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Street crime

Research done by
Ahad Jamil bb-06-02
Rizwan Ashraf bb-06-24
Yasir Javaid bb-06-27
Husain Zaidi bb-06-48
Omer Farooq bb-06-55

Report submitted to
Mr. Mushtaq Kalasra
PREFACE

Getting practical knowledge in one of the major aims of BBA (Hons)


program. Institute of Management Sciences Bahauddin Zakariya University,
Multan has followed policy of assigning different practical assignments to its
students so a touch of real working environment can be given to the students
apart from classroom studies to widen their perspective.
Bsiness research methods is one of the core subjects of BBA (Hons)
gives an insight that have research methods concepts are applied in practical
world. Therefore study of the subject is incomplete without observing in real
working environment.
In this context, our respectable instructor Mr. Mushtaq Kalasra has helped us in,
carrying out a research survey so that a practical and real work has been
touched.

The purpose of this research work done is to identify different factors which are
contributing to the increase in street crime in our country. Our country is facing
many challenges nowadays e.g political instability, economic crisis, social
inequality etc . the impact of all the challenges is that our social structure is being
hampered by these conditions. New patterns are emerging in our society which
were previously not known. The harmony of the society is disturbed. The society
which used to be full of peace is now full of crisis.
We are thankful to Almighty Allah, who is continuously guiding us in all the matters of
my life, he is aware what we are doing & he has never left us helpless in any walk of
life, thank you my great Allah for providing us the opportunity to complete my term
report on Street crime.
This world is working but a physical existence of rule of cause and effect everything is a
result of some other event and everything is dependent on some other. Human being is
one of the weakest certain of the Almighty dependent on other for his existence. This is
the law and we cannot change but we can not only come out of his dependence by
sharing different things among our fellow beings through communicating with each
other & also we an prove that man is not weakest creation.
In this vision of circle of cause and effect those people are really great who help
other in getting knowledge. One such person is our teacher Mr.Mshtaq Kalasra who
helped us a lot in making this term report, would not have possible. We are also
thankful to all those people who have filled our questionnaires.

Table of Contents
Introduction 5

Questionnaire 6

Literature review 9
Data & Methodology 10

Estimation, results 11

Analysis of Correlation 24

Hypothesis testing 27

Conclusion 30

Recommendations & Limitations 31


Introduction

Street crime is a loose term for criminal offences taking place in public places. It
has moved to occupy the place once held by mugging. According to London's
Metropolitan Police Force, street crime is
Robbery, often called 'mugging', and also includes thefts from victims in the
street where property is snatched and the victim is not assaulted. [1]
Crime on the streets of a city may include many other types of offences, for
example pickpocketing, the open carrying-on of the illegal drugs trade,
prostitution in the form of soliciting outside the law, the creation of graffiti and
vandalism of public property, and assaults. As a generic term street crime may
include all of these, as well as offences against private property such as the
proverbial stealing of hub caps. The adoption of zero tolerance policies for lower-
level, non-violences has been based on an argument that there are links.
So our objective is to find out variables which influence the street crime most and
those that have a relationship among themselves. Our objective is to collect data
and than use it to find the results by applying different methodologies.
Questionnaire
Respondent profile

Gender
a. Male b. female

Age lies between


a.16 – 25
b.26 – 35
c.36 – 45
d. 45 – above

Income per month


a. less than 5000
b. 5000 – 25000
c. 26000 – 50000
d. above 50000

In which area of Multan u live


a. Gulgasht
b. Cantt
c. New Multan
d. MDA
e. Old city
f. Mumtazabad

what is your occupation?


a. Student
b. Government employee
c. Businessman
d. House wife
e. Private employee
f. Retired

Have u ever been a victim of street crime?


a. Yes b. No
1. From the following age groups which do u think is mostly involve in street crimes,
a.12 – 15
b.16 – 30
c. 31 – 45
d. 46 – above

2. Individuals from which social class is mostly involved in street crime,


a. upper class
b. upper middle class
c. middle class
d. lower class

3. Criminality is a personal trait of an individual....

a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Uncertain d. Disagree e. Strongly disagree

4. There is a relationship between terrorism and increase in street crime

a. Very likely b. Likely c. Uncertain d. Unlikely e. Very unlikely

5. Poverty is a cause of increasing street crime in our society

a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Uncertain d. Disagree e. Strongly disagree

