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The Human Fossil Record: Craniodental Morphology of Genus Homo

(Africa and Asia), Volume II. Jeffrey H. Schwariz, Ian Tattersall


Copyright 02003 John Wiley& Sonns,Inc.,
ISBN: 0-471-31928-7

P A R T

O N E

INTRODIJCTION

I N T K O D I Tc T I o N

DESCRIPTIVE PROTOCOL
In these volumes of The Human Fossil Recoy4 we describe as many as possible of the major fossils that make
up the record of the genus Homo. The arrangement is by
continent and by site: we describe each fossil or fossil assemblage individually, and without reference to specimens from other sites. To make this possible, we have
adopted a single descriptive protocol and a uniform
nomenclature for morphological features of the hominid
skull. Armed with these descriptions, the reader will be
able to make direct comparisons among whatever fossils
he or she desires. In the following section, we present
the descriptive format that we have developed and,
where necessary, we discuss details of nomenclature. A
fuller presentation is found in Volume 1 of this series.
Each fossil description in these volumes follows the
order presented below, even where individual specimens
are incomplete. Where a homogeneous assemblage of
fossils is described from the same site, the most

complete specimen is taken as the exemplar, and other


individuals are described only to the extent to which
they differ. In the following outline of our descriptive
protocol, we highlight the principal bones and structures
to which attention is paid, region by region; necessarily,
there is some overlap between descriptions of adjacent
regions and structures. For nomenclature, refer also to
Figures 1-9. Doubtless, many will fault us for having
deliberately refrained from providing measurements for
the specimens described. This was done partly to save
space in an already very bulky series of books, and partly
because measurement criteria vary so much among
practitioners. Size is, of course, a significant factor, and
we hope that the fact that all photographs in standard
views bear scales will provide the reader with an adequate guide to the size of each fossil. Measurements will
also be found in many of the works that we cite in the
entries.

DESCRIPTIVE FORMAT
Following is a summary of the protocol and sequence
that we follow wherever possible in describing hominid craniodental fossils. A fuller account is provided
in Volume 1; terminology is clarified and summarized
in Figures 1-9 of both volumes.
General Comments: General preservation and completeness of the specimen( s).
Cranium-Overview: Overall form and proportions
of the cranium; general bone thickness.
Supraorbital Region and Splanchnocranium (Figures 1-3): Supraorbital structures, glabella, frontal
sinuses, orbits, infraorbital region and zygomas;
nasal bones, aperture and cavity; nasoalveolar region, palate, and pterygoids.
Cranial Roof (Figures 1 and 2). Contours and external details of frontal and parietals.
Cranial Walls (Figure 2). Temporal bone and attendant fossae; posterior part of zygomatic arch; lateral
mastoid region and auditory meatus; sutural configurations.

Cranial Rear (Figures 2 and 4). General contour;


occipital plane and associated structures.
Cranial Base (Figure 4). Nuchal plane including the
contiguous mastoid area; external petrosal and associated processes and foramina; spheno- and basioccipital region; foramen magnum and occipital
condyles; mandibular fossa.
Cranial Sutures andThickness. Nature of the sutural
margins; thickness of cranial bone, especially of
the parietals and occipital.
Anterior Endocranial Compartment (Figure 5).
Anterior cranial fossa and associated structures.
Middle Endocranial Compartment (Figure 5).
Middle cranial fossa and associated structures, including petrosals.
Posterior Endocranial Compartment (Figure 5).
Posterior cranial fossa and associated structures,
including petrosals.
Major Endocranial Sinus Impressions (Figure 5).
Mandible (Figures 6 and 7). Overview and detailed
morphology.

Dentition-Overview.

Condition, general size and

proportions.
Upper Dentition (Figure 8). By tooth, mesial to
distal.

Lower Dentition (Figure 9). By tooth, mesial to distal, as above.

ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY FIGURES

frontal eminence

glabellar butterfl

supraorbita forame

medial projection
nasomaxillary suture
zygomaticomaxillary

infraorbital foramen

inferior nasal

central keel
mental
protuberance

Figure 1. Anterior view of two crania, one with mandible, with identification of major features discussed in this
volume.

