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Tech-Net Notes

Fixed Right First Time

Volvo Technicians, Service and Parts Managers

NO:
DATE:
MODEL/YEAR:

SUBJECT:
REFERENCE:

25-149-A
04-03-06
C70 1999-2002
S70 1999-2000
S60 2001 all engine variants, 2002 non-turbo only.
V70 1999-2001 all engine variants, 2002 non-turbo only.
V70XC, 1999-2000
XC70 2001
S80 1999-2001
Troubleshooting Electronic Throttle System (ETS)
VIDA SMB 25-23 TNN 25-149-B TNN 25-149-C TNN 25-149-D
TNN 25-149-E TNN 37-22 SB 37-0015

This tech note supersedes the previous TNN 25-149A dated 12/6/2005 please update your files.

Troubleshooting Electronic Throttle System (ETS),


Supplementary Information
This TNN contains information and help for troubleshooting the electronic throttle system.
This information should be used to fault trace, and VIDA should only be referenced when
directed from this TNN. This TNN must be followed before replacing any components.

Description
From March 2006 there will be an Electronic Throttle System (ETS), software upgrade
available for the vehicles listed above. The software contains changes that will reduce driver
disturbances by allowing the system to better differentiate between glitches or minor
disturbances, and real system faults. The upgraded software will also reduce driver
disturbances due to idle oscillations caused by dirt build-up in the throttle. This TNN has been
updated to guide service technicians on the changes. The fault tracing for each DTC in this
TNN gives guidance on where it is appropriate to use the software as a solution for DTC's
triggered in the vehicles current software. As the ETS software resides in both the Electronic
Throttle Module (ETM) and the Engine Control Module (ECM), both will receive new software
with the upgrade. In almost every case, it should not be necessary to exchange or clean
throttle hardware to resolve concerns related to the ETS. Refer to TNN 25-149F for details on
upgrade part numbers, application, and verification.
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Downloading the ETS upgrade


The vehicles ECM should first be checked for existent ETS fault codes. If any are found
they should be fault traced according to the fault tracing in this TNN, to determine if the
fault will be remedied by software alone or will need additional work along with the
software.
Downloading the latest ETS software, will only help throttle system concerns related to
DTC's listed in the matrix: "DTC specific tips for ETM troubleshooting" (at the end of this
document), and idle oscillation concerns related to dirt accumulation in the throttle bore.
If there are any other DTC's present in the ECM, or drivability concerns not related to the
throttle, they will manifest themselves again after the software if they are not addressed or
repaired.
When a download to/or involving the ECM has completed, and the VIDA station has sent
the confirmation file to the PIE server, the ignition key should be turned off for a few
seconds before an engine start attempt is made. There are two reasons for this. First is
that the ECM may not make a new immobilizer attempt and the start will fail due to
immobilizer blocking the start. Second is that the ECM will need the shut down to finish
writing to its memory.

Downloading the latest ETS software will erase all of the ECM's adapted values from its

memory. So any compensation the ECM had made for airflow due to dirt build up in the
throttle, or fuel adaptation for aged components, will be lost. This may be apparent from a
poor idle quality or slightly poor performance immediately after the download. The vehicle
may need to be driven for a while to re-establish the adaptations. Normally 20 minutes of
driving with the engine fully warmed up and several idle periods is sufficient. Some
vehicles may require more but most will require less. This can also be simulated in the
workshop by cycling between brake torque (brake and light accelerator pressed together)
and idle several times with a warm engine.

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System Description
The throttle system implemented in the above vehicles comprises an Engine Control Module
(ECM), and an independent Electronic Throttle Module (ETM) that communicate with each
other over the vehicles Controller Area Network (CAN). It is important to be aware that all
throttle system fault codes are stored in the ECM, when either the ECM detects a fault or the
ETM requests that the ECM store a fault. The CAN network is vital to the throttle operation,
because the ECM uses the CAN network to make requests to the ETM for throttle positions
and the ETM continuously sends updates to the ECM about its current throttle position.
Several other sub systems indirectly interface with the ETS, to run cruise control and to
manage engine torque for gear shifts etc. Though these systems interface with the ETS they
are not internal to the ETM and need to be diagnosed independently. The fault tracing matrix
later in this document gives detailed information about what fault or failure mode is behind
each DTC.

Steering Wheel Control


Steering
Module Wheel Module
Cruise control switches
S80, S60,(V70 XC70,2001 -)

Cruise control
switches
Switches
Hardwired to
ECM
S/V70 99 -00,
C70 99 -02

Hardwired analog signal


Pulsed signal
Central
Electrical
Module

Brake
position
Sensor

Brake light
Switch

Engine
Control
Module

Electronic Throttle
Module

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CAN Network

Clutch Pedal
Sensor

Accelerator Pedal
Module
Shown without lever

What does the Latest Electronic Throttle System software do?


General
Many changes have been made to reduce driver disturbances or drivability concerns. Other
changes assist the technician in fault tracing by eliminating redundant DTC's, and
rationalizing the detection criteria to best trigger codes that point toward the root cause first.
Additional changes were made to make the system more tolerant of short and intermittent
disturbances.
Throttle Position Sensors
Within the throttle module two potentiometers are used to detect the position of the throttle
blade. An inconsistency between the signals from the potentiometers, even for a short time,
may result in one or a combination of the following DTC's; 903F, 904C, 904D, 9150, 9160,
9190, 91A7, 91B7. The potentiometers are located at either end of the common shaft that
also incorporates the drive motor and throttle blade.
Throttle potentiometer detail.

1. Moveable contact

2. Contact brush

3. Resistance track

With the latest ETS software, some new functionality and logic is introduced to reduce
erroneous detections and to sustain the drivability at a normal level for the driver even when
a fault is found. Where previously small signal disturbances or discrepancies caused a DTC
and limp home functionality for the driver, the new software uses a new support function in
the ECM that based on the engine airflow determines the throttle opening. There are also
some other new functions in the ECM and ETM, that allow the system to utilize the ETM
hardware without allowing minor disturbances to be detected as faults.
Throttle Cleaning
With the latest ETS software the adaptation function for air leakage over the throttle blade
has been enhanced to provide a greater tolerance of normal dirt build up over time.
Previously the dirt build up exhausted the adaptations capacity and caused the idle speed
controller difficulties in maintaining a smooth idle, and therefore customer concerns over
oscillating idle. With the latest ETS software the DTC (130A) that would often accompany this
on turbocharged or 6 cylinder non-turbocharged vehicles MY 2000-2001, has been removed
and the adaptation expanded to allow for this dirt accumulation. It is only recommended to
clean the throttle when a combination of DTC's 91A7, 91B7 & 130A exist in the ECM prior to
updating with the latest ETS software.
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Uneven and/or rough running without any relevant trouble codes


Note! Only applies to turbo engines and natural aspirated 6-cylinder engines.
The idle speed is calibrated to allow for an amount of air coming into the system from the
breather. If this air is missing it will be hard for the ECM to maintain a steady idle. This is the
same condition as DTC 130A, but the DTC threshold has not been reached. Downloading the
latest ETS software will resolve this concern, but will need the adaptation to be reestablished.