6. Lack of availability of justice has caused an increase in street crime

a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Uncertain d. Disagree e. Strongly disagree

7. Do u agree that increase in street crime is due to easy availability of ammunition?

a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Uncertain d. Disagree e. Strongly disagree

8. Data base facilities in our cities are

a. Excellent b. Good c. Average d. Fair e. Poor

9. Do u agree that increase in street crime is due to high rate of unemployment?

a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Uncertain d. Disagree e. Strongly disagree

10. People commit street crimes for the sake of adventure

a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Uncertain d. Disagree e. Strongly disagree


11. why criminals prefer committing street crimes rather than robbing a bank .
a. less time needed
b. more return
c. less risk involved
d. less professional skills needed

12. Do u agree that street crime is increasing because of the lack of attention from parents
side towards their children?

a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Uncertain d. Disagree e. Strongly disagree

13. Which products are mostly snatched from the victims


a. wallets
b. mobiles
c. watches
d. vehicles
e. N.I.C

14. In influencing the individual to commit street crime, mots important variable is
a. Movies
b. Dramas
c. Media
d. friends circle

15. Street crimes are mostly committed by the illiterates

a. Very Often b. Often c. Sometimes d. Rarely e. Never

16. Increasing street crime is due to the fact that teenagers are becoming increasingly
involved in drugs?

a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Uncertain d. Disagree e. Strongly disagree

17. Do u agree that increased number of beggars on street is a cause of increased street
crime?

a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Uncertain d. Disagree e. Strongly disagree

18. What do you think hinders the performance of our security agencies,
a. Lack of efficiency
b. lack of resources
c. deployment of troops to v.i.p security
d. corruption
Literature Review
Business cycle and Street crime
This study examines the influence of business cycle fluctuations on street crime in the
conceptual framework of Cantor and Land's (1985) seminal work distinguishing between
opportunity and motivation effects. The analysis contributes to the literature three ways,
First, we use cross-section/time series data, which has several important advantages over
simple time-series or cross-section data of previous studies. Second, it introduces a new
and broader measure of business cycle conditions, one that more faithfully captures the
logic of Cantor and Land's framework than previous measures do. Third, it focuses on the
large decline in street crime of the 1990s, a central issue facing criminologists. Statistical
models indicate that the strong economy of the 1990s reduced all four index property
crimes and robbery by reducing criminal motivation, business cycle growth produced no
significant opportunity effect for any of the crimes studied
Data & Methodology
The data collected is first hand as it is collected by conducting a survey. A
questionnaire was designed with eighteen closed ended questions. These
questionnaires were filled by almost 100 respondents which were chosen by non
probability sampling which means that the sample or respondents are chosen on
the basis of convenience and judgment. The questionnaires are filled by the
respondents in private and were not influenced by the researchers. The data
collected is than fed into spss which is a software which is used to estimate and
give the result of the data on which we can deduce our results. The figures or
the results given by spss are than analyzed. We took following steps in collecting
and analyzing the data
1. We got the questionnaires filled from respondent
2. We than entered the data gathered by conducting a survey into
SPSS
3. Than we applied on individual questions in the questionnaire and
than interpret the results.
4. Than we applied correlation on the data and than interpreted the
results to find relationship between variables
5. At the last we did regression and anova tests to test our hypothesis
Estimation, Results & Analysis

Gender
N Valid 100
Missing 0
Mean .5900
Median 1.0000
Mode 1.00
Std. Deviation .49431
Variance .244
Range 1.00
Sum 59.00

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid female 41 41.0 41.0 41.0
Male 59 59.0 59.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

gender

60

50

40

30
n
u
q
F
y
c
e
r

20

10

0
female Male
gender

Analyses: The frequency distribution shows that the survey contains 100 individuals of
which 59 were males and 41 females
Age lies between
Statistics
N Valid 100
Missing 0
Mean 1.8200
Median 1.0000
Mode 1.00
Std. Deviation 1.04813
Variance 1.099
Range 3.00
Sum 182.00

