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Aim:

To calculate the vant Hoffs factors of


different salts using water as the solvent

Apparatus required:

Electronic balance
China dish
Beaker stirrer
Bunsen burner
Stand
Clamps
Log table
Tripod stand
Wire gauze
Thermometer

Chemicals required:

Distilled water
Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
Zinc Sulphate(ZnSO4)
Ammonium Chloride(NH4Cl)

Potassium bromide (KBr)


Acetic acid(CH3COOH)

Vant Hoff factor:


The van 't Hoff factor i (named after J.
H. van 't Hoff) is a measure of the effect of a
solute upon colligative properties, such as
elevation of boiling point, vapor pressure,
osmotic pressure and freezing point
depression.
The van 't Hoff factor is the ratio
between the actual concentration of particles
produced when the substance is dissolved,
and the concentration of a substance as
calculated from its mass.
For most non-electrolytes dissolved in
water, the van' t Hoff factor is essentially 1
For most ionic compounds dissolved in
water, the van 't Hoff factor is equal to the
number of discrete ions in a formula unit of
the substance. This is true for ideal solutions
only. Sometime ion pairing occurs in solution.
At a given instant a small percentage of the
ions are paired and count as a single particle.
Ion pairing occurs to some extent in all
electrolyte solutions. This causes deviation

from the vant Hoff factor. The deviation for


the vant Hoff factor tends to be greatest
where the ions have multiple charges.
When solute particles associate
in solution, i is less than 1. (e.g.
ethanoic acid in benzene, benzoic
acid in benzene)
When solute particles dissociate in
solution, i is greater than 1. (e.g.
sodium chloride in water, potassium
chloride in water, magnesium chloride
in water)
When solute particles neither
dissociate nor associate in solution, i
equals 1. (e.g. Glucose in water)

Boiling-point elevation:
Boiling-point elevation describes the
phenomenon
that the boiling point of a liquid (a solvent)
will be higher
when another compound is added, meaning
that a
solution has a higher boiling point than a pure

solvent.
This happens whenever a non-volatile solute,
such as a
salt, is added to a pure solvent, such as water.

Tb=Kb .msolute.i
Non integer i factors result from ion pairs in
solution,
which lower the effective number of particles
in the
solution.
Together with the formula above, the boilingpoint
elevation can in principle be used to measure
the
degree of dissociation or the molar mass of
the
solute. This kind of measurement is called
ebullioscopy (Greek "boiling-viewing").

Error and correction of


thermometer:
The thermometer, like any such measuring
devices
may have error in its reading.
This may be due to
1. The scale may not be graduated properly.
2. The mercury may be impure and hence
may
not expand properly.
3. There may be other faults also with it.
That error may be removed if we apply the
end correction to
thermometer reading. We record thermometer
reading of melting
point of ice at room temperature.
If the temperature reading comes out then
the error is x C and
correction is xC

Procedure:
Measuring
the mass of solute and
solvent :
Take a clean, dry and empty beaker.
Measure the weight of the beaker with the
help of balance
Now pour some distilled water into the
beaker and again weigh the beaker by
subtracting this mass from initial mass of
beaker
We get mass of solvent(water).
Now , add some salt to the beaker and shake
the beaker so as to dissolve the salt in water
and again weigh the beaker.
This calculated mass when subtracted from
the mass of the beaker will give the mass
of the salt dissolved.

Determination of boiling point of


solvent

Take some water (solvent) in a beaker


and set it on
a wire gauze placed on a tripod stand
above the
burner .
Lower the thermometer into the
solution , such that
the bulb of the thermometer is completely
immersed
in the water and clamp it in position.
Light the burner to heat the water .
As heating progresses, at some time the
temperature becomes constant.
This temperature is the boiling point
solvent.

Determination of boiling point


of the
solution :
Take the solution in the beaker and set it on a
wire
gauze placed on the tripod stand above the
burner.
Lower a thermometer in the solution such that
its

bulb is completely immersed in the solution


and
clamp it in position.
Light the burner to heat the solution
determination
of error in the thermometer:
Take a clean beaker and dry it.
Put crushed ice into the beaker.
Lower a thermometer into the ice and clamp
it in
position.
Note the temperature when ice starts melting.
This temperature is equal to the error in the
readings
in the thermometer and corresponding
correction is
negative of it.