Downloading the Latest ETS software will erase any adaptation values the ECM had for the
air leakage over the throttle blade. Therefore it may take some driving for the system to reestablish those adaptation values to once again compensate for the dirt that is already built
up in the throttle. To allow adaptation, the adaptation function requires a fully warmed up
engine, and driving with several brief periods of idle. A 5-cylinder normally aspirated engine
has a similar adaptation for the idle speed, and would also require re-establishing of the
adaptation. Cleaning of the throttle bore is not recommended, but would reduce the need for
adaptation. The amount of air adaptation in the ECM can be read before downloading the
Latest ETS software, by looking at the Air Mass Correction Factor and the Leakage Flow over
the throttle blade. If the Air Mass Correction factor is lower than 0.9 and or the Leakage flow
over the throttle blade is below 3kg/h, then the adaptations may need to be re-established.
See the following descriptions for a reminder of the Air adaptation functions.
Leakage Flow over Throttle (long term air trim at Idle)
This parameter is the adaptation for the airflow at idle. The MAF is the master value and the
adaptation value is what needs to be added to or subtracted from the calculated airflow. The
calculated airflow +/- the adaptation value should equal the MAF value. This is a slow or long
term adaptation. This adaptation value is not used as part of a diagnostic function and will not
result in a fault code. But we can use it to evaluate the airflow into the intake. The adaptation
value is shown in kg/h, and normal values are approximately 5-10 kg/h. There are several
sources of air that are fed to the inlet manifold that do not go through the throttle or MAF e.g.
air from the brake booster, the evaporative purge system, and the crankcase breather. The
sum of these air sources would give us our normal adaptation value of 5-10 kg/h that does
not pass through the throttle and MAF.
If we take away one of these sources or restrict one of them, for example a clogged
crankcase breather system, the adaptation value would go down (<5 kg/h). Dirt build up on
the throttle bore can have the same effect and it is usually the result of the breather system
being restricted. The breather should be checked first.
If we had an air leak into the manifold the value would go up (>10 kg/h).
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Air mass Correction value (long term adaptations of the air trim above idle)
This is the part load adaptation for the mass air flow, to allow for small tolerances between
engines and for aging of components.
The normal value with no adaptation is 1. A number lower than 1 e.g. 0.95 indicates that
more air is passing through the MAF sensor than calculated, e.g. if the crankcase breather
system becomes blocked. One indication of this would be a low mass air flow correction
value, around 0.85 or lower. A value higher than 1 might indicate an air leak into the manifold,
e.g. a loose or broken vacuum line might give a value of 1.15 or higher.
The Fault Code ECM-130A is set if the value of the long term AIR trim part load (air mass
correction value) and the short term air trim become excessive. Unfortunately the short term
air trim is not available to be viewed in VIDA, but if we have the fault code then the short term
can be assumed excessive. These adaptations should not be used as a diagnosis on their
own but as an indication of what path to take next. First look at the fuel trims (Lambda
adaptations), to evaluate the possibility of air leakage. Then, if we have less air bypassing the
throttle than normal (< 5kg/h & or <1), we might suspect that the crankcase breather may be
blocked and we can use the diagnostic method in TNN 25-149 B to check that. If the amount
of air bypassing the throttle is higher than normal (>10kg/h & or >1), we could use the tools to
pressurize the intake system and check for leakage. Do not forget to check the purge valve
as a leak source, it is easy to overlook as in some cars the outlet from the system is at the
back of the car. It is best checked off the vehicle.

General Fault Tracing Tips


Using Freeze Frames
Electronic Throttle System (ETS) faults can be very intermittent and that is important to
remember when checking the possible source identified in the fault tracing or in VIDA while
the vehicle is in the workshop it may cause us to overlook an identified source as the root
cause, because the values may be good at time of testing. Therefore a good indication of the
"source" condition at the time the fault was set, is the freeze frame data available from VIDA.
The freeze frame data (frozen values) will be stored just after a fault has been detected. Most
of the parameters in the freeze frames are the same for all faults and reflect a general
condition when a fault was detected, e.g. engine speed, load, coolant temp, vehicle speed
and battery voltage. A few of the values are fault specific and are added to give a better
understanding of the specific fault.
An example of DTC ECM 903F - Throttle unit internal fault (signal too low or missing)
The first possible source or root cause indicated in VIDA for this DTC is "the power supply to
the throttle unit" and goes on to suggest checking the battery and charging system. However
the condition of the battery when the car is in the workshop doesn't indicate the voltage when
the fault was detected. The best source of information is available in the freeze frames, but it
is the voltage seen by the ECM at the time the ETM requested the fault, and it should be kept
in mind that this is not an indication of the condition of the supply wiring to the throttle itself,
and this should be checked independently. But if the ECM had good voltage, the battery was
good.

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Freeze Frame for ECM 903F


Fuel system status bank 1
Fuel system status bank 2
Calculated load
Engine Coolant Temperature
Short term fuel trim, bank 1
Long term fuel trim, bank 1
Short term fuel trim, bank 2
Long term fuel trim, bank 2
Engine speed
Vehicle Speed
Turbo pressure
Battery voltage
Throttle angle, desired value
Mass air flow
Ambient temperature

LR: closed loop operating with two sensors


LR: closed loop operating with two sensors
4.71 %
87 C
15.63 %
-0.78 %
23.44 %
-0.78 %
760 rpm
0 km/h
30 %
12.50 V
14.84 %
23.8 kg/h
33 C

In this particular case the car had low battery voltage in the workshop, but as you can see
from the frozen values the battery voltage was good at the time of the fault, and not the
cause. Voltages below 10V should be considered carefully, if the battery condition is poor the
starter draw could give low voltages during cranking. Use the other parameters in the frozen
data to evaluate the driving condition at the time the data was frozen.
This is an example of how the freeze frame data can be used to streamline the fault tracing,
and possibly prevent wasting too much time on "Dead end" fault tracing and the possibility of
finding and fixing a fault that was not actually the root cause of the problem we set out to
resolve.
There are some things to consider when using freeze frames for fault tracing.
The freeze frames that should be used carefully are those captured for CAN network related
ETM DTC's. If the ETM detects a loss of communication with the ECM, fault flags will be set
in the ETM, however the DTC's in the ECM won't be stored until the communication between
ETM and ECM is restored, and that is when the freeze frame data is recorded. So where
ETM CAN faults are concerned, the freeze frame data will be from after the fault event.
A good method to determine if the DTC was set during fault tracing is to compare the
distance in the freeze frame where shown with the distance that can be read from either the
CEM or CDM.
Using Counters
Another useful tool in VIDA for fault tracing is the counters. Counters can be used to
determine when and how often the fault was detected. We have seen examples where due to
low battery voltage during cranking while connected to VIDA, the VCT caused errors on the
network and set communication faults in the high speed nodes. This also caused the ETM
and ECM to enter a limp home mode. Using the counters for the fault code, it would be
possible to see if the fault was only detected on the current drive cycle or if it had been
detected previously. Model year 1999 vehicles with 5-cylinder normally aspirated engines do
not support counter 1 and therefore counters are not good indicators of intermittence or
occurrence on this vehicle.

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Example of Counters
Counter 1
Counter 2
Counter 4
Counter 5
Counter 6
Counter 7
time

15
69
1
91764
0
0

Number of fault-free driving cycles since fault was last detected


Total driving cycles since the DTC was set for the first time
Number of driving cycles with fault since the DTC was set for the first time
Number of seconds of ECU operation since the DTC was set for the first time
Number of seconds with test in ECU running since the DTC was set for the first time
Number of seconds that the ECU detected the fault since the DTC was set for the first