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 16 - 25 55 55.0 55.0 55.0
26 - 35 18 18.0 18.0 73.0
36 - 45 17 17.0 17.0 90.0
45 an
10 10.0 10.0 100.0
above
Total 100 100.0 100.0

age

60

50

40

30
n
u
q
F
y
c
e
r

20

10

0
16 - 25 26 - 35 36 - 45 45 an above
age

Analyses: the frequency distribution shows that the survey contains 55 individuals of age
from 16 – 25 , 18 from 26 – 35, 17 from 36 – 45 and 10 were above 45.
what is your occupation?
N Valid 100
Missing 0
Mean 2.4600
Median 2.0000
Mode 1.00
Std. Deviation 1.51371
Variance 2.291
Range 5.00
Sum 246.00

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid student 41 41.0 41.0 41.0
govt employee 13 13.0 13.0 54.0
businessman 21 21.0 21.0 75.0
House Wife 12 12.0 12.0 87.0
private
10 10.0 10.0 97.0
employee
Retired 3 3.0 3.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

occupation

50

40

30
n
u
q
F
y
c
e
r

20

10

0
student businessman private employee
govt employee House Wife Retired
occupation

Analyses: The frequency distribution shows that survey contains 41 students, 13 govt
employee, 21 businessman, 12 house wives, 10 private employee and 3 retired
individuals.
Statistics
Income per month
N Valid 100
Missing 0
Mean 2.0600
Median 2.0000
Mode 1.00
Std. Deviation 1.06192
Variance 1.128
Range 3.00
Sum 206.00

income

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid less than 5000 41 41.0 41.0 41.0
5000 - 25000 24 24.0 24.0 65.0
26000 - 50000 23 23.0 23.0 88.0
above 50000 12 12.0 12.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

income

50

40

30
n
u
q
F
y
c
e
r

20

10

0
less than 5000 5000 - 25000 26000 - 50000 above 50000
income

Analyses: The frequency distribution shows that there were 41 individuals with less than
5000 income, 24 with 5000 – 25000 income, 23 with 26000 – 50000 and 12 with above
50000 income in the survey.
Have u ever been a victim of street crime?
Statistics
N Valid 100
Missing 0
Mean .6300
Median 1.0000
Mode 1.00
Std. Deviation .48524
Variance .235
Range 1.00
Sum 63.00

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid yes 37 37.0 37.0 37.0
No 63 63.0 63.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

victim

70

60

50

40
n
u
q
F
y
c
e

30
r

20

10

0
yes No
victim

Analyses: the frequency distribution shows that from 100 individuals about 38
individuals had been victims of street crime.
1. which of the following age groups , which do u think is mostly involve in street
crimes
N Valid 100
Missing 0
Mean 2.1600
Median 2.0000
Mode 2.00
Std. Deviation .41972
Variance .176
Range 3.00
Sum 216.00

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 12 - 15 1 1.0 1.0 1.0
16 - 30 83 83.0 83.0 84.0
31 - 45 15 15.0 15.0 99.0
45 and
1 1.0 1.0 100.0
above
Total 100 100.0 100.0

involve

100

80

60
n
u
q
F
y
c
e
r

40

20

0
12 - 15 16 - 30 31 - 45 45 and above
involve

Analysis: The frequency distribution shows that the individuals from age group 16 – 30
are mostly involved in street crime which is about 83%.
2. Individuals from which social class are mostly involved in street crime
N Valid 100
Missing 0
Mean 2.9500
Median 3.0000
Mode 4.00
Std. Deviation 1.10440
Variance 1.220
Range 3.00
Sum 295.00

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid upper class 14 14.0 14.0 14.0
upper middle
21 21.0 21.0 35.0
class
middle class 21 21.0 21.0 56.0
lower class 44 44.0 44.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

socialclass

50

40

30
n
u
q
F
y
c
e
r

20

10

0
upper class upper middle class middle class lower class
socialclass

Analysis: The frequency distribution shows that individuals from lower class are mostly
involved in street crime which is about 44%. The individuals from middle class and
upper middle class are both almost equally involved according to respondents.
3. Criminality is a personal trait of an individual....


Analysis: This variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. The descriptive statistics shows that
it has a mean of 3 which means that respondents are uncertain or have a neutral response
to this variable.

