque

%
Slip

2NT/6
0

O/p/i
/p

NsNa/
Ns

rpm

watt

Speed O/P

Force

W1

W2

F1

F2

F1~F2

9.81xFe.R
e

Volt

ampere

wat
t

Wat
t

wat
t

K
g

k
g

Kg

FxRe

Circumference of the drum, 2R =

Radius,

R = C/2 =

Result:

67
Department of EEE

CJITS

p.f