Things to remember about the counters are, if counter 3 is high and counter 4 is 0 the fault
happened once and many drive cycles ago, this would tell us that this fault code is not related
to the customer's current concern. Counter 1 tells us how many driving cycles since the last
time the diagnostic detected a fault. If this is high the diagnostic has not detected a fault for a
long time, if low the fault was detected on a recent driving cycle and may be related to the
customers current concern.
If counters 1, 3 and 4 are 0, this indicates that there are no drive cycles since the fault was
detected and the fault was set during the latest driving cycle and probably in the workshop.
For a drive cycle to be counted a coolant temperature increase may be needed, but in some
cases a key cycle counts as a drive cycle. Counter 5 can be useful if the fault was detected in
this drive cycle, the time can be used to determine when the fault occurred.
Fault tracing Controller Area Network (CAN)
As mentioned earlier in this document the ETM/ECM can not function together without the
CAN. The two control modules monitor the CAN continuously for problems, and are very
sensitive to disturbances on the CAN. These modules will set fault codes very quickly if they
detect problems on the CAN, and may go to a limp home mode because of it. If the
ECM/ETM detect a fault on the CAN bus, this is not an indication that they were the cause of
the problem, it is more likely they were just the most sensitive to it.
As you can/will see from this document many of the other fault codes can be triggered due to
a loss of communication on the CAN. Again this is a consequence of the fault and not an
indication of the root cause.
ETS CAN fault codes should be fault traced along with any other CAN fault codes from other
modules, using the fault tracing in VIDA and supplemented by the information in TNN 37-22.
CAN faults generated by VIDA/VCT
When the VIDA station is connected to the vehicle and the battery voltage is low this might
generate fault codes. The VCT (Volvo Communication Tool) gets its power from the vehicle
and either can be disturbed, and cause disturbances when it's supply voltage is low
(Particularly when the engine is cranked with a weak battery). Fault codes that occur during
fault tracing can be identified using freeze frames and counters, to eliminate fault tracing the
wrong codes.
This situation can be minimized by using a battery charger to keep the voltage stable when
fault tracing for extended periods. Note! Only use the Volvo approved battery chargers, as
some booster chargers produce excessive voltage, creating problems and fault codes
themselves.
Low battery voltage fault tracing tip (only C70 MY99-02 and S70/V70 MY99-00)
Resistance in the B+ cable to the fuse box can be the root cause for many ECM/ETM fault
codes. Fault trace according to Service Bulletin 37-0015 (released December 2001)
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Erasing ETM memory


Some fault tracing instructions recommend that the ignition be turned off and on twice, after
erasing codes. The reason for this is that fault codes may have been set at the request of the
ETM, but we can only erase the ECM. The ETM needs to power down fully to erase its
memory; otherwise the fault may be set in the ECM again.
For the ECM and ETM to power down fully the ignition should be turned off for 5 minutes the
first time and 30 seconds the second time. If the cooling fan is running you will need to wait
until 2 minutes after the cooling fan has stopped to ensure the ETM is powered down.
This should only be necessary where the ETM's CAN controller has gone bus off due to
network disturbances, and therefore will not have seen the instruction from the ECM to shut
down. The ETM will shut down when the system relay times out. The DTC's that would most
commonly indicate that the ETM has gone bus off are 911A, 901A, 902A, & 902B.

Symptoms
Limp home modes
Some ETS related faults will result in the system running in a limp home status for the
remainder of the drive cycle that the fault occurred in, and any following driving cycles where
the fault is still present.
There are different limp home levels depending on the fault detected. The limp home
functions are described below:
Fuel shut-off, which follows accelerator pedal (AP) position. Engine speed (RPM) is
controlled by reducing fuel quantity and /or disabling the injectors one at a time, maximum
engine speed (RPM) is governed by the accelerator pedal (AP) position. The absolute limit
for engine speed (RPM) is approximately 5000 rpm (This particular limp home function can
appear as if the engine idle is very erratic, because the ECM turns off fuel to individual
cylinders to control the engine speed. Do not confuse these limp home functions for real
drivability problems.)
Slower throttle opening than requested. The throttle opens slower than normal because
the system is only regulated by the pulse width modulated signal from the accelerator
pedal (AP) position sensor. (The customer may feel a slower response to their accelerator
input).
Throttle closure when braking. The accelerator pedal (AP) position is ignored when the
brake pedal is depressed. No response to the Accelerator pedal while the brake pedal is
used. Normal accelerator response is resumed when the brake pedal is released.
Throttle follows accelerator pedal (AP) position. The throttle and accelerator pedal (AP)
are used as if they were mechanically connected to each other. This limp home function
will always accompanied by the fuel shut off limp functionality.
Throttle disabled. Power is turned off to the throttle control motor and the throttle blade
goes to its mechanical stop position (approximately 20% open). This limp home function
will always be accompanied by the fuel shut off limp functionality.
Cruise control Disabled. Cruise control will not be available to the driver for the duration
of the driving cycle in which the fault occurred. Cruise will be available on the next engine
start, if there are no faults detected.
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Combined Fault Codes


Faults detected by the ETM system, will normally result in multiple fault codes.
To aid in diagnosing these cases we have provided two charts below that show the fault code
combinations, and in the column (Follow fault tracing for) to the right of the combination
shows the fault code that should be fault traced to determine the root cause. These fault code
combinations can exist with or without other fault codes that are not necessarily throttle
related.

Combined Fault codes


For Turbo and 6 cylinder normally aspirated engines
With this combination of
codes
130A, 91CF

Follow the fault


tracing for:
130A

Follow the fault


tracing for:
9150, 9160

91A7
91A7
91B7
9150, 9160

With this combination


of codes
9150, 9160, 903F,
904C, 904D, 982A
901E, 903F
901E, 903C, 903F
902A, 903F, 904D,
959F
902A, 903F, 904D
902A, 903F, 959F
902A, 928C
902A, 903C, 959F

130A, 903F, 904D, 91CF


130A, 904D, 91A7
91A7, 904D

130A
130A
91A7

91A7, 903C
91A7, 903F, 904D
91B7, 904D, 91A7
9150, 9160 903F, 904C,
904D
9150, 9160 903F, 904C,
904D, 91A7
9150, 9160 903C, 903F
9150, 9160 903F, 904C
9150, 9160, 903F 904C,
904D, 91B7
9150, 9160, 903F, 904C,
91A7
9150, 9160, 903F, 904C,
904D, 91A7, 91B7
9150, 9160, 903C, 903F,
91A7

9150, 9160

903F, 904D

903F

9150, 9160
9150, 9160
9150, 9160

958F, 917F
958F, 959F
981A, 904D

958F
958F
981A

9150, 9160

981A, 6805, 904D

981A

9150, 9160

982A, 904D

982A

9150, 9160

9190, 903F, 904D,


91A7
9520, 917F, 958F

9190

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901E
901E
902A
902A
902A
902A
902A

9520

Combined fault codes


For 5 Cylinder normally aspirated engines
With this combination
of codes
E003, 902B
E003, 902B, 903F
91A7, 903F, 980F
91A7, 903F

Follow the fault


tracing for:
E003
E003
91A7
91A7

With this combination


of codes
911A, 912A
918F, 917F, 951F
950F, 951F
950F, 903F, 917F,
951F
950F, 917F, 951F

Follow the fault


tracing for:
911A
918F
950F
950F

91A7, 903F, 980F,


9818
91B7, 91A7
91B7, 903F, 91A7
91B7, 903F, 980F

91A7
91B7
91B7
91B7

980F
9150
9150

902B
902B

980F, 9818
9150, 91B7
9150, 903F, 91B7,
980F
9150, 9160, 903F,
91B7
9150, 9160, 903F,
980F
9150, 9160, 903F
9150, 9160, 903F,
91B7, 980F
9150, 9160, 130A,
903F, 980F
9160, 91B7
9160, 903F, 91B7,
980F
9200, 922A
9300, 930A

91F0, 91A7

91F0

130A, 903F, 980F

130A

130A, 903F
130A, 91B7

130A
Fault trace both

150A, 980F, 9818

150A

902B, 903F
902B, 902A

902B
902B

902B, 903F, 980F


902B, 902A, 903F,
951F, 980F
902B, 902A, 951F
902B, 902A, 903F
902B, 902A, 903F,
951F
903F, 980F

902B
902B
902B

9400, 941F
9520, 918F
9520, 918F, 951F

9400
9520
9520

903F

9530, 950F

9530

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950F

9150, 9160
9150, 9160
9150, 9160
9150, 9160
9150, 9160
9160
9160
9200
9300

DTC specific tips for ETS/ETM troubleshooting


DTC

Description

ECM-9200

This DTC is triggered if an impossible combination of cruise


control buttons is detected by the ECM.
Faulty signal
For S60 and V70 2001-2002,
SET+ & SET- & CRUISE OFF & RESUME pressed at the
same time. For longer than 0.3 seconds
For V70 1999-2000, S /70
SET+ & SET- pressed at the same time, OR CRUISE OFF
& RESUME pressed at the same time. For longer than 0.3
seconds
Signal too high
Can be triggered if it is detected that any of the cruise switches
are shorted to battery voltage, for longer than 0.3 seconds
The switch status can be checked using VIDA.
If the fault code is set cruise control will be denied by the ECM
for the remainder of the driving cycle.
Check the freeze frame and counters to determine the driving
conditions and intermittence of the problem. Verify the operation
of the cruise control buttons through ECM parameters in VIDA. If
the buttons function correctly downloading the latest ETS
software will increase the systems tolerance of accidental button
pushes by increasing the detection time to 1.8 seconds

Cruise control faulty signal

ECM-921F
Clutch pedal sensor, faulty
signal.

