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Research done by

Ahad Jamil bb-06-02

Rizwan Ashraf bb-06-24

Yasir Javaid bb-06-27

Husain Zaidi bb-06-48

Omer Farooq bb-06-55

Report submitted to

Mr. Mushtaq Kalasra

PREFACE

program. Institute of Management Sciences Bahauddin Zakariya University,

Multan has followed policy of assigning different practical assignments to its

students so a touch of real working environment can be given to the students

apart from classroom studies to widen their perspective.

Bsiness research methods is one of the core subjects of BBA (Hons)

gives an insight that have research methods concepts are applied in practical

world. Therefore study of the subject is incomplete without observing in real

working environment.

In this context, our respectable instructor Mr. Mushtaq Kalasra has helped us in,

carrying out a research survey so that a practical and real work has been

touched.

The purpose of this research work done is to identify different factors which are

contributing to the increase in street crime in our country. Our country is facing

many challenges nowadays e.g political instability, economic crisis, social

inequality etc . the impact of all the challenges is that our social structure is being

hampered by these conditions. New patterns are emerging in our society which

were previously not known. The harmony of the society is disturbed. The society

which used to be full of peace is now full of crisis.

We are thankful to Almighty Allah, who is continuously guiding us in all the matters of

my life, he is aware what we are doing & he has never left us helpless in any walk of

life, thank you my great Allah for providing us the opportunity to complete my term

report on Street crime.

This world is working but a physical existence of rule of cause and effect everything is a

result of some other event and everything is dependent on some other. Human being is

one of the weakest certain of the Almighty dependent on other for his existence. This is

the law and we cannot change but we can not only come out of his dependence by

sharing different things among our fellow beings through communicating with each

other & also we an prove that man is not weakest creation.

In this vision of circle of cause and effect those people are really great who help

other in getting knowledge. One such person is our teacher Mr.Mshtaq Kalasra who

helped us a lot in making this term report, would not have possible. We are also

thankful to all those people who have filled our questionnaires.

Table of Contents

Introduction 5

Questionnaire 6

Literature review 9

Data & Methodology 10

Estimation, results 11

Analysis of Correlation 24

Hypothesis testing 27

Conclusion 30

Introduction

Street crime is a loose term for criminal offences taking place in public places. It

has moved to occupy the place once held by mugging. According to London's

Metropolitan Police Force, street crime is

Robbery, often called 'mugging', and also includes thefts from victims in the

street where property is snatched and the victim is not assaulted. [1]

Crime on the streets of a city may include many other types of offences, for

example pickpocketing, the open carrying-on of the illegal drugs trade,

prostitution in the form of soliciting outside the law, the creation of graffiti and

vandalism of public property, and assaults. As a generic term street crime may

include all of these, as well as offences against private property such as the

proverbial stealing of hub caps. The adoption of zero tolerance policies for lower-

level, non-violences has been based on an argument that there are links.

So our objective is to find out variables which influence the street crime most and

those that have a relationship among themselves. Our objective is to collect data

and than use it to find the results by applying different methodologies.

Questionnaire

Respondent profile

Gender

a. Male b. female

a.16 – 25

b.26 – 35

c.36 – 45

d. 45 – above

a. less than 5000

b. 5000 – 25000

c. 26000 – 50000

d. above 50000

a. Gulgasht

b. Cantt

c. New Multan

d. MDA

e. Old city

f. Mumtazabad

a. Student

b. Government employee

c. Businessman

d. House wife

e. Private employee

f. Retired

a. Yes b. No

1. From the following age groups which do u think is mostly involve in street crimes,

a.12 – 15

b.16 – 30

c. 31 – 45

d. 46 – above

a. upper class

b. upper middle class

c. middle class

d. lower class

11. why criminals prefer committing street crimes rather than robbing a bank .

a. less time needed

b. more return

c. less risk involved

d. less professional skills needed

12. Do u agree that street crime is increasing because of the lack of attention from parents

side towards their children?

a. wallets

b. mobiles

c. watches

d. vehicles

e. N.I.C

14. In influencing the individual to commit street crime, mots important variable is

a. Movies

b. Dramas

c. Media

d. friends circle

16. Increasing street crime is due to the fact that teenagers are becoming increasingly

involved in drugs?

