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CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

HVAC SYSTEMS,UNITS,CONTROL,SENSORS,ACTUATORS,
DUCTS DESIGN,FANS, NEW TECHNIQQUES
&
CASE STUDY

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


INTRODUCTION TO HVAC-BASICS
DEFINTION
HVAC: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning

Mechanical intervention to condition air to a preferred temperature and relative humidity

HVAC SYSTEMS
Are a Circular Stream of Moving Air: The Loop
Along Which:
Temperature can be Raised or Lowered
Humidity can be Raised or Lowered
Filtration can Occur
Outside Air can be Added and Removed

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


VARIOUS AC SYSTEM

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


Windows AC
These types of AC are designed to be fitted in window sills. A single unit of Window Air Conditioner houses all the
necessary components, namely the compressor, condenser, expansion valve or coil, evaporator and cooling coil enclosed
in a single box. Since a window AC is a single unit, it takes less effort to install as well as for maintenance.
Advantages
Single unit air conditioner
Less effort needed for installation
Costs lesser in comparison to other varieties

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

Split AC
These are kits of 2 units, one internal and another external. The indoor unit installed inside a room intakes warm air
and throws in cold air. The outdoor unit on the other hand is installed out of the house. It contains the compressor
and is linked to the internal unit via drain pipes and electric cables. This external unit throws out the warm air.
Advantages
Internal unit takes up less space for installation
Usually more silent than window ACs
Minimally affect your home decor
Can be installed in room with no windows

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


Floor mounted Split AC
Tower AC
These are also known as floor-standing air conditioners. Like
split ACs, a tower AC set consists of 2 units- one internal and
an external. However, the indoor unit doesnt need wall
installation. It rather occupies some space on the floor. Tower
air conditioners usually have high cooling capacity and
suitable for very large rooms.
Advantages
Suitable for high capacity cooling
Ideal for large rooms at home and in offices
Doesn't need windows or wall installation

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


CEILING TYPE EXPOSED SYSTEM

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


CEILING TYPE HIDE AWAY

Unit is completely built into the ceiling and cool air is delivered via a duct system which complements the interior decor in
accordance with the shape of the room.
Hidden in the ceiling, this model is designed for buildings that require floor level air conditioning for many individual rooms
or large areas, like restaurants, concert halls and hotels. Installation is not restricted by lighting fixtures or the building
layout and interior renovation is made easy by installing ventilation diffusers.

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


CEILING CASSETTE SPLIT UNIT
These space-saving ACs are shaped like cassettes and are designed to be installed on ceilings. The panel of these air
conditioners is designed to blend with all kinds of home dcor. They are stylish, and are known to deliver fantastic
performances. Most cassette type air conditioners require no ducting. They are perfect for large spaces where windows or
split AC may not reach out.
Advantages
Best at saving space
Able to cool large areas where other ACs dont reach out
Blends with decor

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


DX SYSTEM (DIRECT-EXPANSION SYSTEM)
A direct expansion air conditioning (DX) system uses a refrigerant vapour expansion/compression (RVEC) cycle to
directly cool the supply air to an occupied space.
DX systems (both packaged and split) directly cools the air supplied to the building because the evaporator is in direct
contact with the supply air,
Expansion refers to the treatment of the refrigerant (a valve reduces its pressure and temperature) prior to it entering
the evaporator. DX systems can come equipped with all the components in the unit (packaged system) intended for
installation on the rooftop or by the side of a building; or it may have some components installed inside the building
and some outside (split system). DX systems require a ventilation fan to distribute the cool air and resupply/re-circulate
it.
HOW IT WORKS
A RVEC cycle has four basic components; an evaporator, compressor, condenser, and thermal expansion control
device. The evaporator (located inside the supply air ductwork) absorbs heat through the process of expanding the
refrigerant flowing within it. The refrigerant then flows to a compressor which compresses it causing it to condense
in the condenser and release the heat it removed from the supply air. The condensed liquid refrigerant then flows
through the thermal expansion control device which controls the flow and pressure of the refrigerant back into the
evaporator.
Packaged Systems Packaged DX units contain all 4 parts of the RVEC system, as well as fans and internal ducting.
These units are designed to be installed easily to serve local zones cooling needs; multiple units can be installed to
service multiple zones in a building.
Split Systems These systems generally have the evaporator and fans inside the building, while the rest of the RVEC
system components are a separate unit placed outside the building. This allows system designs that are more flexible,
allowing performance that can satisfy greater variations on system demands. Split units are made to an incremental
performance scale, meaning only certain working load sizes are available.
ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham
M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