On a vehicle with a manual transmission the ECM calculates the


gear being used, by calculating the ratio between current engine
speed and road speed and matches that ratio to one of the 6
possible ratios stored in the ECM. If the ECM detects 5 gear
changes in the same driving cycle where the clutch pedal is not
pressed more than 10%, a fault is detected and the DTC ECM921F is posted, cruise control will be denied by the ECM for the
remainder of the drive cycle.
Downloading the latest ETS software will have no effect on this
DTC. The clutch position detected by the sensor should be
checked against pedal movement using VIDA.

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ECM-922A
Cruise control, faulty signal.

All communication between the cruise control buttons and the


ECM is via the Steering Wheel Module (SWM) over CAN. Both
the ECM and SWM make several checks to make sure that the
information received by the ECM about the current cruise control
button status is correct.
The ECM does the following checks:
1. When a button signal is sent by the SWM the module makes a
calculation based on the button position, the result of this
calculation (Checksum) is attached to and sent with the signal.
When the ECM receives the signal it reverses the checksum
calculation to make sure it agrees with the button status being
sent. If the checksum and signal disagree for longer than 0.1
seconds the DTC will be set.
2. The button positions are constantly sent to the ECM, even if
they have not changed, as a confirmation to the ECM that the
driver has not asked for a change. An update part is attached
to the button position signal, to indicate that this is a fresh
signal. If the update part is missing or wrong for 0.8 seconds
the ECM sets the DTC 922A.
If either fault is detected the ECM will deny cruise control for the
remainder of the driving cycle.
Downloading the latest ETS software, will allow this diagnostic
monitor to better tolerate network interruptions during engine
start etc. by increasing the detection time to 0.9 seconds and by
introducing a condition where the monitor is only active at road
speeds where cruise control is possible ( >25KMH / 15.5mph) .

ECM-930A
Clutch pedal sensor, faulty
signal.

On a vehicle with a manual transmission the ECM calculates the


gear being used, by calculating the ratio between current engine
speed and road speed and matches that ratio to one of the 6
possible ratios stored in the ECM. If there are 5 gear changes in
the same driving cycle where the clutch pedal is not pressed
more than 10%, a fault is detected and the DTC ECM-930A
posted, and cruise control will be denied for the remainder of the
drive cycle.
Downloading the latest ETS software will have no effect on this
DTC. The clutch position detected by the sensor should be
checked against pedal movement using VIDA.

Page 13 of 31

ECM-9300
Clutch pedal position sensor

Signal too high


Fault trace signal wire shorted to supply (>4.771V) using
VIDA.
Signal too low
Fault trace signal wire shorted to ground (< 1.66V) using
VIDA.
Faulty signal
This monitor was intended for production line verification only
and is not tolerant of wear over time. Resulting in
unnecessary DTC's and cruise control denied by the ECM for
the remainder of the driving Cycle.
Downloading the Latest ETS Software will remove the assembly
fault monitor as the cruise will disconnect with detected gear
ratio, but the signal too high/low will remain.

ECM-9400
Brake pedal position sensor

Signal too high (>4.15V >1.2seconds)


Fault trace according to VIDA. If fault is found to be
intermittent and/or fault not present when tested (use fault
code counter to determine degree of intermittence), download
the latest ETS software. This will increase the fault tolerance
by increasing the detection time, but maintaining safety by
activating an un-used mutual check between the two brake
pedal sensors.
Signal too low (<.449V >1.2seconds)
Fault trace according to VIDA. If fault is found to be
intermittent and or fault not present when tested (use fault
code counter to determine degree of intermittence), download
the latest ETS software. This will increase the fault tolerance
by increasing the detection time, but maintaining safety by
activating an un-used mutual check between the two brake
pedal sensors.
Signal missing
Fault trace according to VIDA. If fault is intermittent (use fault
code counter to determine degree of intermittence) download
the latest ETS software. This will allow the ECM to tolerate
intermittent disturbances in the signal, while maintaining
integrity with an added check using the brake light switch.
Faulty Signal
This Monitor was intended for production line verification only
and is not tolerant of wear over time. Resulting in
unnecessary DTC's. Downloading the latest ETS software
will remove this monitor, and maintain integrity using the
added check of the brake light switch from the signal missing
monitor.
Downloading the latest ETS software will increase the ECM's
ability to tolerate minor signal disturbances while still detecting
signal faults.
Page 14 of 31

ECM- 941F
Brake pedal sensor faulty
signal.
(5 cylinder non- turbo)

ECM-950F
Accelerator pedal position
sensor.
Analog and PWM signals from
Accelerator Pedal Module
differ as received by ECM

This DTC is to detect discrepancies between the brake pedal


sensor and the brake light switch. If, for more than 0.32 seconds,
the pedal sensor indicates that the pedal is pressed beyond a
pre determined limit, but the brake light switch is not active, the
fault is set and the DTC ECM-941F is posted in the ECM.
If the DTC is posted the brake pedal position value and the brake
light switch should be compared to make sure that the pedal
sensor changes with pedal travel and that the switch also goes
on and off with pedal travel. If the switch and sensor behave
correctly, download the latest ETS software.
Downloading the latest ETS software increases the detection
capability of this monitor. As before detecting faults for brake
light switch coming on, but now also checking that it goes off
when the position sensor indicates the pedal is released. The
detection time has been increased to 2 seconds and the number
of detections during a driving cycle is now 30. Brake lamp
operation should be verified after repair/software.

The fault is detected by the ECM if it sees that the Accelerator


Pedal Module (APM) analog and PWM signals (both hard wired
to the ECM) differ by more than 5% for >0.4 seconds. A greater
percentage is allowed when the pedal is moving dependant on
the speed it is moving.
For Model years 99-2001 the rpm has to be over 700 for the DTC
to be set. For MY 2002 ignition on is required but no engine
speed.
Check the freeze frame and counters to determine conditions at
time of detection and the degree of intermittence, if the fault was
at starting and /or is very intermittent the most likely cause is
signal disturbance.
Downloading the latest ETS software increases the detection
time to 0.7 seconds to allow more tolerance of starting times in
the APM signal generator. Engine running has also been added
as a requirement for all applications.

Page 15 of 31

ECM- 951F
Accelerator position sensor
(AP) internal fault.

This fault indicates that with engine running there was a


difference >10% for >1 second between the analog signal from
the APM (Accelerator Pedal Module) monitored by ECM, and the
PWM (Pulse Width Modulated) signal, reported to the ECM by
the ETM over the CAN bus. Larger differences are accepted if
the pedal is seen to be moving (based on the analog signal and
the speed of movement).
This problem is most often due to a loss of communication
between ECM and ETM on the CAN bus. Check for and fault
trace CAN related faults. Check for fault codes directly identifying
problems with the individual APM signals. If 950F is detected
with 951F then fault trace 950F first.
A lot of CAN disturbances happen during engine start when the
battery voltage is most stressed by the starter motor load. The
ECM and ETM are the most sensitive nodes to these kinds of
disturbances. Use the freeze frames to determine if any CAN
disturbances may have happened at engine start, another good
indication of this is if the only nodes detecting CAN faults are the
ECM /ETM. Then the disturbances were very short.
Downloading the latest ETS software will not give increased
tolerance of this fault, the DTC's must be fault traced, before ETS
software is upgraded.
This fault is triggered if the ECM sends a cruise active signal to
the ETM, but the ETM has detected brake light switch active or
the ETM is denying cruise due to another fault in the ETM. The
ETM then does not agree with the ECM that cruise should be
active and the fault is stored.
This fault can be wrongly stored in vehicles with a 5-cylinder
turbocharged engine if the fault code 130A is present.
If both DTC's are present, the fault can be remedied by
downloading the latest ETS software, which eliminates the
incorrect link between these two DTC's.