4. There is a relationship between terrorism and increase in street crime

Analysis: The variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. it shows a mean of 3 which means
that the respondents are uncertain about the relationship but a variance of 1.45 shows that
responses of respondents are scattered around mean.

5. Poverty is a cause of increasing street crime in our society

Analysis: The variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. It has a mean of 1.63 which means
that most of the respondents agree to the relationship. The variance is also low so the
responses are close to the mean value.

6. Lack of availability of justice has caused an increase in street crime

Analyses: the variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. It has a mean of 1.61 which shows
that the respondents agree to the relationship. The variance is also low so less dispersion
around mean.

7. Do u agree that increase in street crime is due to easy availability of ammunition?

Analyses: The variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. It has a mean of 2.14 which shows
that respondents agree to the relationship.


The descriptive statistics tables are given on spss output
∗1
8. Data base facilities in our cities are

Analyses: The variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. It has a mean of 3.91 which is a high
value so it means that respondents are of the view that data base facilities are just fair.
The variance is also high so it means that respondents are dispersed around mean.

9. Do u agree that increase in street crime is due to high rate of unemployment?

Analyses: The variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. It has a mean of 1.6 which shows
that the respondents agree to the relationship. The variance is also low.

10. People commit street crimes for the sake of adventure

Analyses: the variable is tapped on a five point scale. It has a mean of 2.8 which shows
that the respondents are neutral about it. The variance is also high so the responses are
scattered around mean.


The descriptive statistics tables are given on spss output
1
11. why criminals prefer committing street crimes rather than robbing a bank.
N Valid 100
Missing 0
Mean 2.7300
Median 3.0000
Mode 3.00
Std. Deviation .98324
Variance .967
Range 3.00
Sum 273.00

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid less time needed 18 18.0 18.0 18.0
more return 11 11.0 11.0 29.0
less risk involved 51 51.0 51.0 80.0
less professional
20 20.0 20.0 100.0
skills
Total 100 100.0 100.0

preference

60

50

40

30
n
u
q
F
y
c
e
r

20

10

0
less time needed more return less risk involved less professional
skills
preference

Analyses: the frequency distribution shows that street crime is preferred because less risk
is involved as 51% of the respondent selected it. 2nd variable is that less professional
skills needed. The variance is high so responses are scattered.
12. Do u agree that street crime is increasing because of the lack of attention from
parents side towards their children?

Analysis: The variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. The mean is 1.99 which is low and
suggests that people agree to the relationship.
13. which products are mostly snatched from the victims?
N Valid 100
Missing 0
Mean 1.8700
Median 2.0000
Mode 2.00
Std. Deviation .71992
Variance .518
Range 3.00
Sum 187.00

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid wallets 27 27.0 27.0 27.0
mobiles 65 65.0 65.0 92.0
watches 2 2.0 2.0 94.0
vehicles 6 6.0 6.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

mostlysnatched

70

60

50

40
n
u
q
F
y
c
e

30
r

20

10

0
wallets mobiles watches vehicles
mostlysnatched

Analyses: The frequency distribution shows that mobiles are mostly snatched from
victims which account for about 65%. 2nd are wallets with 27%. The variance is low so
the responses are close to the mean.
14. In influencing the individual to commit street crime, which is the most important
variable.
N Valid 100
Missing 0
Mean 2.8900
Median 3.0000
Mode 4.00
Std. Deviation 1.27045
Variance 1.614
Range 3.00
Sum 289.00

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid media 26 26.0 26.0 26.0
dramas 8 8.0 8.0 34.0
movies 17 17.0 17.0 51.0
friend circle 49 49.0 49.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

influence

50

40

30
n
u
q
y
cF
re

20

10

0
media dramas movies friend circle
influence

Analyses: The frequency distribution shows that friend circle influences the individual
most which is about 49% to commit crime. The 2nd important variable is the media. The
variance is very high so responses are highly scattered around mean.
15. Street crimes are mostly committed by the illiterates

Analysis: The variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. The mean is 2.58 which is an average
value so respondents have a neutral view of this. The variance is also high.

16. Increasing street crime is due to the fact that teenagers are becoming
increasingly involved in drugs?

Analysis: The variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. The mean is 2.2 which means
respondent agree to the relation ship. The variance is very high which means responses
are highly scattered around mean.