DX SYSTEM (DIRECT-EXPANSION SYSTEM)

Air-cooled system: Refrigerant hot gas discharge from compressor is being cooled by fan driven by motor to induce
outside air to condense the refrigerant within the condenser coil.
Depending on the system requirements, the basic components of DX system can be categorized into various types of
equipment combinations for split system, built-up DX system and portable/window unit
Built-up DX system: dependent upon cooling capacity requirements which would necessitate larger equipment
combination similar to those in the split system.
Window or portable unit: is a one piece type of air-con equipment installed in wall opening or modified window casing
.
Water-cooled system: Refrigerant hot gas in the condenser coil is being cooled by re-circulating condenser water from
cooling tower.
Water-cooled system consists of water-cooled packaged unit, condenser water pump unit, and cooling tower, including
inter-connecting condenser water pipework

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


HEAT

SINGLE PACKAGE ROOF TOP UNIT)

CONDR

COMP

O.A.

COIL

ELECTRIC
HEATER

FAN

E.A.

S.A. DUCT

R.A. DUCT

S.A.
TERMINAL

HEAT

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


SPLIT SYSTEM
HVAC system split into 2 pieces
Condensing unit located on roof (houses
compressor, condenser coil, condenser
fan motor)
Air handler located in space above
ceiling (houses blower assembly, evap
coil, air filters)
Connected electrically and with
refrigerant piping
Most prone to refrigerant leaks
especially if long distance between
components
Many times refrigerant lines are buried
in construction and inaccessible

HEAT

CONDENSING UNIT
REFRIGERANT
LINES

O.A.

C
O
M
P

C
O
N
D
R

AI
R
AIR HANDLING
UNIT

COI
L
FAN

POSSIBL
E
ELECTRIC
HEAT
S.A. DUCT

E.A.
R.A. DUCT

HEA
T

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


Water Cooled Units
It requires water which used to cool the refrigerant in
the condenser .
Water is pump through the shell and tube condenser
which is the part of the packaged unit
This water is than sent into a cooling tower outside
the air conditioned room where the heat is dissipated
in the atmosphere
Water cooled units give higher capacities and are
more power efficient owing to lower operating
pressure

Air Cooled Models


These are suitable for places where water is scarce or
of hard quality or were there is no space for a cooling
tower
The heat is removed by away of an air cooled
condenser with a fan blowing through it .
It is mounted outside building in sunshade or a
terrace

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


Advantages
They required a small plant room
They are serviced friendly bcoz of easy accessibility
They can handle long ducts with used of more powerful fans
Large tonnage can be handle.
Interiors are clean and undisturbed as machines are placed in separate plat room

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


The water-cooled type can be completely factory assembled, charged (with refrigerant) and tested.
Thus the laying of refrigerant piping, pressure leak testing, evacuation. Charging. etc. need not have to be carried out
in the field. This not only reduces the field labor, but also ensures a cleaner system, being assembled in the factory with
strict quality control procedures
The air-cooled type obviously cannot be factory assembled and charged. Laying of the refrigerant piping between the
indoor and outdoor units, pressure testing, evacuation, charging, etc. have to be carried out in the field.
Because of the scarcity of water, air-cooled units are favored,Though their capacity will be less than that of, the
watercooledcondenser using the same compressor. For the evaporator side, centrifugal fans are provided, which
can develop higher static pressure. So air distribution duct and grills can be connected to the unit. Air quantities
generally ware 10 to 11.3 m3 /min. (350 to 400
cfm) per ton

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


Central system
Central system is an air conditioning system which uses a series of equipements to distribute cooling media to exchange
heat and supply conditioned air from one point (eg. plant room) to more than one rooms.