INTRODUCTION

sphenoparietal suture
quamosal suture
coronal suture

uprameatal crest

sphenotemporal

arietal notch

process of fronta

lambdoid suture
lacrimal foss

anterior lambdoid suture


external occipital
infraorbital forame

astoid foramen

anterior mastoid tubercle

meatus
andibular condyle

preangular
notch

notchkrest

Figure 2. Lateral view of articulated cranium and mandible.

crista galli
tuberculum

lateral nasal crest


inferior nasal conch
medial wall (nasal cavity)
anterior nasal spi
incisive fossa
nasoalveolar clivus

ptetygoid hamulus
posterior maxillary pole

foramen

margin

(nasal cavity)

Figure 3. Section through the nasal and pterygopalatine fossae and adjacent areas.

I N T K o 11I J C T I o N

alveolar margin (crest)


incisive foramen
zygomaticomaxillary suture
maxillary tubercle

sphenotemporal suture
zygomaticotemporalsuture
medial pterygoid plate

lateral pterygoid plate


foramen ovale
foramen spinosum
mandibular fossa
styloid process (in pit)
carotid foramen
external auditory meatus

foramen magnum
groove for occipital artery

mastoid foramen
posterior condylar
foramen

parietomastoid suture

inferior nuchal line

lambdoid suture

superior nuchal line


occipitomastoidcrest
ccipitomastoid suture
Waldeyers crest

Figure 4. Basal view of cranium.

INTRODUCTION

frontal
crest
orbital root
(anterior cranial fossa)
lesser wing of

crista

sphenofrontal suture

plate

inferior orbital fissure

foramen rotundum

anterior clinoid process

roove for anterior division


f middle meningeal artety

tuberculum sellae
middle clinoid process
hypophyseal fossa

foramen ovale
foramen spinosum

posterior

posterior clinoid process

foramen lacerum
internal auditory
meatus

temporal fissure

anterior condylar
foramen

arcuate eminence

barcuate fossa

internal
occipital
protuberance
superior
sagittal
sinus

-.

groove for
posterior meningeal
artery

Figure 5. Endocranial compartments and other features.

I NT R o D u c T I c) N

internal coronoid
pi1 ar

subalveolar
depression

digastric genial
fossa tubercle
in pit

submandibular

fossa

sigmoid
notchkrest
corqnoid
process

genial Pi
condyle
I

mylohyoid fossa
line

-+
ramus

condyle
retromolar spac

subalveolar
depression

inferior marginal
tubercle

mental
foramen

mental
fossa

inferior
border

inferior marginal
tubercle

depression

central
keel

Figure 6. Various mandibles in (from top to bottom) internal, external and anterior views.

10

rlin.,r+rir <,.re,

enial tubercles

Figure 7. Various mandibles, viewed from above and below.

sigmoid crest

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mesial rnargocrista

lingual pillar

paracone
anterior fovea
loph

posterior fovea

-:;.. ..

paraconule
paracone
trigon basin

.:;<;,,
,

rnetacone
posterior fovea
postcinqulum

rnetaconule

Lingual

Figure 8. Upper permanent dentition.

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INTRODUCTION

lingual pillar

mesial margocristid

distal margocristid

anterior fovea

talonid basin

Lingual

Figure 9. Lower permanent dentition.

I N T K o I) u c T I o N

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ABBREVIATIONS
To save space, we have abbreviated certain frequently
occurring terms. We use R and L for right and left,
respectively; a/p for anteroposterior(ly), and s/i for
superoinferior(1y). Specifically for tooth descriptions,
m, d, b, and 1 stand for mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual, respectively, and we use combinations (e.g., b/l
for buccolingual) to indicate directions. We use standard abbreviations for denoting teeth: I (incisor), C
(canine), P (premolar), M (molar). We use subscripts

(e.g., I2for the lower lateral incisor) and superscripts


(e.g., M1 for the first upper molar) only where this is
necessary to avoid ambiguity; otherwise, we simply
use the standard I2 or M1). However, we must note
that we use P1 and P2 for the anterior and posterior
premolars, in preference to the alternative P3 and P4.
With regard to dates, we use the abbreviations Ma
for millions of years (ago), and Ka for thousands of
years (ago).

