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Abstract

Many drugs can use to treat ear problem especially in ear infections. Ear infections
occur when a cold, throat infection, or allergy attack causes fluid to become trapped in
the middle ear. Children are more likely than adults to get ear infections. Children get
ear infections about two out of every three times they have a cold. Children are more
prone to ear infections because their small ears do not drain fluid as well as adult ears
do. There are three main kinds of ear infections, which are called acute otitis media ,
otitis media with effusion , and otitis externa. Ear infections frequently are painful
because of inflammation and buildup of fluids in the middle ear. Most bouts of ear
infection will clear on their own without treatment within 2-3 days. The immune system
can usually clear germs (bacteria or viruses) that cause ear infections. Treatment may
begin with managing pain and monitoring the problem. The painkiller give regularly until
the pain eases. Paracetamol or ibuprofen can be given but not aspirin in children.
These medicines will also lower a raised temperature which can make the patients feel
better. Recent research studies have found that a few drops of a local anesthetic
medication (lidocaine) placed into the ear may help to ease pain. Further studies are
needed to clarify the use of this treatment. Antibiotics are not advised in most cases.
This is because the infection usually clears within 2-3 days on its own. Ear infection in
infants and severe cases in general often require antibiotic medications. Taking
antibiotics when they are not needed can be harmful, and may lead to unwanted side
effects like diarrhea, rashes, nausea, and stomach pain. More severe side effects may
rarely occur, these include life-threatening allergic reactions, kidney toxicity, and severe
skin reactions. Antibiotics are more likely to be prescribed if: the child is under 2 years
old (as the risk of complications is greater in babies), the infection is severe, the
infection is not settling within 2-3 days or complications develop. When an ear infection
is caused by a virus, antibiotic treatment will not help it get better. Ear infections will
often get better on their own without antibiotic treatment. Long-term problems related to
ear infections persistent fluids in the middle ear, persistent infections or frequent
infections can cause hearing problems and other serious complications. Good
management of ear infections is very important to prevent complications.
Learning Task
A five years old boy brings by his parents to a hospital clinic with chief complaints ear
pain since two days ago after got sore throat. His father is active smoking. Clinical
examination found his body temperature is 38 C and found mucus in middle ear. His
body weight is 35 kg.
Questions
1. What is the painkiller can give to this child ? Why aspirin cannot give in this

case? Please give your reason


pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics of the
painkiller which can use in ear problems ?
3. What kinds of antibiotics can use in this case, please explain your answer ?
2. Please explain the profile

4. Please explain the profile pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics of ofloxacin

as ear drops antibiotic and what is the meaning of antibiotic resistance ?


5. Please explain the rational drug therapy in ear infections? Why the rational drug
therapy is very important to prevent complications in ear infections ?