Central system normally uses water as the cooling media for larger buildings. The refrigerant inside the evaporator
absorbs heat from the water and this water is pumped to coils in order to absorb heat from the air used for space
conditioning. Systems that employ water chillers are commonly called chilled-water system.
Central air-conditioning system is a process of removing heat content from multiple sources in the building through a
series of heat exchange equipments which ultimately remove the heat to the outdoor atmosphere. This process involves
the application of chiller, water pump units and cooling tower as shown below.
According to the type of condenser used, the central air-conditioning system has air-cooled or water-cooled system. Aircooled and water-cooled systems are categorized by capacity and efficiency.

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


Chilled Water System Schematic Layout

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


Air-cooled chilled water system
Air-cooled condenser: A type of condenser in which refrigerant flows through the tubes and rejects heat to air that is
drawn across the tubes.
Water-cooled condenser: A type of condenser that rejects the heat of the refrigerant to water flowing through it.
AHU: An air handler, or air handling unit often abbreviated to AHU, is a device used to condition and circulate air as part
of HVAC system. Usually, an air handler is a large metal box containing a blower, heating and/or cooling elements, filter
racks or chambers, sound attenuators, and dampers. Air handlers usually connect to ductwork that distributes the
conditioned air through the building, and returns it to the AHU.
Fan-coil unit (FCU): A small terminal unit that is often composed of only a blower and a heating and/or cooling coil (heat
exchanger), as is often used in hotels, condominiums, or apartments.
Expansion tank: A component of a closed piping system that accommodates the expansion and contraction of the water
as temperature and, therefore, density, changes.
Water-cooled chilled water system
Cooling tower: Cooling towers are heat rejection devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. Cooling
towers may either use the evaporation of water to reject process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air
temperature or rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature.
Condenser water pump unit: is a set of device by using mechanical forces to move the condenser water.
Chiller: A device that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-compression or absorption refrigeration cycle. This cooled
liquid flows through pipes in a building and passes through coils in air handlers, fan-coil units, or other systems, cooling
and usually dehumidifying the air in the building. Chillers are of two types; air-cooled or water-cooled.
Air-cooled chillers are usually outside and consist of condenser coils cooled by fan-driven air.
Water-cooled chillers are usually inside a building, and heat from these chillers is carried by recirculating water to
outdoor cooling towers.

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


Chiller Components
There are several types of water chillers. They differ from each other based on the refrigeration cycle or the type of
compressor they use.
Absorption water chillers make use of the absorption refrigeration cycle and do not have a mechanical compressor
involved in the refrigeration cycle.
Water chillers using the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle vary by the type of compressor used. Reciprocating
and scroll compressors are typically used in small chillers. Helical-rotary (or screw) compressors are typically used in
medium-sized chillers. Centrifugal compressors are typically used in large chillers.

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

Mechanical Room: Boilers, chillers, pumps, heat exchangers


Air Handling Units (AHUs): heat, cool, humidify, dehumidify, ventilate, filter and
distribute the air.
Room Controls: thermostats and Variable Air Volume (VAV) boxes

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
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CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

Air Handling Units


Building Environment
Joe cool
OA

Fan

Htg & Clg Coils

RA

supply air
distribution
system

EA
Air Handling Unit
Chilled water
system

Hot water
system

Chiller

Boiler

Cooling
Tower
ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham
M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