17. Do u agree that increased number of beggars on street is a cause of increased street

crime?

18. What do you think hinders the performance of our security agencies,

a. Lack of efficiency

b. lack of resources

c. deployment of troops to v.i.p security

d. corruption

Literature Review

Business cycle and Street crime

This study examines the influence of business cycle fluctuations on street crime in the

conceptual framework of Cantor and Land's (1985) seminal work distinguishing between

opportunity and motivation effects. The analysis contributes to the literature three ways,

First, we use cross-section/time series data, which has several important advantages over

simple time-series or cross-section data of previous studies. Second, it introduces a new

and broader measure of business cycle conditions, one that more faithfully captures the

logic of Cantor and Land's framework than previous measures do. Third, it focuses on the

large decline in street crime of the 1990s, a central issue facing criminologists. Statistical

models indicate that the strong economy of the 1990s reduced all four index property

crimes and robbery by reducing criminal motivation, business cycle growth produced no

significant opportunity effect for any of the crimes studied

Data & Methodology

The data collected is first hand as it is collected by conducting a survey. A

questionnaire was designed with eighteen closed ended questions. These

questionnaires were filled by almost 100 respondents which were chosen by non

probability sampling which means that the sample or respondents are chosen on

the basis of convenience and judgment. The questionnaires are filled by the

respondents in private and were not influenced by the researchers. The data

collected is than fed into spss which is a software which is used to estimate and

give the result of the data on which we can deduce our results. The figures or

the results given by spss are than analyzed. We took following steps in collecting

and analyzing the data

1. We got the questionnaires filled from respondent

2. We than entered the data gathered by conducting a survey into

SPSS

3. Than we applied on individual questions in the questionnaire and

than interpret the results.

4. Than we applied correlation on the data and than interpreted the

results to find relationship between variables

5. At the last we did regression and anova tests to test our hypothesis

Estimation, Results & Analysis

Gender

N Valid 100

Missing 0

Mean .5900

Median 1.0000

Mode 1.00

Std. Deviation .49431

Variance .244

Range 1.00

Sum 59.00

Cumulative

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid female 41 41.0 41.0 41.0

Male 59 59.0 59.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

gender

60

50

40

30

n

u

q

F

y

c

e

r

20

10

0

female Male

gender

Analyses: The frequency distribution shows that the survey contains 100 individuals of

which 59 were males and 41 females

Age lies between

Statistics

N Valid 100

Missing 0

Mean 1.8200

Median 1.0000

Mode 1.00

Std. Deviation 1.04813

Variance 1.099

Range 3.00

Sum 182.00

Cumulative

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid 16 - 25 55 55.0 55.0 55.0

26 - 35 18 18.0 18.0 73.0

36 - 45 17 17.0 17.0 90.0

45 an

10 10.0 10.0 100.0

above

Total 100 100.0 100.0

age

60

50

40

30

n

u

q

F

y

c

e

r

20

10

0

16 - 25 26 - 35 36 - 45 45 an above

age

Analyses: the frequency distribution shows that the survey contains 55 individuals of age

from 16 – 25 , 18 from 26 – 35, 17 from 36 – 45 and 10 were above 45.

what is your occupation?

N Valid 100

Missing 0

Mean 2.4600

Median 2.0000

Mode 1.00

Std. Deviation 1.51371

Variance 2.291

Range 5.00

Sum 246.00

Cumulative

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid student 41 41.0 41.0 41.0

govt employee 13 13.0 13.0 54.0

businessman 21 21.0 21.0 75.0

House Wife 12 12.0 12.0 87.0

private

10 10.0 10.0 97.0

employee

Retired 3 3.0 3.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

occupation

50

40

30

n

u

q

F

y

c

e

r

20

10

0

student businessman private employee

govt employee House Wife Retired

occupation

Analyses: The frequency distribution shows that survey contains 41 students, 13 govt

employee, 21 businessman, 12 house wives, 10 private employee and 3 retired

individuals.