ECM-91CF
Engine Control Module
Internal Fault, Faulty Signal

If DTC 130A is not present, or the vehicle does not have a 5cylinder turbocharged engine, downloading the latest electronic
throttle software will increase the systems tolerance to these
faults, by increasing the detection time from 0.5 seconds to 2
seconds, before a fault is set. This is a communication fault
between the two modules and cannot be monitored with VIDA.
Downloading the latest ETS software and verifying the cruise
control operation by test driving is the best method to resolve this
concern.

Page 16 of 31

ECM-91DF
Brake light Switch Faulty
Signal

ECM-928C
Control Module
Communication problems,
Signal Missing

Both the ETM and ECM have hardwired connections to the brake
light switch. The ECM has the brake position sensor as an
additional input.
The monitor checks when the ETM receives information from the
ECM via CAN that the brake pedal is active (position sensor) that
the brake light switch to the ETM is also active, if not a fault is
set.
The brake light switch wiring to the ETM should be checked for
an open circuit. The brake position sensor should also be
checked (this can be monitored as an ECM signal using VIDA). If
ok, the latest ETS software should be downloaded to the vehicle.
This will improve the systems tolerance of momentary
interruptions by increasing the detection time from 0.3 seconds
to 5 seconds.
For S/V70 1999-2000, C70 1999-2002
This DTC is triggered if an impossible combination of cruise
control buttons is detected.
Faulty Signal
SET+ & SET- pressed at the same time, OR CRUISE OFF
& RESUME pressed at the same time, for longer than 0.3
seconds
Signal too high
Can be triggered if it is detected that any of the cruise
switches are shorted to battery voltage. For longer than 0.3
seconds
The switch status can be checked using VIDA.
Downloading the latest ETS software, increases the systems
tolerance of accidental button pushes by increasing the
detection time to 1.8 seconds.
For S80, S60, XC/V70 2001 with turbo engines.
Most faults for this DTC are set because the cruise control
button information was missing, mainly during start up of the
vehicle engine.
Once a fault is detected the cruise control will be disabled for
the entire driving cycle. 0 vehicle speed in the freeze frame is a
good indicator of a start up problem.
If the fault was triggered during start or low vehicle speed
Downloading the latest ETS software will resolve the concern.
A greater tolerance of temporary interruption and signal drop
out is introduced by, removing diagnosis of the signal at engine
start up. This is achieved by only diagnosing the cruise buttons
when cruise control is enabled that is, at road speeds above 25
km/h (15.5 mph). The monitors delay time has been increased
from 0.3 seconds to 0.6 seconds to tolerate temporary drop
outs of the CAN signals. Road test to verify cruise operation
after latest ETS software is installed.

Page 17 of 31

ECM-9180
Accelerator Pedal position
sensor faulty signal

ECM-9520
Accelerator pedal signal

ECM-9530
Accelerator pedal signal

ECM- DTC 9180 detects PWM electrical faults at the ETM, while
DTC 9520 detects the same faults at the ECM. The ETM
however has a shorter detection time, thus a higher sensitivity to
signal drop out or disturbance. If the fault is permanent fault trace
according to the current VIDA information.
Use the counters to determine intermittence.
If the fault is intermittent:
Downloading the latest ETS software will increase the systems
tolerance to short signal disturbances, by increasing the
detection time, from 0.1 seconds to 0.9 seconds.
This monitor detects Electrical faults in the Pulse Width
Modulated (PWM) signal generated by the APM. Faults may be
detected at engine start if battery is weak/low voltage. Use freeze
frames to determine conditions at time of fault. If fault is
permanent, fault trace according to VIDA.
Downloading latest ETS software will increase ETM's tolerance
of signal loss due to interference at engine start, by increasing
the detection time to 0.7 seconds.
A fault is detected if the analog signal from the APM exceeds an
upper limit 4.85V (signal too high) or falls below the lower limit
0.15V (signal too low) for more than 0.08 seconds. This very
short detection time makes this monitor intolerant of short
disturbances in the signal. If the analog signal is good when
tested according to VIDA, download the latest ETS software.
Downloading the latest ETS software will increase the resistance
to signal interference, as the monitor's detection time is
increased from 0.08 seconds to 0.4 seconds for turbo and 6cylinder non turbo, and to 0.7 seconds for 5-cylinder non turbo
vehicles.
A fault is detected if the ECM detects that the 5V power supply to
the analog sensor in the APM, is outside the diagnostic limits:
Signal too high >5.195 Volts for > 0.16 seconds

ECM-9540
5 Volt power Supply for
Accelerator Pedal module

Signal too low < 4.8 Volts for > 0.16 seconds
If the fault is permanent fault trace according to VIDA. If the fault
is found to be caused by intermittent disturbances, downloading
the latest ETS software will increase tolerance of these
disturbances by monitoring the fault condition for a longer time
before a fault is triggered. 0.7 seconds for 5-cylinder non turbo
and 0.4 seconds all other engines.

Page 18 of 31

ECM-917F
Accelerator position Signal
(PWM) in ETM.

The monitor for DTC 917F detects a fault at the ETM when the
PWM signal from the APM (hardwired to the ETM) does not
agree with the PWM signal the ECM sends over the CAN.
This fault can be, and usually is, set with DTC 9520, because
short disturbances in the hardwired signal may not show up in
the CAN signal, resulting in a difference between the two. And
likewise short CAN disturbances will not affect the hardwired
signal resulting in a difference, and a fault. If this fault is posted
with any other accelerator pedal codes or CAN related fault
codes fault trace those first, using this document or VIDA where
the code is not included in this document.
Downloading the latest ETS software changes the detection time
from 0.4 seconds to 0.9 seconds, making it both less sensitive to
short disturbances, and more likely to result in a fault that
correctly identifies the root cause.

ECM-958F
Analog and PWM signals from
APM differ as received by
ECM

The fault is detected by the ECM if it sees that the APM analog
and PWM signals hard wired to the ECM differ by more than 5%
for more than 0.4 seconds, with a larger % allowance if the pedal
is detected as moving based on the analog signal.
Most of these DTC's are set at very low rpm and low battery
voltage, which would indicate engine starting. Checking the
freeze frame data for low voltage, and rectifying a weak battery
would solve such a concern.
Downloading the latest ETS software adds an engine running
condition to the monitor, making it less sensitive to start up
disturbances. The detection time is also increased from 0.4
seconds s to 0.7 seconds to allow more tolerance of starting
times for the signal generator in the APM.
If the fault is permanent fault trace according to VIDA.

Page 19 of 31

ECM-959F
Accelerator PWM value sent
to ECM from ETM Via CAN
differs from the Accelerator
analog signal hardwired to the
ECM.

ECM-901A
CAN Bus faults detected by
ECM.

