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Anatomy 4.

November 8, 2011

The GIT Histology


OUTLINE
Digestive System
I.
ORAL CAVITY
II.
TONGUE
III.
TEETH
IV.
PHARYNX
V.
ESOPHAGUS
VI.
STOMACH
A. CARDIA
B. FUNDUS
C. BODY
D. PYLORUS
VII. SMALL INTESTINE
VIII. LARGE INTESTINE
IX.
APPENDIX
X.
ANUS

Dr. Ma. Cristina Elma-Zulueta


Main Function of Digestive tract epithelial lining
provide selectively permeable barrier between contents of tract and
tissue of the body
Facilitate transport and digestion of food
Promote absorption of products of this digestion
Produces hormones for the activity of the digestive system
Produces mucus for lubrication and protection
nice to know:
the lamina propria and the submucosa contain abundant lymphoid
nodules as protection from bacterial invasion
in the lamina propria, IgA is also secreted as a form of protection
also against viral and bacterial invasion

*Text in Times New Roman are lifted from the book


Objectives:
At the end of the study, the student should be able to understand the histology
of the GIT:

Describe the different lingual papillae.

Describe the structure of the tooth.

Review histologic structure of tonsils.

Name and describe the layers of the walls of the tract.

Differentiate histologically the different segments of the tract.

Differentiate the glands in the different areas of the stomach.

Describe the modifications.

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

I. ORAL CAVITY
Lined by stratified squamous epithelium keratinized or
nonkeratinized depending on the region
Keratinized: gingiva & hard palate
Non-keratinized: soft palate, lips, cheeks & floor of mouth
HARD PALATE
Stratified squamous keratinized
Forms deep invaginations called epithelial ridges
Has thick collagen fiber bundles that firmly bind with palatal mucosa

Consists of the tract from the mouth (oral cavity) to the anus, as
well as the digestive glands emptying into this tract, primarily the
salivary glands, liver, and pancreas
Has the same layers throughout the whole tract
4 Principal Layers
1. MUCOSA OR MUCOUS MEMBRANE
(LINING) EPITHELIUM
LAMINA PROPRIA loose connective tissue rich in blood vessels,
lymphatics, lymphocytes and smooth muscle cells; sometimes also
containing glands
o MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE/INTERNA - separates mucosa from
submucosa
2. SUBMUCOSA contains denser connective tissue with many blood
and lymph vessels and the submucosal plexus of autonomic nerves
3. MUSCULARIS PROPRIA/EXTERNA the autonomic myenteric nerve
plexus is contained in the connective tissue between these two
muscle layers
INNER CIRCULAR
OUTER LONGITUDINAL
4. SEROSA/ADVENTITIA
SEROSA a thin layer of connective tissue, rich in blood vessels,
lymphatics, and adipose tissue, with a simple squamous covering
(mesothelium)
ADVENTITIA consisting of connective tissue containing
vessels and nerves, lacking mesothelium

Figure 1: Hard Palate

Figure 2: Soft Palate

SOFT PALATE
Lined by stratified squamous, non-keratinized
Interdigitates with lamina propria forming rete apparatus
Movable structure attested by presence of skeletal muscle
Core has numerous salivary mucous glands
LIP
Two sides: covered by skin mucosa and oral mucosa
Contains striated muscles and minor salivary glands
Vermillion/Vermillion zone:
o Transition zone between normal skin and lip mucosa
o Where epidermis is very thin, lightly keratinized
o Lacks gland for oil and sweat

Terminal Sulcus
V-shaped groove that separates the posterior third of the tongues
dorsal surface from the anterior two thirds.
Anterior two-thirds
Body of the tongue
With lingual papillae of four types, all containing cores of connective
tissue covered by stratified squamous epithelium
FILIFORM PAPILLAE
Very numerous
Elongated conical shape or pointed
Heavily keratinized
Epithelium lacks taste buds
Provides rough surface that facilitates food movement during
chewing

Figure 3: Lip

Lip. oral mucosa (OM), skin (S), hair follicles (F) and associated glands.
(V)vermilion zone, is prone to excessive dryness and chapping in cold,
dry weather. Internally, the lips contain muchstriated muscle (M)
and many minor salivary glands (G).