Statistics

Income per month

N Valid 100

Missing 0

Mean 2.0600

Median 2.0000

Mode 1.00

Std. Deviation 1.06192

Variance 1.128

Range 3.00

Sum 206.00

income

Cumulative

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid less than 5000 41 41.0 41.0 41.0

5000 - 25000 24 24.0 24.0 65.0

26000 - 50000 23 23.0 23.0 88.0

above 50000 12 12.0 12.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

income

50

40

30

n

u

q

F

y

c

e

r

20

10

0

less than 5000 5000 - 25000 26000 - 50000 above 50000

income

Analyses: The frequency distribution shows that there were 41 individuals with less than

5000 income, 24 with 5000 – 25000 income, 23 with 26000 – 50000 and 12 with above

50000 income in the survey.

Have u ever been a victim of street crime?

Statistics

N Valid 100

Missing 0

Mean .6300

Median 1.0000

Mode 1.00

Std. Deviation .48524

Variance .235

Range 1.00

Sum 63.00

Cumulative

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid yes 37 37.0 37.0 37.0

No 63 63.0 63.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

victim

70

60

50

40

n

u

q

F

y

c

e

30

r

20

10

0

yes No

victim

Analyses: the frequency distribution shows that from 100 individuals about 38

individuals had been victims of street crime.

1. which of the following age groups , which do u think is mostly involve in street

crimes

N Valid 100

Missing 0

Mean 2.1600

Median 2.0000

Mode 2.00

Std. Deviation .41972

Variance .176

Range 3.00

Sum 216.00

Cumulative

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid 12 - 15 1 1.0 1.0 1.0

16 - 30 83 83.0 83.0 84.0

31 - 45 15 15.0 15.0 99.0

45 and

1 1.0 1.0 100.0

above

Total 100 100.0 100.0

involve

100

80

60

n

u

q

F

y

c

e

r

40

20

0

12 - 15 16 - 30 31 - 45 45 and above

involve

Analysis: The frequency distribution shows that the individuals from age group 16 – 30

are mostly involved in street crime which is about 83%.

2. Individuals from which social class are mostly involved in street crime

N Valid 100

Missing 0

Mean 2.9500

Median 3.0000

Mode 4.00

Std. Deviation 1.10440

Variance 1.220

Range 3.00

Sum 295.00

Cumulative

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid upper class 14 14.0 14.0 14.0

upper middle

21 21.0 21.0 35.0

class

middle class 21 21.0 21.0 56.0

lower class 44 44.0 44.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

socialclass

50

40

30

n

u

q

F

y

c

e

r

20

10

0

upper class upper middle class middle class lower class

socialclass

Analysis: The frequency distribution shows that individuals from lower class are mostly

involved in street crime which is about 44%. The individuals from middle class and

upper middle class are both almost equally involved according to respondents.

3. Criminality is a personal trait of an individual....

∗

Analysis: This variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. The descriptive statistics shows that

it has a mean of 3 which means that respondents are uncertain or have a neutral response

to this variable.

Analysis: The variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. it shows a mean of 3 which means

that the respondents are uncertain about the relationship but a variance of 1.45 shows that

responses of respondents are scattered around mean.

Analysis: The variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. It has a mean of 1.63 which means

that most of the respondents agree to the relationship. The variance is also low so the

responses are close to the mean value.

Analyses: the variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. It has a mean of 1.61 which shows

that the respondents agree to the relationship. The variance is also low so less dispersion

around mean.

Analyses: The variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. It has a mean of 2.14 which shows

that respondents agree to the relationship.