This fault indicates that there was a difference >10% for >0.5
seconds between the analog signal from the APM (Accelerator
Pedal Module) monitored by ECM, and the PWM (Pulse Width
Modulated) signal reported to the ECM by the ETM over the CAN
bus. This problem is most often due to a loss of communication
between ECM and ETM on the CAN bus. Check for and fault
trace CAN related faults. Check for fault codes directly identifying
problems with the individual APM signals, and fault trace those
as the root cause.
A lot of CAN disturbances happen during engine start when the
battery voltage is most stressed due to the starter motor load.
The ECM and ETM are the most sensitive nodes to these kinds
of disturbances. Use the freeze frames to determine if any CAN
disturbances may have happened at engine start. Another good
indication of this is if the only nodes detecting CAN faults are the
ECM/ETM. Then the disturbances were very short.
Downloading the latest ETS software will improve the monitor for
DTC 959F. The monitor has been changed to increase the
detection time from 0.5 seconds to 0.9 seconds, to allow CAN
disturbances (most likely root cause) to be detected before the
signal fault.
This fault code indicates that the CAN bus controller in the ECM
has gone into bus off mode due to disturbances detected on the
CAN. If this fault code is present, and there are other CAN faults
present, fault trace according to TNN 37-22.
Downloading the latest ETS software will remove this monitor, as
the DTC E000 already covers the same fault, and is used in most
CAN nodes; this offers greater consistency in fault tracing CAN
faults.
NOTE
Although this DTC is removed in the new software, the fault
needs to be corrected, as any faults not addressed will still
trigger DTC E000. A node detecting and reacting to a problem on
the Can bus is not an indication that the node is the root cause of
the concern.
Use frozen values and counters to determine possible low
battery conditions.
Comparing total distance (Miles/ km) in the freeze frame with the
current mileage in the Driver Information Module will indicate if
this fault was introduced during this diagnostic session, because
of disturbances from the tool (VCT), or if the DTC was set on a
previous drive cycle. If the fault is set by the VCT, the fault can
be ignored in fault tracing and erased when all fault tracing has
been completed.

Page 20 of 31

ECM-902A/ 902B
Throttle unit Communication.

This Monitor will trigger a fault if the information sent from the
ETM to the ECM over the CAN, is missing for more than 0.5
seconds. This fault is most often set due to low system voltages
at engine start, but can also be triggered by very short
disturbances on the CAN.
Use frozen values and counters to determine possible low
battery conditions.
Comparing total distance (Miles/ km) in the freeze frame with the
current mileage in the Driver Information Module will indicate if
this fault was introduced during this diagnostic session, because
of disturbances from the tool (VCT), or if the DTC was set on a
previous drive cycle. If the fault is set by the VCT, the fault can
be ignored in fault tracing and erased when all fault tracing has
been completed.
Downloading the latest ETS software will make this monitor more
tolerant of minor disturbances and low voltage conditions. The
detection time is increased from 0.5 seconds to 0.9 seconds to
filter glitches and disturbances, and a low voltage limit of 9V is
introduced preventing detection at voltages below which the ETM
is not expected to be running. This will not prevent disturbances
from the VCT 2000 triggering the fault during fault tracing.

Page 21 of 31

The monitor for DTC 903F checks that the actual throttle angle
reported by the ETM over CAN to the ECM corresponds to the
angle requested by the ECM. If the two angles do not agree by
more than a predetermined limit the fault is set.
Signal too low
Is set when the throttle angle is changing (throttle moving) and
two angles differ by more than 20%
Signal missing
Is set while the throttle is relatively still, and the angles differ
by more than 5% for 0.42 seconds or greater.
Signal too high
Is set if the ETM sends a wrong or missing identification signal
on the CAN.
ECM-903F
Electronic throttle module
internal fault.

Caution: this fault can be set


in the workshop, by attaching
the diagnostic tool to the
vehicles connector See
section on VCT 2000.

This DTC can occur as a secondary fault to potentiometer fault


9150/9160, so if 9150/9160 is present follow fault tracing for
those.
This monitor is most often set as a secondary fault when a CAN
glitch or disturbance occurs for more than 0.5 seconds, as the
ECM may change its requested angle, but the actual angle
reported from the ETM does not change due to the loss of CAN
signal.
Check the DTC counter to see if this was an intermittent fault,
and if so download the latest software.
Downloading the latest ETS software will enable this monitor to;
Signal missing & Signal too low
Tolerate CAN faults by adding a condition requiring an update
bit with the established throttle angle. The monitor will then
only compare new information to new information. A delay
was also added to allow the throttle more time to change from
moving to still, before the monitor evaluates the difference
between the requested and actual angles at a 5% level.
Signal too high
Time with fault is increased from 0.5 seconds to 2.4 seconds
before a fault is triggered, to tolerate momentary CAN
disturbances/ interruptions.

Page 22 of 31

This fault code indicates that the CAN bus controller in the ETM
has gone into bus off mode due to disturbances detected on the
CAN. If this fault code is present, and there are other CAN faults
present. Fault trace according to TNN 37-22.
Downloading the latest ETS software will remove this monitor, as
the DTC E000 already covers the same fault, and is used in most
CAN network nodes; this offers greater consistency in fault
tracing CAN faults.

ECM-911A
Throttle unit communication.

ECM-912A
Engine control module (ECM)
communication. No
communication detected by
the ETM.

NOTE
Although this DTC is removed in the new software, the fault
needs to be corrected, as any faults not addressed will still
trigger DTC E000. A node detecting and reacting to a problem on
the CAN bus is not an indication that the node is the root cause
of the concern.
Use Frozen Values and counters to determine possible Low
battery conditions.
Comparing total distance (Miles/ km) in the freeze frame with the
current mileage in the Driver Information Module will indicate if
this fault was introduced during this diagnostic session, because
of disturbances from the tool (VCT), or if the DTC was set on a
previous drive cycle. If the fault is set by the VCT, the fault can
be ignored in fault tracing and erased when all fault tracing has
been completed.
This Monitor will trigger a fault if the information sent from the
ECM to the ETM over the CAN, is missing for more than 0.5
seconds. This fault is most often set due to low system voltages
at engine start, but can also be triggered by very short
disturbances on the CAN.
Use frozen values and counters to determine possible low
battery conditions.
Comparing total distance (miles/ km) in the freeze frame with the
current mileage in the Driver Information Module will indicate if
this fault was introduced during this diagnostic session, because
of disturbances from the tool (VCT), or if the DTC was set on a
previous drive cycle. If the fault is set by the VCT, The fault can
be ignored in fault tracing and erased, when all fault tracing has
been completed.
Downloading the latest ETS software will make this monitor more
tolerant of minor disturbances and low voltage conditions. The
detection time is increased from 0.5 seconds to 0.9 seconds
while driving and 4 seconds during start up to filter glitches and
disturbances. This will not prevent disturbances from the VCT
2000 triggering the fault during fault tracing.

Page 23 of 31

ECM-9190
Throttle unit, internal fault.
Throttle motor control circuit.

ECM-91E0
Battery voltage, to the ETM

ECM-91F0
Throttle unit, internal fault.
(Motor current)

ECM-910E
Throttle unit, internal fault.

The fault indicates an under or over-current in the drive circuit for


the throttle motor. This can also be triggered by an incorrect
current value fed back from the motor drive circuit, or that the
throttle blade does not move despite a large current applied to
the motor.
Check the battery voltage in the frozen values for the DTC. If the
battery voltage is low, less than 10V fault trace the battery and
cables.
If the fault code was triggered and the battery voltage is good
higher than 10V, then the fault code indicates a problem with the
motor control, and the ETM should be changed to resolve the
concern.
This Fault code indicates that the system voltage seen by the
ETM dropped below 9V over a period of 9 minutes, or exceeded
16V for 5 seconds. If the customer were to sit with the engine off
and key on for an extended period (perhaps listening to the
radio), it is probable that this fault code will be set. Checking the
frozen values for battery voltage and engine speed will confirm
this.
Using a high output battery charger could trigger the high limit
fault, check with the customer to determine if this has happened.
Downloading the latest ETS upgrade will prevent future customer
disturbances due to this condition. An engine running condition
has been added as a requirement for this DTC to be set.