17. Do u agree that increased number of beggars on street is a cause of increased


street crime?

Analysis: The variable is tapped on a 5-point scale. the mean is 2.32 which means
respondents agree to relation. The variance is high.
18. What do you think hinders the performance of our security agencies
N Valid 100
Missing 0
Mean 2.7400
Median 3.0000
Mode 4.00
Std. Deviation 1.20286
Variance 1.447
Range 3.00
Sum 274.00

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid lack of efficiency 22 22.0 22.0 22.0
lack of
22 22.0 22.0 44.0
resources
deployment of
troops to vip 16 16.0 16.0 60.0
security
corruption 40 40.0 40.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0
securityagencies

40

30

20
n
u
q
F
y
c
e
r

10

0
lack of efficiency deployment of troops to vip security
lack of resources corruption
securityagencies

Analysis: The frequency distribution shows that performance is effected mainly due to
corruption, lack of resources and lack of efficiency of security agencies. The variance is
also high which means responses are scattered around mean.

Analysis Of Correlation

Age group Involved:


It has a negative relationship with social class variable. The magnitude is
-0.266 correlation is significant at 1 percent level.
It has a positive relation with variable mostly snatched thing. The
magnitude is 0.370 at 1% level of significance. It shows a stronger
association.
It has a positive relation with drugs. the magnitude is 0.234 at 1% level of
significance.

Social class:
It has a negative relationship with age group involved. The magnitude is
-0.226 correlation is significant at 1 percent level.
It has a positive relation with lack of attention from parents. The
magnitude is 0.227 and correlation is significant at 5 percent level.

Personal trait:
It has a positive relationship with adventure variable. The magnitude is
0.281 correlation is significant at 1 percent level

Terrorism:
It has a positive relationship with variable increasing beggars on streets.
the magnitude is 0.215 at 5 percent level of significance.

Poverty:
It has a positive relationship with lack of availability of justice at 5
percent level of significance
It has a positive relationship with unemployment at 1 percent level of
significance its magnitude is 0.353 and it shows strong relation
It has a positive relation with illiterates at 5 percent level of significance.

Un justice:
It has a positive relationship with poverty at 5 percent level of
significance.
It has a positive relationship with unemployment at 1 percent level of
significance and it is strong

Ammunition:
It has a negative association with adventure variable at 5 percent level of
significance.

Data base:
It has negative relation with drugs at 5 percent level of significance

Unemployment:
It has a positive association with poverty, unjustice and lack of
attention at 1 percent level of significance
It has a positive association with illiterates at 5 percent level of
significance

Adventure:
It has a positive relation with personal trait, drugs at 1 percent level of
significance
It has a positive association with ammunition at 5 percent level of
significance.

Preference:
It has a positive relation with illiterates at 1 percent level
It has a positive relation with drugs at 5 percent level of significance


The correlation table is given on spss output

Lack of attention:
I has a positive association with beggars and unemployment at 1
percent level of significance
It has a positive relation with social class at 5 percent level

Mostly snatched:
It has a positive association with age group involve at 1 percent level of
significance
It has a positive association with security agencies at 5 per cent level of
significance

Influence:
It has a positive association with security agencies at 5 percent level of
significance

Illiterates:
It has a positive relationship with poverty and unemployment at 5
percent level of significance.
It has a positive relationship with preference at 5 percent level

Drugs:
It has a positive relation with age group involve and preference at 5
percent level of significance
It ha positive relation with adventure at 1 percent level of significance
It has a negative association with data base at 5 percent level

Beggars:
It has a positive association with lack of attention and un justice at 1
percent level of significance
It has a positive relation with terrorism at 5 percent level of significance

Security agencies:
It has a positive association with influence and mostly snatched at 5
percent level of significance.