Observation:
Solvent used=water
End error and correction in the
thermometer
Observed melting point of ice = 3 C
Real melting point of ice = 0 C
Error in reading = -3 C
Correction e = 3 C

Solute used=Sodium chloride(NaCl)


a) Mass of solute and solvent
b) Mass of beaker x = 95 gm
c) Mass of beaker+solvent y =135 gm
d) Mass of beaker+solvent+solute z= 140
gm
e) Mass of solvent Wa =y-x= 40 gm
f) Mass of solute Wb=z-y=5 gm
1. Molecular mass of solute Mb = 58.5
2. Kb for solvent = 0.52 kg mol
-1
3. Elevation of boiling point
a) Observed boiling point of solvent =
99C
b) Corrected boiling point of solvent
=102C
c) Boiling point of solution =100C
d) Elevation in boiling point Tb =2
4. Vant Hoff factor
i = Tb*Mb*Wa/Kb*Wb*1000
i = 2 X 58.5X 40 /5 X 1000 X 0.52
i = 1.8
Vant Hoff factor for NaCl is 1.8

Solute used=ZINC SULPHATE(ZnSO4)

g) Mass of solute and solvent


h) Mass of beaker x = 91 gm
i) Mass of beaker+solvent y =130 gm
j) Mass of beaker+solvent+solute z= 138
gm
k) Mass of solvent Wa =y-x= 39 gm
l) Mass of solute Wb=z-y=8 gm
5. Molecular mass of solute Mb =161.5
6. Kb for solvent = 0.52 kg mol
-1
7. Elevation of boiling point
a) Observed boiling point of solvent =
98C
b) Corrected boiling point of solvent
=101C
c) Boiling point of solution =100C
d) Elevation in boiling point Tb =1
8. Vant Hoff factor

i = Tb*Mb*Wa/Kb*Wb*1000
i = 1 X 161.5 X 39
8 X 1000 X 0.52
i = 1.5
Vant Hoff factor for ZnSO4
is 1.5

Solute used= AMMONIUM CHLORIDE(NH4Cl)

m) Mass of solute and solvent


n) Mass of beaker x = 95.2 gm
o) Mass of beaker+solvent y =142.3 gm
p) Mass of beaker+solvent+solute z=
145.3 gm
q) Mass of solvent Wa =y-x= 47.1 gm
r) Mass of solute Wb=z-y= 3 gm
9. Molecular mass of solute Mb = 53.5
10. Kb for solvent = 0.52 kg mol
-1
11. Elevation of boiling point
a) Observed boiling point of solvent =
98C
b) Corrected boiling point of solvent
=101C
c) Boiling point of solution =100C

d) Elevation in boiling point Tb =1


12. Vant Hoff factor
i = Tb*Mb*Wa/Kb*Wb*1000
i = 1 X 53.5X 47.1
3 X 1000 X 0.52
i = 1.65
Vant Hoff factor for NH4Cl is 1.65

Solute used = K2SO4


Solute used=Sodium chloride(NaCl)
a) Mass of solute and solvent
b) Mass of beaker

x = 86.84 gm

c) Mass of beaker+solvent y = 150.71 gm


d) Mass of beaker+solvent+solute

z= 162.86 gm

wa =y-x= 63.87 gm
f) Mass of solute wb =z-y=12.15 gm
1. Molecular mass of solute Mb = 118.90 gm
e) Mass of solvent

2. Kb for solvent = 0.52 kg mol-1


3. Elevation of boiling point
a) Observed boiling point of solvent =

96.0OC

b) Corrected boiling point of solvent


O

T1 =

100.0 C

= 97.5OC
O
d) Elevation in boiling point Tb = 1.5 C
c) Boiling point of solution

Vant Hoff factor


i = Tb*Mb*Wa/Kb*Wb*1000
i = 1.5 X 118.90X 63.87/12.15 X 1000 X 0.52
i=

1.80

Vant Hoff factor for

KBr is 1.80

Solute used= CH3COOH


a) Mass of solute and solvent
b) Mass of beaker
x = 46.50 gm
c) Mass of beaker+solvent y = 82.75 gm
d) Mass of beaker+solvent+solute
z= 93.20
gm
e) Mass of solvent Wa =y-x= 36.25 gm
f) Mass of solute Wb=z-y=10.45
gm
1. Molecular mass of solute Mb = 60.00 gm
2. Kb for solvent = 0.52 K kg mol-1

3. Elevation of boiling point


a) Observed boiling point of solvent = 96.0oC
b) Corrected boiling point of solvent T1 =
100.0OC
c) Boiling point of solution =97.5OC
d) Elevation in boiling point Tb =1.5OC
Vant Hoff factor
i = Tb*Mb*Wa/Kb*Wb*1000
i = 1.5 X 60 X 36.25/10.45 X 1000 X 0.52
i=
0.60
Vant Hoff factor for CH3COOH is 1.8

Inference:
It was experimentally proved
that the boiling
point of water increases on
addition of a non

volatile solute.
The value of vant Hoff factor
for
1. NaCl = 1.8
2. ZnSO4= 1.50
3. NH4Cl= 1.65
4. KBr=1.80
5. CH3COOH =0.60
The Vants Hoffs factor for
these salts was found to be
greater than 1 (One).Hence,
the compounds dissociates
into ions when dissolved in
water.

Precautions:
The Pans of the balance
should be clean dry and
dust free as the mass of dust
may be more than sensitivity
A clean and dry beaker must
be used The beaker should
never be heated directly on
the burner
The error in the thermometer
should be determined and
apply the corresponding
correction

The Glass case of beam


balance must be closed while
reading is being taken to
prevent disturbances
due to air droughts
Only distilled water must be
used and the salt used must
be pure

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