This fault is detected if the current applied to the throttle motor


does not correspond to the measured current consumed by the
motor. This can be caused by low voltage from a weak battery,
or a bad battery cable. Corrosion and or loose terminals in the
connector to the ETM can also be a possible fault source.
Downloading the latest ETS software will increase this monitors
tolerance of temporary disturbances by increasing the evaluation
time from 0.13 seconds to 10 seconds with fault, before a DTC is
set.
This DTC indicates that the ETM has detected a problem with
either its memory or central processor, and has requested the
ECM post this fault.
Replace the ETM to solve this concern.

Page 24 of 31

ECM-9150
Electronic throttle module
(ETM), internal fault.
Potentiometer #1

ECM-9160
Electronic throttle module
(ETM), internal fault.
Potentiometer #2

ECM-904C
MIL requested by throttle unit.
ECM-532D
MIL requested by throttle unit.

This DTC indicates a fault with throttle potentiometer number 1.


Either the signal has exceeded its upper or lower limit for >0.8
seconds or the potentiometer does not reach the correct position
during start up.
The most common fault type is that a difference of more than 5%
is detected between potentiometer 1&2 for 0.2 seconds or
longer.
Downloading the latest ETS software will allow the ETM to
tolerate disturbances and wear in the potentiometers, with the
introduction of new functions that enable the ETM to chose the
accurate potentiometer, and monitor the performance of the
chosen potentiometer using an airflow model. See section on
throttle position sensor function.
This DTC indicates a fault with throttle potentiometer number 2.
Either the signal has exceeded its upper or lower limit for >0.8
seconds or the potentiometer does not reach the correct position
during start up.
The most common fault type is that a difference of more than 5%
is detected between potentiometer 1&2 for 0.2 seconds or
longer.
Downloading the latest ETS software will allow the ETM to
tolerate disturbances and wear in the potentiometers, with the
introduction of new functions that enable the ETM to chose the
accurate potentiometer, and monitor the performance of the
chosen potentiometer using an airflow model. See section on
throttle position sensor function.
This fault is triggered to indicate when DTC 9150 and 9160 occur
together, the function of this monitor is to illuminate MIL
immediately if faults are detected on both potentiometers within
the same drive cycle. Therefore it is a secondary fault code and
9150/9160 should be fault traced as the root cause.
Downloading the latest ETS software will bring the new throttle
position sensor functionality mentioned under fault codes 9150 &
9160; this removes the double failure condition.
The DTC is re-used with the latest software for information, to
indicate when the fuel cut off support function has been active &
the number of fuel cut offs have exceeded a pre-determined limit.
This is a secondary DTC and will always be accompanied by the
DTC that triggered the support function.

Page 25 of 31

ECM-91A7
Electronic throttle module
(ETM), internal fault.

ECM-91B7
Electronic throttle module
(ETM), internal fault.

This fault is detected by the ETM and uses the power


consumption of the throttle motor, to determine possible high
friction in the throttle. The fault is also triggered if the ETM
detects that there is to great a difference between its target
throttle position and the actual position.
This fault can be caused by dirt build up in the throttle housing,
or by a low battery voltage.
Downloading the latest ETS software will improve the systems
tolerance of these conditions using some of the new
functionalities that give greater potentiometer accuracy and
throttle control.
This fault code indicates that the throttle blade was not in the
expected position when the ETM was powered up. This monitor
is sensitive to small differences between the throttle position
sensors, and minor differences from the mechanical rest
position. If one potentiometer shows that the throttle is not in the
expected position, the fault will be posted. Check the fault codes
intermittence, by looking at the counters, if there is a low degree
of intermittence (the fault has occurred often) the throttle should
be checked to ensure no foreign objects are blocking the throttle
blade.
Downloading the latest ETS software will increase this monitors
tolerance to minor differences in the throttle potentiometers by
requiring that both potentiometers show that the throttle blade is
out of position before the fault is triggered.

ECM-1300
Mass air flow (MAF) sensor.

ECM-130A
Intake air leakage, faulty
signal.
(5&6 Cylinder turbo and 6
cylinder non turbo.)

DTC 1300 indicates that the measured mass air flow differs from
an airflow range calculated by the ECM.
Downloading the latest ETS software, will increase this monitors
range of detection to incorporate the area previously monitored
by DTC 130A. The detection time has been increased from 5
seconds to 10 seconds.
DTC 130A indicates that the Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor
adaptation has reached its limitation. The MAF adaptation
reaches its limitation compensating for small component
tolerances and dirt accumulation in the throttle or breather
system. The DTC can also be triggered if an intake hose is
disconnected. Check for loose turbo hoses before downloading
the latest ETS software.
Downloading the latest ETS software will remove this diagnostic
monitor from the system. The adaptation has been modified to
compensate for real world dirt build-up in the intake system and
ageing of the components. The monitor for DTC 1300 will
monitor the MAF performance making DTC 130A redundant.
Page 26 of 31

ECM-130A
Mass air flow (MAF) sensor.
(5-cylinder non-turbo)

ECM-150A
Mass air flow (MAF).

This fault code indicates that the airflow calculated from engine
speed, throttle angle, and air density is significantly different from
the actual airflow measured by the MAF Sensor.
RPM = 1500-3500rpm
Throttle open angle = 7- 40 ( steady accelerator pedal)
Road speed = 30-70 mph
Coolant temp 80-110 C
The fault will be stored if the difference is too great for more than
5 seconds.
Check long term fuel trim values. If the MAF value is wrong by a
significant amount, this will show up as compensation in the fuel
trim.
Intake air leaks and fuel pressure related problems will generally
have a greater influence on the fuel trim in the lower fuel trim
areas (1-3) and get progressively better as you look towards the
higher load areas (3-6).
If the long term fuel trim values get progressively worse in the
higher load areas, then the probable cause is a damaged MAF
sensor.
This diagnostic monitor compares the load signals from the Mass
Air Flow sensor (MAF and the Manifold Absolute Pressure
sensor (MAP).
If the difference between the two sensors exceeds a predetermined limit the fault code is set. Possible faults are:
Faulty MAF sensor.
Faulty MAP sensor.
Air leakage into the intake system.
Incorrect camshaft timing.
Check the DTC's Freeze frame to determine the long term fuel
trim and engine speed when the fault is detected. If the
adaptation is close to one of its limits (1.23 upper limit) or (0.75)
lower limit, this would suggest that the problem lies with the MAF
sensor.
When comparing all five long term fuel trim values, If larger
amounts of adaptation occur in fuel trim areas 3,4&5 this also
indicates a probable MAF fault.
MAF performance can be checked against a rough guide using
engine parameters in VIDA. The parameter mass air flow g/s
(grams /second) can be compared to the following values on a
completely warm engine with all possible loads turned off:
3.3g/s @850rpm
5.7g/s @ 1500rpm
7.3g/s @ 2000rpm
9.3g/s @ 2500rpm.
If the values read from VIDA differ significantly from the above
values the MAF is faulty, if not then the MAP sensor either has a
restricted/damaged hose or the sensor is faulty.

Page 27 of 31

ECM-260A
Fuel trim upper part load bank 1

ECM-270A
Fuel trim upper part load bank 2

ECM-261A
Fuel trim lower part load ,bank1

ECM-271A
Fuel trim lower part load ,bank 2
ECM-262A
Fuel trim Idle , bank 1

ECM-272A
Fuel trim Idle, bank2

ECM-9818
Brake Vacuum leakage
( 5-cylinder non turbo)

ECM-900E
Engine control module (ECM),
internal fault, or air flow fault.