MAPS
For the convenience of the reader, all African and
Asian sites mentioned in this volume are located in
the maps in Figures 10-19. These maps are grouped

in a single section to make individual sites as easy as


possible to find.

Figure 10. Map to show significant hominid fossil sites in Algeria and adjacent countries covered in this volume.

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I N T R o D u(: T I O N

Figure 11. Map to show significant hominid fossil sites in Ethiopia and Sudan covered in this volume.

I N T R O n uc T I O N

Figure 12. Map to show significant hominid fossil sites in Kenya covered in this volume.

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I N T R o D u c: T I o N

Figure 13. Map to show significant hominid fossil sites in Tanzania and adjacent countries covered in this volume.

INTRODUCTION

Figure 14. Map to show significant hominid fossil sites in South Africa covered in this volume.

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Figure 15. Map to show significant hominid fossil sites in Israel covered in this volume.

I N T R o D u c T I c) N

Figure 16. Map to show significant hominid fossil sites in Iraq and Uzbekistan covered in this volume.

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INTRODUCTION

Figure 17. Map to show significant hominid fossil sites in India covered in this volume.

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Figure 18. Map to show significant hominid fossil sites in China covered in this volume.

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I N T K O I) u c T I o N

Figure 19. Map to show significant hominid fossil sites in Java covered in this volume.

I NT K O D u c T 1 o N

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LAYOUT OF ENTRIES
In the following accounts, the African and Asian fossil records of the genus Homo are presented in the
form of alphabetical listings of sites, grouped by continent. T h e name of the site first given is that by
which it is most commonly known; any alternative or
complementary names follow in parentheses. Within
each site entry, information is presented in the following categories:
Location. Where the site is: country, region, and (in
most cases) distance and direction to nearest
village and/or major town. Also consult Maps
section.
Discovery. Date(s) of discovery of the fossil(s), plus
the name of the individual(s) who made the
discovery(ies), or the name of the excavation director(s). Note that the date is not that of the discovery of the site itself, and the names are not
necessarily those of the discoverers of the site.
Material. A short note on what the human fossil(s)
from the site consist(s) of. Further details are
found in the Morphology section.
Dating and Stratigraphic Context. A brief review of
absolute dates (if any) obtained for the site a n d o r
hominids, and of the stratigraphic context(s), geological or archaeological, of the locality(ies) of fossil
recovery. Where dating is by archaeological association, there is some overlap with the next section:
Archaeological Context. A brief rCsume of the cultural association(s) of the hominid fossil(s).
Previous Descriptions and Analyses. An overview of
the history of description and analysis of the fossil(s). This is not intended to be comprehensive or
discursive, but is simply a very general summary
and pointer toward the literature.
Morphology. Here we come to the meat of the
volume. We present a brief but comprehensive

account of the morphology of the cranial,


mandibular, and dental Homo fossil(s) known from
each site. These accounts are based on the approach to terminology and description that was
presented in Volume 1 of this series, and is thus
made according to a consistent protocol that makes
descriptions directly and conveniently comparable
from one site to the next. Where the hominid remains consist of series of fragments, we describe as
complete a composite as representation allows.
Where there is one particularly well-preserved
specimen, our description is based on this, with references added to any less well-preserved fossils
from the site in which morphology differs significantly. If more than one distinctive morph (as opposed to simple character variation) is represented
at a site, we describe each morph separately, using
the same protocol. Where both adult and juvenile
specimens are known, these are described separately. Although we note, in the case of multiple
morphs, which fossils belong to which morph, we
make no attempt at systematic analysis here, and
we do not attempt to compare any of the fossil(s)
under description with any others beyond those
from the same site and belonging to the same
morph. The focus is exclusively on individual morphology, described by way of the characters already
discussed in Volume 1.The reader will thus be able
to make objective comparisons among fossils from
every site in this series of books, unimpeded by
confusing comparatives.
References. For the readers convenience, all literature
references made in previous sections of each site entry are quoted in full here. Note that this is not (and
is not intended to be) a comprehensive bibliography
on each site and the fossils found there.
Repository. T h e location where the fossils are held.