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Original Title: 3)III Methods of Seismic Analysis

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METHODS OF

SEISMIC ANALYSIS

Luca Pel

Universidad Politcnica de Catalunya

luca.pela@upc.edu

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

TYPES OF ANALYSIS

2.

3.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Because elastic and damping forces are related to the relative displacements

and velocities between the masses and the base, respectively, and inertial

forces are related to the total accelerations of the masses, the equation of

motion of a MDOF system subject to an earthquake reads

Modal equations:

uncoupled equations.

TYPES OF ANALYSIS

Depending on the structural characteristics of the system, the following types of

analysis are used:

1.Linear elastic analysis

a) response history analysis: calculation of structural response as a

function of time when the system is subjected to a given ground

acceleration.

b) response spectrum analysis: computation of the peak response of

a structure during an earthquake directly from the earthquake

response or design spectrum.

c) equivalent static analysis: single-mode spectral and uniform-load

method.

2. Nonlinear methods

d) nonlinear static analysis (pushover analysis)

e) nonlinear time-history analysis (dynamic analysis)

Structural design is usually based on the peak values of forces and

deformations over the duration of the earthquake-induced response.

For SDOF systems, the peak response can be determined directly from the

response spectrum for the ground motion.

earthquake are given by:

spectral

acceleration

The maximum modal response un(t), i.e. the maximum displacement for mode

n, reads

Once evaluated the peak modal responses un,max for each node, it is not

possible to determine the exact peak value of the total response umax, because

in general the modal responses un(t), or qn(t), attain their peaks at different time

instants.

The rules suggested by EC8 to compute the peak total response are the

square root of sum of squares (SRSS), if natural frequencies are wellseparated.

The effective modal mass provides a method for judging the significance of a

vibration mode. Modes with relatively high effective masses can be readily

excited by base excitation. Using modal analysis, it is possible to define:

The base shear of a SDOF system with mass Mneff and frequency n is the

same as the nth mode base shear in a multi-storey system with mass

distributed along the height.

The sum of the effective modal masses over all the

N modes is equal to the total mass of the system:

For the 3D analysis of buildings with in-plane rigid floor diaphragms, the influence

vector can have different forms:

Therefore, the modal participation factor and the effective modal mass has to be

defined by mode and by direction

total mass

Within the modal analysis, the contribution of all modes must be included to

obtain the exact value of the response. The EC8 suggests to include in modal

analysis all the modes with effective modal masses greater than 5% of the total

mass or to sum the effective modes until reaching at least 90% of the total mass.

M eff

M 5%

j

Example

Multistory buildings with symmetric plan:

- rigid floor diaphragms, plans with 2 orthogonal axes of symmetry

- subjected to horizontal ground motion along one of axis of symmetry

maximum modal

horizontal force

maximum modal

base shear

Procedure:

1) Solve eigenvalue problem (N*N) to obtain a number p<N of eigenvalues

2) For the p modes considered, use jn to define modal participations factors

p<N can be estimated by

effective modal masses

Conditions of applicability according to EC8 - Regularity in plan and elevation

1. With respect to the lateral stiffness and mass distribution, the structure is

approximately symmetrical in plan with respect to two orthogonal axes

2. The plan configuration is compact, i.e., each floor shall be delimited by a

polygonal convex line.

3. In-plan stiffness of the floors shall be sufficiently large in comparison with the

lateral stiffness of the vertical structural elements, so that the rigid diaphragm

condition is satisfied.

4. The slenderness =Lmax/Lmin of the building in plan shall be not higher than 4,

where Lmax and Lmin are respectively the larger and smaller in plan dimension of

the building, measured in orthogonal directions.

1. All lateral load resisting systems, such as cores, structural walls, or frames,

shall run without interruption from their foundations to the top of the building.

2. The lateral stiffness and the mass of the individual storeys shall remain

constant or reduce gradually from the base to the top of the building.

When setbacks are present, there are special additional conditions (made

available to limit the unfavourable effects of setbacks) that must be satisfied.

static horizontal force applied to an individual frame.

The method is based on the natural period of a SDOF system (normally the

fundamental period) and code-specified response or design spectra.

Procedure:

1. Estimate the period of the fundamental mode T1 usually by some simplified

approximate method. In EC8:

spectra.

3. Calculate the base shear in the dominant mode:

estimated mode shape j

(Single-mode

distribution

of

loads)

zj is the height of the jth storey above the base

(Linear

distribution

of loads)

forces were calculated assuming a structure ductility q, then the actual

structural displacements are

Single-mode distribution of loads

The pushover analysis (nonlinear static analysis) evaluates the capacity of the

structure to resist a system of lateral forces, that simulates the actions during

the earthquake.

The lateral forces are increased monotonically until reaching the failure of the

model, that includes the description of nonlinearities (material, geometric, etc.).

The nonlinear dynamic analysis is a step-by-step analysis in the time domain,

that evaluates the response at each step of the structure subjected to a timedependent action.

The structure is analysed in the time domain including the inertial effects.

The input earthquake is defined by a time-history function (accelerogram).

The model includes the material nonlinearity, the geometric nonlinearity, the

hysteretic behaviour of structural members, etc.

It requires sophisticated computational programs (e.g. FEM).

The computational cost is high.

REFERENCES

Chopra A.K. Dynamics of Structures. Prentice Hall, 1995.

Petrini L.; Pinho R.; Calvi G. M. Criteri di progettazione antisismica degli edifici

(in Italian). IUSS Press, 2004.

General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings.

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