Boiler

Chiller
Pictures from https://rfd-training.tac.com/docs/HVAC.pdf

37
ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham
M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


CENTRALISED AIR CONDITIONING

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
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CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


VAV SYSTEMS

Air handler/Packaged Unit

supply
ductwork

return
ductwork
VAV
terminal
units

supply-air
diffusers

Constant air
temperature off AC
Unit

Vary the air volume


as load requires

building
automation
system (BAS)

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


VAV System Types

Changeover
Bypass
(Varitrac)
Used in Smaller buildings
seeking cost-effective
zone control
Simpler System Control
Less expensive than
VariTrane
Smaller Constant Volume
AHU/RTU (Typically 15
tons or less)
Up to 24 zones
Pressure Dependen

True VAV
(Varitrane)

Single Zone VAV

Used in Larger Buildings


seeking ideal
occupant comfort
Very Flexible System
Control (more
complex sequences)
Larger Variable Volume
AHU/RTU equipment
(up to 130 Tons)
Up to 120+ zones
30% fan energy savings
over CV
Pressure Independent

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


VAV System Types

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


VAV System Types

RA
EA

supply
fan
OA

PA

VAV
box

cooling
coil
variablespeed drive

SA
thermostat
ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham
M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
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CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

NEW INVENTED TECHNOLOGY FOR AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM

DISTRICT COOLING
SYSTEM

CHILLED BEAM
SYSTEM

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CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


NEW INVENTED TECHNOLOGY FOR AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM

District Cooling Systems (DCS) is a system which distribute chilled water or other media, usually provided from a dedicated
cooling plant, to multiple buildings for air conditioning or other uses.
The Objectives :
To centralized production of chilled water by using district cooling plant. The generated chilled water will then be channeled
to various building blocks thru pre-insulated seamless underground pipes.
DC means the centralized production and distribution of cooling energy. Chilled water is delivered via an underground
insulated pipeline to office, industrial and residential buildings to cool the indoor air of the buildings within a district.
Specially designed units in each building then use this water to lower the temperature of air passing through the buildings
ACS.
The output of one cooling plant is enough to meet the cooling-energy demand of dozens of buildings. DC can be run on
electricity or natural gas, and can use either regular water or seawater. Along with electricity and water, DC constitute a new
form of energy service

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
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CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


NEW INVENTED TECHNOLOGY FOR AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


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DCS- APPLICATION IN MALAYSIA

KUALA LUMPUR
INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
PUTRAJAYA

UKM
BANGSAR
ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham
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CHILLED BEAM SYSTEM
It is a type of convection HVAC system designed to heat or cooled high rise building such as commercial building.
Its primarily gives off its cooling effect through convection by using water to remove heat from a room.
Pipes of water passed through the beam suspended short distance from the ceiling of a room.
As the beam chills the air around it, the air becomes denser and falls to the floor.
It is replaced by warmer air moving up from below, causing a constant floe of convection and cooling the room.

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


SYSTEM
In many buildings there is a variety of spaces with different users and varying thermal loads.
These varying loads may be due to different inside uses of the spaces, or due to changes in cooling loads because the sun
shines into some spaces and not others. Thus simple system, which supplies a single source of heating or cooling, must be
modified to provide independent, variable cooling or heating to each space.
When a system is designed to provide independent control in different spaces, each space is called a zone. A zone may be
a separate room. A zone may also be part of a large space. For example, a theatre stage may be a zone, while the audience
seating area is a second zone in the same big space. Each has a different requirement for heating and cooling.
This need for zoning leads us to the four broad categories of air-conditioning systems, and consideration of how each can
provide zoned cooling and heating.
The four systems are
1.