The descriptive statistics tables are given on spss output

∗1

8. Data base facilities in our cities are

Analyses: The variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. It has a mean of 3.91 which is a high

value so it means that respondents are of the view that data base facilities are just fair.

The variance is also high so it means that respondents are dispersed around mean.

Analyses: The variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. It has a mean of 1.6 which shows

that the respondents agree to the relationship. The variance is also low.

Analyses: the variable is tapped on a five point scale. It has a mean of 2.8 which shows

that the respondents are neutral about it. The variance is also high so the responses are

scattered around mean.

The descriptive statistics tables are given on spss output

1

11. why criminals prefer committing street crimes rather than robbing a bank.

N Valid 100

Missing 0

Mean 2.7300

Median 3.0000

Mode 3.00

Std. Deviation .98324

Variance .967

Range 3.00

Sum 273.00

Cumulative

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid less time needed 18 18.0 18.0 18.0

more return 11 11.0 11.0 29.0

less risk involved 51 51.0 51.0 80.0

less professional

20 20.0 20.0 100.0

skills

Total 100 100.0 100.0

preference

60

50

40

30

n

u

q

F

y

c

e

r

20

10

0

less time needed more return less risk involved less professional

skills

preference

Analyses: the frequency distribution shows that street crime is preferred because less risk

is involved as 51% of the respondent selected it. 2nd variable is that less professional

skills needed. The variance is high so responses are scattered.

12. Do u agree that street crime is increasing because of the lack of attention from

parents side towards their children?

Analysis: The variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. The mean is 1.99 which is low and

suggests that people agree to the relationship.

13. which products are mostly snatched from the victims?

N Valid 100

Missing 0

Mean 1.8700

Median 2.0000

Mode 2.00

Std. Deviation .71992

Variance .518

Range 3.00

Sum 187.00

Cumulative

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid wallets 27 27.0 27.0 27.0

mobiles 65 65.0 65.0 92.0

watches 2 2.0 2.0 94.0

vehicles 6 6.0 6.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

mostlysnatched

70

60

50

40

n

u

q

F

y

c

e

30

r

20

10

0

wallets mobiles watches vehicles

mostlysnatched

Analyses: The frequency distribution shows that mobiles are mostly snatched from

victims which account for about 65%. 2nd are wallets with 27%. The variance is low so

the responses are close to the mean.

14. In influencing the individual to commit street crime, which is the most important

variable.

N Valid 100

Missing 0

Mean 2.8900

Median 3.0000

Mode 4.00

Std. Deviation 1.27045

Variance 1.614

Range 3.00

Sum 289.00

Cumulative

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid media 26 26.0 26.0 26.0

dramas 8 8.0 8.0 34.0

movies 17 17.0 17.0 51.0

friend circle 49 49.0 49.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

influence

50

40

30

n

u

q

y

cF

re

20

10

0

media dramas movies friend circle

influence

Analyses: The frequency distribution shows that friend circle influences the individual

most which is about 49% to commit crime. The 2nd important variable is the media. The

variance is very high so responses are highly scattered around mean.

15. Street crimes are mostly committed by the illiterates

Analysis: The variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. The mean is 2.58 which is an average

value so respondents have a neutral view of this. The variance is also high.

16. Increasing street crime is due to the fact that teenagers are becoming

increasingly involved in drugs?

Analysis: The variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. The mean is 2.2 which means

respondent agree to the relation ship. The variance is very high which means responses

are highly scattered around mean.

street crime?

Analysis: The variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. the mean is 2.32 which means

respondents agree to relation. The variance is high.