II. TONGUE

Stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium


Mass of striated muscle
Muscle fibers cross one another in 3 planes
Mucous membrane strongly adherent to muscle
Dorsal surface: covered anteriorly by papillae

FUNGIFORM PAPILLAE
Less numerous
Lightly keratinized
Mushroom in shape
With connective tissue cores
Have scattered taste buds on their upper surfaces
Irregularly interspersed with filiform papillae
FOLIATE PAPILLAE
Poorly developed in adults
Consist of parallel ridges and furrows on the side of the tongue
Taste buds are present
CIRCUMVALLATE PAPILLAE
Least numerous
Largest
Over half the taste buds on the human tongue
Form a V-shaped line before the terminal sulcus
Von Ebner glands(serous salivary glands) empty into deep grooves
that surround this papilla
Posterior third
Root of tongue
The mucosa of the root is filled with masses of lymphoid nodules
separated by crypts, all of which comprise the lingual tonsils
Stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium
Without lingual papillae

Figure 4: Tongue and Lingual Papillae

CLINICAL CORRELATON
The opposing forces of the Genioglossus muscle on each side of the
tongue keep it in the middle. The LEFT genioglossus pushes the
tongue to the right while the RIGHT genioglossus pushes the
tongue to the left. If tongue is deviated to a side, you can pinpoint
which nerve was damaged.

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5 qualities in human taste perception:


Saltiness (metal ions)
Sourness (hydrogen ions from acids)
Sweetness (sugars and related organic compounds)
Bitterness (alkaloids and certain toxins)
Umami or savory (amino acids)
*tastants
TASTE BUDS
Ovoid structure containing 50-75 cells
Half are elongated gustatory/taste cells
Other cells: basal stem cells & supportive cells
Taste pore: opening where gustatory cells microvilli project
Cells are constantly replenished every 7-10days
present on fungiform and foliate papillae but are much more
abundant on vallate papillae.

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DENTIN
Comprise the bulk of the tooth
Calcified tissue containing 70% Ca hydroxyapatite
Matrix consists of type 1 collagen fibers & glycosaminoglycans
Matrix produced by odontoblasts
ENAMEL
Hardest component of human body
98% hydroxyapatite
2 unique proteins: amelogenin & enamelin
Has no collagen
Consists of enamel rods
Matrix produced by ameloblasts
Produced by cells of ectodermal origin, whereas most of the other
structures of teeth derive from mesodermal and neural crest cells.

Figure 5: Taste Buds

III. TEETH
Consists of:
o Crown exposed above the gingiva
o Neck constricted part of the tooth at the gum
o Roots below the gingiva that hold the teeth in bony sockets
called alveoli

PERIODONTIUM
Comprises structures responsible for maintaining the teeth in the
maxillary & mandibular bones
Consists of:
o Cementum covers the dentin of the root; similar in composition
to bone
o Periodontal ligament connective tissue with collagen fiber
bundles connecting the cementum and the alveolar bone of the
tooth socket
o Alveolar bone in immediate contact with the periodontal
ligament, which serves as its periosteum
o Gingiva mucous membrane firmly bound to the periosteum of the
maxillary and mandibular bones composed of stratified squamous
epithelium and lamina propria with numerous connective tissue
papillae

IV. PHARYNX
Transitional space between oral cavity & respiratory & digestive
systems
Forms an area of communication between nasal region & larynx
Lined by stratified squamous epithelium near esophagus &
respiratory epithelium near nasal cavity
Contains tonsils

V. ESOPHAGUS

MUCOSA: Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium


Has same major layers as the rest of GIT
SUBMUCOSA: contains esophageal glands(mucus-secreting)
LAMINA PROPRIA (LP): esophageal cardiac glands (mucus- secreting;
found in the LP near the stomach)
MUSCULARIS EXTERNA
o Proximal third: skeletal
o Middle third: skeletal & smooth
o Distal third: smooth
Most distal portion is covered by serosa
The rest is enclosed by adventitia
ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION
Junction of the esophagus and the cardiac region of the stomach
An abrupt change in the mucosa from stratified squamous epithelium
to simple columnar epithelium invaginating as gastric pits
Mucosa contains esophageal cardiac glands that opens into the
superficial gastric pits
Figure 6: Teeth

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Fundus/Body
o Lamina propria: filled with branched, tubular gastric glands

Figure 7: Esophagogastric Junction

VI. STOMACH
Mixed exocrine-endocrine organ that digests food and secretes
hormones
Main functions are to continue the digestion of carbohydrates
initiated in the mouth, add an acidic fluid to the ingested food,
transform it by muscular activity into chyme
Regions:
o Cardia
o Fundus
o Body
o Pylorus short coiled secretory portion

Figure 9: Stomach (Fundus/Body)