All-air systems

2. Air-and-water systems
3. All-water systems
4. Unitary, refrigeration-based systems

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


ALL-AIR SYSTEMS
All heating, cooling, and humidification is supplied to a space by the air
1. Single-duct systems
Constant volume
Multi-zone, variable-air volume (VAV)
Multi-zone with re-heat
2. Dual-duct systems
EXHAUST
AIR

E.A.
DAMPER
R.A.
FAN

R.A DUCT
S.A.
TERMINAL

S.A. DUCT

R.A. GRILL

R.A. DAMPER
COIL
FRESH
OUTDOOR
AIR

S.A.
FAN

COOL
AIR

HEAT

O.A.
DAMPER
FILTER

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


ALL-AIR SYSTEMS
Five primary types of all-air systems are commonly encountered in new and existing buildings.
Single zone and multi-zone systems are constant volume, variable supply-temperature systems that are controlled at the
central air handler.
Terminal reheat and dual duct systems are constant volume, variable temperature systems that are terminally controlled - a control approach that increases system flexibility and adaptability.
The variable air volume system is a variable flow, constant temperature system with terminal control.
The dual duct and multi-zone systems are multiple path systems with two or more separate supply air ducts, while the
single zone, terminal reheat, and variable volume systems are single path systems with one common main supply duct.
Numerous variations and hybrids of these systems may be encountered.
SINGLE ZONE
A single zone system consists of an air handling unit. The integrated package is most commonly a rooftop unit, as access to
the exterior environment for heat rejection or combustion air is readily available.
In a single zone all-air HVAC system, one control device (most commonly a thermostat) located in the zone
controls the operation of the system.
The primary advantage of a single zone central system is its simplicity. Single zone systems are the most basic and least
complex of central all-air systems. Because of this simplicity, they are usually the lowestfirst-cost all-air system, the easiest
to maintain, and the simplest to design. The primary disadvantage of asingle zone system is that it can condition only one
zone.
ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham
M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS


ALL-AIR SYSTEMS
Multi-zone system
delivers conditioned air to several zones from a single, central air-handling unit.The zones served should have similar
thermal load requirements such as offices or classrooms. Condi-tions in each space are maintained by temperature
controllers in each zone, which vary the amount ofheated or cooled air to be delivered.
AIR-AND-WATER SYSTEMS
Air-and-water systems condition spaces by distributing air and water
sources to terminal units installed in habitable spaces throughout a
building. The air and water are cooled or heated in central mechanical
equipment rooms.
The air supplied is called primary air; the water supplied is called
secondary water. Sometimes a separate electric heating coil is included
in lieu of a hot water coil. This chapter is concerned primarily with airandwater induction units, fan-coil units, and radiant panels as used in
air-water systems
Air-and-water systems apply primarily to exterior spaces of buildings
with high sensible loads and where close control of humidity is not
required.
They may, however, be applied to interior zones as well. These
systems work well in buildings such as office buildings, hospitals,
hotels, schools, apartment buildings, and research laboratories

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

Actuators :
An actuator is a type of motor that is responsible for moving or controlling a mechanism or
system.
It is operated by a source of energy, typically electric current, hydraulic fluid pressure,
or pneumatic pressure, and converts that energy into motion. An actuator is the
mechanism by which a control system acts upon an environment. The control system can
be simple (a fixed mechanical or electronic system), software-based (e.g. a printer driver,
robot control system), a human, or any other input.
For effective HVAC systems performance and improved energy efficiency, Johnson Controls
offers high quality HVAC products including pneumatic valve actuators. Each of our valve
actuator products is designed to work seamlessly within your overall HVAC system,
guaranteeing that your building remains energy efficient at all times.

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

Dampers
A damper is a valve or plate that stops or regulates the flow of air inside
a duct, chimney, VAV box, air handler, or other air handling equipment. A damper may be
used to cut off central air conditioning (heating or cooling) to an unused room, or to
regulate it for room-by-room temperature and climate control. Its operation can be manual
or automatic. Manual dampers are turned by a handle on the outside of a duct. Automatic
dampers are used to regulate airflow constantly and are operated
by electric or pneumatic motors, in turn controlled by athermostat or building
automation system.