18. What do you think hinders the performance of our security agencies

N Valid 100

Missing 0

Mean 2.7400

Median 3.0000

Mode 4.00

Std. Deviation 1.20286

Variance 1.447

Range 3.00

Sum 274.00

Cumulative

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent

Valid lack of efficiency 22 22.0 22.0 22.0

lack of

22 22.0 22.0 44.0

resources

deployment of

troops to vip 16 16.0 16.0 60.0

security

corruption 40 40.0 40.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

securityagencies

40

30

20

n

u

q

F

y

c

e

r

10

0

lack of efficiency deployment of troops to vip security

lack of resources corruption

securityagencies

Analysis: The frequency distribution shows that performance is effected mainly due to

corruption, lack of resources and lack of efficiency of security agencies. The variance is

also high which means responses are scattered around mean.

Analysis Of Correlation

It has a negative relationship with social class variable. The magnitude is

-0.266 correlation is significant at 1 percent level.

It has a positive relation with variable mostly snatched thing. The

magnitude is 0.370 at 1% level of significance. It shows a stronger

association.

It has a positive relation with drugs. the magnitude is 0.234 at 1% level of

significance.

Social class:

It has a negative relationship with age group involved. The magnitude is

-0.226 correlation is significant at 1 percent level.

It has a positive relation with lack of attention from parents. The

magnitude is 0.227 and correlation is significant at 5 percent level.

∗

Personal trait:

It has a positive relationship with adventure variable. The magnitude is

0.281 correlation is significant at 1 percent level

Terrorism:

It has a positive relationship with variable increasing beggars on streets.

the magnitude is 0.215 at 5 percent level of significance.

Poverty:

It has a positive relationship with lack of availability of justice at 5

percent level of significance

It has a positive relationship with unemployment at 1 percent level of

significance its magnitude is 0.353 and it shows strong relation

It has a positive relation with illiterates at 5 percent level of significance.

Un justice:

It has a positive relationship with poverty at 5 percent level of

significance.

It has a positive relationship with unemployment at 1 percent level of

significance and it is strong

Ammunition:

It has a negative association with adventure variable at 5 percent level of

significance.

Data base:

It has negative relation with drugs at 5 percent level of significance

Unemployment:

It has a positive association with poverty, unjustice and lack of

attention at 1 percent level of significance

It has a positive association with illiterates at 5 percent level of

significance

Adventure:

It has a positive relation with personal trait, drugs at 1 percent level of

significance

It has a positive association with ammunition at 5 percent level of

significance.

Preference:

It has a positive relation with illiterates at 1 percent level

It has a positive relation with drugs at 5 percent level of significance

The correlation table is given on spss output

∗

Lack of attention:

I has a positive association with beggars and unemployment at 1

percent level of significance

It has a positive relation with social class at 5 percent level

Mostly snatched:

It has a positive association with age group involve at 1 percent level of

significance

It has a positive association with security agencies at 5 per cent level of

significance

Influence:

It has a positive association with security agencies at 5 percent level of

significance

Illiterates:

It has a positive relationship with poverty and unemployment at 5

percent level of significance.

It has a positive relationship with preference at 5 percent level

Drugs:

It has a positive relation with age group involve and preference at 5

percent level of significance

It ha positive relation with adventure at 1 percent level of significance

It has a negative association with data base at 5 percent level

Beggars:

It has a positive association with lack of attention and un justice at 1

percent level of significance

It has a positive relation with terrorism at 5 percent level of significance

Security agencies:

It has a positive association with influence and mostly snatched at 5

percent level of significance.

The correlation table is given on spss output

Hypothesis generation

1. Ho: The two independent variables will have a significant

relationship with poverty

Ha: The two independent variables will have not

significant relationship with poverty.

Regression

Variables Variables

Model Entered Removed Method

1 illetrates,

unemploym . Enter

ent(a)

a All requested variables entered.

b Dependent Variable: poverty

Model Summary

Model R R Square Square the Estimate

1 .388(a) .151 .133 .68323

a Predictors: (Constant), illetrates, unemployment

Analyses: this table shows the R 0,388 which is the correlation of the 2

independent variables with the dependent ,after intercorrelation of 2 independent

variable taken into account. The value of R SQUARE which is 0.131 means that

13 % of variance in poverty is explained by the two variables

ANOVA(b)

Sum of

Model Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regressio

8.030 2 4.015 8.601 .000(a)

n

Residual 45.280 97 .467

Total 53.310 99

a Predictors: (Constant), illetrates, unemployment

b Dependent Variable: poverty

Analyses: the anova table shows that the value of F 8.601 is significant at

0.0001 level. By comparing the value of P which is 0.0001 and is less than the

level of significance of 0.001 so we reject the null hypothesis.