These fault codes indicate that the lambda controller has


reached either its upper or lower limit on that bank:
upper limit, the adaptation has exceeded its limit 1.23 / +10%
Lower limit, the adaptation has gone below its lowest limit 0.75 /
-10%
Downloading the latest ETS software, will enhance the systems
ability to tolerate aging in the MAF sensor over time. The upper
limit adaptation has been increased to 1.5 with a diagnostic limit
of 1.49.
The lower limit has not been modified as ageing typically causes
a lean offset on the MAF signal.
Downloading the latest software will remove any previous
adaptations and will require, some driving (20-30 minutes) to reestablish the adaptation and get good drivability.
With this monitor the ECM is constantly checking the available
brake vacuum; the ECM uses the manifold pressure (MAP),
atmospheric pressure, and accelerator pedal, RPM, and throttle
position to calculate the available vacuum. If the ECM detects
that the difference between the ambient pressure and the
manifold pressure is too small, a fault is detected. The fault will
also be detected if the volume of intake air is too great, while the
accelerator pedal is released and the engine RPM is above 700.
If this DTC is present with a MAP or MAF DTC, then this is a
secondary fault and the MAP/MAF faults should be fault traced.
Downloading the latest ETS software, will enhance the monitor
by requiring that both of the above conditions be detected to set
a fault.
Note
This DTC did not previously exist in non turbo MY 1999-2000.
The monitor will be added to these vehicles with the latest ETS
software, but the DTC 9818 is not available in the software, so
DTC ECM-4038 will be used in 1999-2000 vehicles to mean the
same as 9818 in MY 2001-2002.
This DTC checks the memory and processors inside the ECM for
operating errors, and there are 12 sub codes that indicate
problems in different areas.
For model Year 1999 sub codes 1-11 are used as described
above and a fault would normally indicate that an ECM
replacement will resolve the concern.
For MY 1999 only the sub code 12 has been used to indicate
that an air flow concern was noted. This DTC ECM-900E sub
code 12 is a secondary code and will be accompanied by a DTC
for an airflow error. This other primary fault should be fault traced
and corrected. The ECM should not be replaced for the DTC
ECM-900E sub code 12.
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ECM-903C
Throttle unit internal fault.

ECM-904D
Pedal sensor fault. Faulty
signal

ECM-914F
Throttle unit internal fault,
faulty signal.
5&6 cylinder turbo and 6
cylinder non turbo engines.
ECM-914F
Throttle unit internal fault,
faulty signal.
5 Cylinder non-turbo engines

ECM-913F
Engine control module (ECM)
internal fault, faulty signal.

This DTC is used internally by the ETS to inform other parts of


the engine management system that a fault has been detected,
and the throttle is operating in a limp home mode. This DTC will
only ever occur in support of another DTC. Fault tracing should
be conducted on the other ETS DTC/'s to resolve the concern.
Downloading the latest ETS software will remove this DTC, as it
serves no purpose to the service technician in fault tracing an
ETS concern.
This DTC is intended to indicate that a text message or ETS
lamp was shown to the driver. This will only be the result of a
fault being detected and the relevant DTC for that fault being
posted. DTC 904D offers no assistance to the workshop
technician in fault tracing. Fault trace all other ETS DTC's to
resolve the customers concern.
Downloading the latest ETS software will change the meaning
/purpose for this DTC. Now the DTC will indicate that the
mechanical limp home support function has been used.
The fault code is a secondary fault code and will always be
accompanied by the fault code that triggered the support
function.
This DTC was only used in 1999 MY 5&6-cylinder turbo and 6cylinder non-turbo vehicles, and is triggered if the ETM detects
that the signals from throttle position sensors 1&2 differ by more
than 5% while driving.
Downloading the latest ETS software will remove this DTC as the
monitoring of the potentiometers is changed.
This DTC has not previously been used in the non turbo ETS,
when the latest ETS software is downloaded, the fault code will
be used to indicate that the Mechanical limp home function has
been used. This fault code will never be posted alone and will be
posted along with a root cause fault code that will need to be
fault traced.
This DTC is triggered by the ETM if it receives a bad
identification signal from the ECM. After every work cycle in the
ECM the ECM sends a confirmation signal to the ETM e.g.
(AAAA) if the signal received by the ETM does not equal this
correct confirmation signal (AAAA), or if the ECM requests a
throttle angle outside of the operating range (more than 100% or
less than 0%) the ETM sets a fault and requests that the ECM
post DTC 913F. This indicates that the signal sent by the ECM
was incorrect.
There are no changes to this monitor in the latest ETS software.
Page 29 of 31

ECM-980A
Control module, internal fault.

ECM-980F
Manifold Absolute Pressure
(MAP) sensor, Faulty signal.

ECM-990A
Control module, internal fault.

ECM-918F
Accelerator Pedal position
sensor faulty signal

Diagnostic trouble code (DTC) ECM-980A is stored if the ECM


calculates that engine torque has exceeded the torque allowed,
for more than 0.3 seconds. The torque allowed is calculated by
the ECM based on the engine speed and the accelerator pedal
position.
Downloading the latest ETS software will remove this diagnostic
monitor, as the DTC's 981A & 982A detect the same faults and
are run from an independent processor.
For this monitor the ECM determines a calculated air mass from
the RPM, throttle position, and atmospheric pressure. The ECM
then compares the measured mass flow values from the MAF
sensor and the MAP sensor to the calculated flow. If either differs
too much from the calculated flow the DTC ECM-980F is set in
the ECM.
Downloading the latest ETS software will change the fault criteria
to only set the fault when the MAF value is significantly greater
than the calculated airflow during steady engine speeds.
This DTC monitors the idle speed control and will be triggered if
the idle speed should be 200rpm over or 100 rpm under the
target idle speed when no other throttle faults are detected.
Look for other DTC's or faults within the engine/engine
management that could be affecting the airflow to the engine,
e.g. air leaking into the manifold etc.
Downloading the latest ETS software will remove this monitor to
simplify fault tracing, as all cases where the airflow to the engine
can be more or less than expected are detected by other
diagnostic monitors.
This DTC monitors the signal quality of the PWM signal from the
APM, more specifically it detects if the signal has not switched
low-high or high-low in a given period of time.
Check the DTC counter to determine if the problem is intermittent
or permanent. If permanent fault trace according to VIDA.
If intermittent download the latest ETS software. This will
increase the systems tolerance to momentary signal drop-outs,
by increasing the monitors fault evaluation time from 0.1 seconds
to 0.9 seconds.

Page 30 of 31

ECM-981A
Control module, internal fault.

For DTC 981A, the ECM uses this extra monitor (run in an
independent processor) to ensure that the normal ECM systems
and diagnostic monitors have not made any errors. This monitor
checks that the engine torque is not too high, by calculating an
allowable torque value based on engine speed and accelerator
pedal position. If the engines actual torque exceeds the
allowable torque value for 0.3 seconds or greater DTC ECM981A will be set.
Downloading the latest ETS software will not have any influence
on this DTC.

ECM-982A
Control module, internal fault.

For DTC 982A the ECM uses this extra Monitor (run in an
independent processor) to ensure that the normal ECM systems
and diagnostic monitors have not made any errors. This monitor
checks that the measured mass air flow is not below a calculated
allowable mass air flow. The calculated allowable mass air flow
is derived from RPM and throttle position. This value is then
compared to the measured mass air flow from the MAF. If the
measured value is below the allowable for longer than 0.3
seconds the DTC ECM-982A is set.
Downloading the latest ETS software will improve this monitor to
give better separation between MAF faults detected by DTC
1300 and this fault. This will give DTC 1300 a better opportunity
to detect a fault before 982A is triggered.

ECM-4038
Low brake vacuum.
5-cylinder Non-turbo 19992000
After latest ETS software is
applied.

The DTC checks if the difference between the atmospheric


pressure and the manifold pressure is too small, and that there is
too great an airflow into the engine, while the accelerator pedal is
released and the engine speed is below 700 RPM.
If MAF or MAP DTC's are present they should be fault traced as
the root cause for this DTC.

VOLVO for life,


Volvo Cars of North America, LLC
Technical Service
Please circulate, read and initial:

_____Svc Mgr _____ Parts Mgr

_____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ TECHS
_____Shop Foreman _____ Warranty Administrator
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