Pylorus
o Funnel-shaped region opening into the small intestine
o Gastric pits become deeper and the length of the glands will be
shorter or of the same size
o Middle layer of muscularis is greatly thickened to form the pyloric
sphincter

Rugae longitudinal directed folds in the mucosa and submucosa of


the empty stomach which usually flattens when it is filled with food
Gastric Pits- invaginations found in the lamina propria
Pyloric sphincter- thickening of middle circular layer of muscularis
externa
HISTOLOGIC REGIONAL DIFFERENCES
Cardia
o Narrow circular region at the transition between the esophagus and
the stomach
o Mucosa: contains tubular glands, usually branched, with coiled
secretory portions called cardial glands
o Short gastric pit

Figure 10: Stomach (Pylorus)

Figure 11: Pyloric Sphincter


Figure 8: Stomach (Cardia)

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HISTOLOGIC REGIONAL SIMILARITIES


Lining of epithelium: simple columnar epithelium with mucussecreting cells
Submucosa has NO GLANDS; found in LAMINA PROPRIA instead
No lymphoid aggregates; no villi; with rugae

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Muscularis has 3 muscle layers


o Inner Oblique
o Middle Circular
o Outer Longitudinal
Most of cells of the gastric glands are mucus- secreting to protect
the wall from HCL
Covered by thin serosa

ENTEROENDOCRINE CELLS
Epithelial cell type in the mucosa throughout the digestive tract
Secretes short polypeptides
Enterochromaffin Cells (EC cells) found on the basal lamina of
gastric glands of the fundus and secret serotonin
G Cells in contact with the glandular lumens in the pylorus and
lower body of the stomach that produce gastrin
STEM CELLS
Found in the neck region of the glands
Low columnar cells with basal nuclei and divide asymmetrically

VII. SMALL INTESTINE

Figure 12: Stomach

GASTRIC GLAND
Has an isthmus, a neck, and a base
Distribution of epithelial cells in the glands is not uniform

Site of terminal food digestion, nutrient absorption, and endocrine


secretion
Lining epithelium: simple columnar with striated border
Plicae circulares
o series of permanent circular or semilunar folds
o consists of mucosa and submucosa
o best developed in the jejunum
Villi: epithelium & lamina propria
Intestinal crypts/ Crypts of Leiberkuhn: short tubular glands
between villi
Cells lining the intestinal epithelium
Enterocytes
o absorptive cells
o tall columnar cells with an oval nucleus
o striated(brush) border on apical surface
Goblet cells
o Less abundant in duodenum, more abundant in ileum
o Produce mucins that are hydrated and cross-linked to form mucus
o Protect and lubricate the lining of the intestine

Figure 13: Gastric Gland

PARIETAL CELL
Present mainly in the upper half of gastric glands w/ fewer in the
base
Large, rounded or pyramidal
Central spherical nucleus
Intensely eosinophilic cytoplasm because it contains a lot of
mitochondria for production of HCl & intrinsic factor.
Secretory activity is stimulated through cholinergic nerve endings
and by histamine and a polypeptide called gastrin
MUCOUS (NECK) CELLS
Irregular in shape, with the nucleus at the base of the cell
Columnar cells with mucous in their apex
CHIEF/ZYMOGENIC/PEPTIC CELLS
Predominate in the lower region of the tubular glands
Cytoplasmic granules contain pepsinogen
Produce lipase and hormone leptin
Basophilic
Columnar
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Paneths Cell
o Broad base with narrow apex, at the base of intestinal gland;
o exocrine cells with large eosinophilic secretory granules in their
apical cytoplasm that contains lysozyme
o functions in innate immunity
o regulate the microenvironment of intestinal crypts
Enteroendocrine cells
o secrete peptides - have both endocrine and paracrine effects
o part of diffuse neuroendocrine system
Microfold (M) cells
o Specialized epithelial cells overlying the lymphoid follicles of
Peyers patches
o endocytose antigens and transport them to the underlying
macrophages and lymphoid cells

For Figure 14: Small Intestine


Absorptive surface of the small intestine. (a): The mucosa &
submucosa are the inner two of the guts 4 concentric layers. (b):
Plicae circulars, the absorptive area. (c, d): They are lined by
fingerlike projections called villi. Each villus contains lamina propria
connective tissue with microvasculature & lymphatics called lacteals
(e): At the apical cell membrane of each enterocyte are dense
microvilli, which serve to greatly the absorptive surface of the cell.