Coefficients(a)

Unstandardized Standardized

Coefficients Coefficients

1 (Constant) .786 .226 3.472 .001

unemploym

.325 .099 .315 3.277 .001

ent

illetrates .126 .073 .167 1.735 .086

a Dependent Variable: poverty

Analysis: the table 4 gives coefficients and it is seen that unemployment has the

greatest vale of beta which is 0.325 and which is significant at .001 level. So it is

the variable which is significant and other variable illiterate is not significant.

Both poverty and unemployment has a positive relation so if

unemployment increases by 1 unit poverty also increases by 0.325 units.

street crime and lack of attention from parents.

Ha: there is no relationship between social class mostly involved in

street crime and lack of attention from parents.

ANOVA

Sum of

Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

Between Groups 8.968 3 2.989 3.775 .013

Within Groups 76.022 96 .792

Total 84.990 99

Analysis: In this test our dependent variable is lack of attention from parents and

factor is social class mostly involved in street crime. The test is performed at a

0.01 level of significance and the values from the table shows that value of F

3.775 is significant at 0.013 level. As thie value of P is greater than 0.01 so the

null hypothesis is accepted.

3. Ho: there is a relationship between security agencies performance

and availability of ammunition and data base facilities

Ha:. there is no relationship between security agencies performance

and availability of ammunition and data base facilities

ANOVA

Sum of

Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

ammunition Between

3.237 3 1.079 1.505 .218

Groups

Within Groups 68.803 96 .717

Total 72.040 99

database Between

9.662 3 3.221 2.849 .042

Groups

Within Groups 108.528 96 1.131

Total 118.190 99

database facility and our factor is security agencies performance. The test was

performed at 0.01 level of significance. As it could be seen that ammunition has

value o F 1.505 at 0.216 level and data base facility has value of F 2.849 at .042

level. So by comparing P values with level of significance and it is recognized

that both the values are greater than level of significance 0.01. so we accept the

null hypothesis

Conclusion

After all the research conducted and following the following steps

1. Observation : increasing street crime

2. Preliminary gathering data: by literature survey and interviewing through

questionnaire

3. Problem definition: what are the causes of street crime?

4. Theoretical framework: identifying around 17 variables which influence it

Than applying statistics on the data gathered, getting the results and analyzing

them. We have came up with our conclusion that street crime is increasing

nowadays and the factors which are contributing largely are as following

1. Poverty

2. Unemployment

3. Illiteracy

4. Lack of attention from parents

5. Social class

6. Security agencies performance

7. Availability of ammunition

8. Lack of availability of justice

9. adventure

Recommendations

1. To decrease the street crime government should take steps to improve the

performance of the security agencies by decreasing corruption ,

increasing the resources of the forces

2. Street crime can also be decreased by decreasing poverty in the society

3. Unemployment is also another major variable which is causing increase in

street crime

4. lack of attention from parents side is also contributing to the street crime

so parents should take increasing interest towards their children’s.

Limitations

1. The sample size is of 100 which represent a very big population so

sample size was a limiting factor

2. The respondents are chosen on the basis of judgment and convenience

rather than random sampling or some other probability sampling

3. The reliability of the questionnaire filled by the respondents are also low

as they would have taken it for granted.

4. There is not much written on street crime in Pakistan except for the news

articles.

Reference Article

Arvanites, Thomas ,DeFina, Robert H. (2006), Business cycle and Street crime, Vol. 44

Issue 1, p139-164, criminology

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