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

HVAC Sensors

Controller

Control Agent
Controlled
Element
Controls
Heat/Cool Source

Controlled Variable = Space Temperature


Controlled Medium = Room Air

Sensors measure the controlled medium and provide a controller with


information concerning changing conditions in an accurate and repeatable
manner. The common HVAC variables are temperature, pressure, flow rate
and relative humidity.
ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR
M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

HVAC DUCTING
Ductwork Design Basics
HVAC duct systems deliver air from fan to diffusers, which distribute air to space Fan creates
a pressure difference which moves air Duct layout/sizing is related to this pressure
difference Goal: size ductwork to minimize pressure drops, while keeping costs
installation/material costs down.
Duct Sizing Concepts
Use even duct sizes (ex: 24/12) Branch ducts ideally
should be 2 shorter than duct main (ex: 12 deep
duct should have no more than 10 deep takeoff)
Exception: some fittings available for same size
takeoffs Internal duct insulation: 1 reduces 2 total
of ductwork dimensions Coordinate exposed
ductwork as it may be preferred to be round, spiral
and/or painted by client or architect. Keep duct
aspect ratios less than 4:1. (Square or Round is ideal.)

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

Rectangular duct

Flat oval duct

Round duct w/ spiral seam

Flexible duct

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning
and BUILDINGS
Refrigeration)
INTELLIGENT
ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

Duct Construction
Shapes of air duct
Rectangular
More easily fabricated on site, air leakage

Round
Less fluid resistance, better rigidity/strength

Flat oval
Flexible
Multiple-ply polyester film w/ metal wire or strips

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

Ductwork Comparison
Round ductwork is the most efficient but requires
greater depth
Rectangular ductwork is the least efficient but can be
reduced in depth to accommodate smaller clearances
Avoid aspect ratios greater than 5:1
ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham
M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

Duct Construction
Duct specification
Sheet gauge and thickness of duct material
Traverse joints & longitudinal seam
reinforcements
Duct hangers & their spacing
Tapes & adhesive closures
Fire spread and smoke developed
Site-fabricated or factory-/pre-fabricated
ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham
M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

Duct Construction
Duct heat gain or loss
Temperature rise or drop
Duct insulation (mounted or inner-lined)
Reduce heat gain/loss, prevent condensation, sound
attentuation
Minimum & recommended thickness
See ASHRAE standard or local codes

Temperature rise curves


Depends on air velocity, duct dimensions & insulation
ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham
M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

HVAC Air Distribution Equipments

4 Way Diffusers

Two Way Diffusers

One Way Diffuser

Round Diffusers
ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham
M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

Return / Exhaust Grilles

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

ARCHITECTURAL , AESTHETICAL TREATMENT FOR HVAC

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

EXPOSED DUCTS TREATED

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

FABRIC DUCTS AVAILABLE IN


COLORS
ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham
M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

FABRIC DUCT

NYLON DUCT

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

RUSTIC LOOK TO THE INTERIORS

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

OPEN CELL CEILING, RETURN IS TAKEN CARE IN THE OPEN


CELLS
ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham
M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

TOP HVAC BRANDS

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

The ASHRAE standards collection includes more than 4,000 standards pertaining to a
variety of topics such as:
Condensers and compressors
Airflow (outlets/inlets)
Heat pumps
Refrigerators and freezers
Automatic ice makers
Proportion of oil in liquid refrigerants
Energy conservation
ASHRAE standards are used by designers, manufacturers and installers of heating, air
conditioning and refrigeration equipment. They are also used by architects and
mechanical engineers to specify equipment.

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT

CLASSIFICATION OF HVAC CONTROL SYSTEMS,SENSORS,ACTUATORS AND CONTROLLERS

ANEURINE MATHEWS, SATHYA ,VIDYA SAGAR, Sunmugham


M-ARCH GENERAL HIET
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS ASSIGNMENT