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o protect mucous membrane against acidity of gastric juice


JEJUNUM
Villi leaf-like
prominence of Plicae circulares
No glands in submucosa
Paneth cells at the bottom of glands, intensely stained
ILEUM
Simple columnar epithelium with brush border
Peyers patches: aggregates of lymphoid nodules
FOLDS
1. PLICAE CIRCULARES/KERCHRINGS VALVE series of permanent
folds consisting of the mucosa & submucosa having semilunar,
circular/spiral form
most developed in jejunum
increases surface area by 3-fold

Figure 15: Plicae Circulares

2. VILLUS
epith. & lamina propria
long outgrowths of the mucosa projection into the lumen
10-fold increase in surface area
Figure 14: Small Intestine

MICROCIRCULATION
blood vessels penetrate the muscularis externa forming plexuses in
the submucosa
branches extend through the muscularis mucosae and lamina propria
into each villus, forming a capillary network
venules from capillary network will drain into the veins of the
submucosal plexus
LYMPHATIC VESSEL

Close-ended tube in the villus


Lacteals: run to the region of lamina propria above the muscularis
mucosae for lipid absorption
ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM responsible for intestinal contraction /
peristalsis
SUBMUCOSAL/ MEISSNERS PLEXUS in the submucosa
MYENTERIC/AUERBACHS PLEXUS - between outer longitudinal and
inner circular layers of muscularis externa
DUODENUM
Simple columnar epithelium with striated border
Duodenal (Brunners) glands
o found in submucosa
o large clusters of branched tubular mucous glands
o secrete alkaline mucus neutralizes chyme, bring intestinal
contents to optimum pH for pancreatic enzyme action
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3. MICROVILLUS
3000/cell
cylindrical protrusion of the cytoplasm consisting of the cell
membrane enclosing a core of actin microfilaments
20-fold increase in surface area
Table 1. Comparison of the three regions of the small intestine

VILLI
LAMINA
PROPRIA
SUBMUCOSA

DUODENUM
Tall & slender

JEJUNUM
Leaf-shaped

Submucosal/
Brunners
Glands

ILEUM
Payers
Patches
-

ILEOCECAL VALVE
Marks the end of small intestine
Shows an abrupt change in villous pattern which is found in small
intestine mucosa, to the glandular pattern found in colonic mucosa
There is also thickening of muscularis mucosa which is smooth
muscle tissue found beneath the mucosal layer of digestive tract.

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IX. APPENDIX
Simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells
With continuous outer longitudinal layer, no taenia coli
With abundant lymphocytes and lymphoid follicles in the lamina
propria and submucosa
evagination of the cecum
small, narrow, irregular lumen
fewer & shorter glands
Figure 18: Ileocecal Valve

VIII. LARGE INTESTINE/ COLON/ BOWEL


Main functions
o absorption of water
o formation of fecal mass from undigestible material
o production of mucus - lubricates intestinal surface
INTESTINAL GLAND
o Simple columnar INFESTED with goblet cells!
o Colonocytes or absorptive cells: columnar, with short, irregular
microvilli
o with a small number of enteroendocrine cells
MUCOSA
o no folds except in distal (rectal) portion
o penetrated by tubular intestinal glands
o no villi
o Lamina Propria
Rich in lymphoid tissue related to the large bacterial population
of the large intestine
MUSCULARIS EXTERNA
o Inner circular layer continuous throughout
o Outer longitudinal layer gathered in three longitudinal bands
called taenia coli
o Haustra: series of sacs caused by the bands of taenia coli
RECTUM
Histologically same with colon. Only difference is the outer
longitudinal muscle is continuous

X. ANUS
Anal columns (Columns of Morgagni): series of longitudinal folds
formed in mucosa
Recto-anal junction: mucosal lining changes from simple columnar
epithelium with goblet cells to non-keratinized stratified squamous
epithelium (keratinized- outside)
Anal Transition Zone
Rectum/Anal Canal
rd
A. Colorectal Zone upper 3 of anal canal; simple columnar epith.
B. ATZ middle anal canal; stratified columnar epith. Interposed bet.
simple columnar epith.
rd
C. Squamous Zone lower 3 of anal canal; stratified squamous epith.
Anal Glands extend into submucosa & even into muscularis externa;
branched, straight tubular; secrete mucus
Circumanal Glands skin surrounding anal orifice
Submucosa at Anal Column submucosal venous plexus

SUMMARY
Layers
Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis propria
Serosa/Adventitia

Cell - Stomach
Stem
Mucous
Parietal
Zymogen
Enteroendocrine
G
D

Cell - Intestines
Absorptive
Paneth
Microfold cells
Goblet

Figure 19: Intestinal Gland

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