The correlation table is given on spss output
Hypothesis generation
1. Ho: The two independent variables will have a significant
relationship with poverty
Ha: The two independent variables will have not
significant relationship with poverty.
Regression
Variables Variables
Model Entered Removed Method
1 illetrates,
unemploym . Enter
ent(a)
a All requested variables entered.
b Dependent Variable: poverty
Model Summary

Adjusted R Std. Error of


Model R R Square Square the Estimate
1 .388(a) .151 .133 .68323
a Predictors: (Constant), illetrates, unemployment

Analyses: this table shows the R 0,388 which is the correlation of the 2
independent variables with the dependent ,after intercorrelation of 2 independent
variable taken into account. The value of R SQUARE which is 0.131 means that
13 % of variance in poverty is explained by the two variables

ANOVA(b)

Sum of
Model Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regressio
8.030 2 4.015 8.601 .000(a)
n
Residual 45.280 97 .467
Total 53.310 99
a Predictors: (Constant), illetrates, unemployment
b Dependent Variable: poverty

Analyses: the anova table shows that the value of F 8.601 is significant at
0.0001 level. By comparing the value of P which is 0.0001 and is less than the
level of significance of 0.001 so we reject the null hypothesis.
Coefficients(a)

Unstandardized Standardized
Coefficients Coefficients

Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig.


1 (Constant) .786 .226 3.472 .001
unemploym
.325 .099 .315 3.277 .001
ent
illetrates .126 .073 .167 1.735 .086
a Dependent Variable: poverty

Analysis: the table 4 gives coefficients and it is seen that unemployment has the
greatest vale of beta which is 0.325 and which is significant at .001 level. So it is
the variable which is significant and other variable illiterate is not significant.
Both poverty and unemployment has a positive relation so if
unemployment increases by 1 unit poverty also increases by 0.325 units.

2. Ho: there is a relationship between social class mostly involved in


street crime and lack of attention from parents.
Ha: there is no relationship between social class mostly involved in
street crime and lack of attention from parents.

ANOVA

Sum of
Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 8.968 3 2.989 3.775 .013
Within Groups 76.022 96 .792
Total 84.990 99

Analysis: In this test our dependent variable is lack of attention from parents and
factor is social class mostly involved in street crime. The test is performed at a
0.01 level of significance and the values from the table shows that value of F
3.775 is significant at 0.013 level. As thie value of P is greater than 0.01 so the
null hypothesis is accepted.
3. Ho: there is a relationship between security agencies performance
and availability of ammunition and data base facilities
Ha:. there is no relationship between security agencies performance
and availability of ammunition and data base facilities

ANOVA

Sum of
Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
ammunition Between
3.237 3 1.079 1.505 .218
Groups
Within Groups 68.803 96 .717
Total 72.040 99
database Between
9.662 3 3.221 2.849 .042
Groups
Within Groups 108.528 96 1.131
Total 118.190 99

Analysis: In this our dependent variables are availability of ammunition and


database facility and our factor is security agencies performance. The test was
performed at 0.01 level of significance. As it could be seen that ammunition has
value o F 1.505 at 0.216 level and data base facility has value of F 2.849 at .042
level. So by comparing P values with level of significance and it is recognized
that both the values are greater than level of significance 0.01. so we accept the
null hypothesis
Conclusion
After all the research conducted and following the following steps
1. Observation : increasing street crime
2. Preliminary gathering data: by literature survey and interviewing through
questionnaire
3. Problem definition: what are the causes of street crime?
4. Theoretical framework: identifying around 17 variables which influence it

Than applying statistics on the data gathered, getting the results and analyzing
them. We have came up with our conclusion that street crime is increasing
nowadays and the factors which are contributing largely are as following
1. Poverty
2. Unemployment
3. Illiteracy
4. Lack of attention from parents
5. Social class
6. Security agencies performance
7. Availability of ammunition
8. Lack of availability of justice
9. adventure
Recommendations
1. To decrease the street crime government should take steps to improve the
performance of the security agencies by decreasing corruption ,
increasing the resources of the forces
2. Street crime can also be decreased by decreasing poverty in the society
3. Unemployment is also another major variable which is causing increase in
street crime
4. lack of attention from parents side is also contributing to the street crime
so parents should take increasing interest towards their children’s.

Limitations
1. The sample size is of 100 which represent a very big population so
sample size was a limiting factor
2. The respondents are chosen on the basis of judgment and convenience
rather than random sampling or some other probability sampling
3. The reliability of the questionnaire filled by the respondents are also low
as they would have taken it for granted.
4. There is not much written on street crime in Pakistan except for the news
articles.
Reference Article

Arvanites, Thomas ,DeFina, Robert H. (2006), Business cycle and Street crime, Vol. 44
Issue 1, p139-164, criminology