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Global Ecology and Biogeography, (Global Ecol. Biogeogr.

) (2014) 23, 726743


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RESEARCH
PA P E R

Ecological role and services of tropical


mangrove ecosystems: a reassessment
Shing Yip Lee1*, Jurgene H. Primavera2,3, Farid Dahdouh-Guebas4,
Karen McKee5, Jared O. Bosire6, Stefano Cannicci7, Karen Diele8,
Francois Fromard9, Nico Koedam10, Cyril Marchand11, Irving Mendelssohn12,
Nibedita Mukherjee4 and Sydne Record13

Australian Rivers Institute and School of


Environment, Griffith University, Southport,
Gold Coast, Qld 4222, Australia, 2Zoological
Society of London, La Paz, Iloilo City 5000,
Philippines, 3SEAFDEC Aquaculture
Department, Tigbauan, Iloilo 5021,
Philippines, 4Laboratory of Systems Ecology
and Resource Management, Universit Libre de
Bruxelles, B1050 Brussels, Belgium, 5Scientist
Emeritus (retired), US Geological Survey,
National Wetlands Research Center, Lafayette,
LA 70506, USA, 6Kenyan Marine and Fisheries
Research Institute, Mombasa, Kenya,
7
Department of Biology, University of Florence,
Florence, Italy, 8School of Life, Sport and
Social Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University,
Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 9Laboratory of
Functional Ecology and Environment, CNRS,
EcoLab, 31062 Toulouse, France, 10Plant
Biology and Nature Management, Vrije
Universiteit Brussel, B1050 Brussels, Belgium,
11
Institute of Research for Development,
Noumea, New Caledonia, 12Department of
Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, Louisiana
State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA,
13
Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA 01366, USA

ABSTRACT

Aim To reassess the capacity of mangroves for ecosystem services in the light of
recent data.
Location Global mangrove ecosystems.
Methods We review four long-standing roles of mangroves: (1) carbon dynamics
export or sink; (2) nursery role; (3) shoreline protection; (4) land-building
capacity. The origins of pertinent hypotheses, current understanding and gaps in
our knowledge are highlighted with reference to biogeographic, geographic and
socio-economic influences.
Results The role of mangroves as C sinks needs to be evaluated for a wide range
of biogeographic regions and forest conditions. Mangrove C assimilation may be
under-estimated because of flawed methodology and scanty data on key components of C dynamics. Peri-urban mangroves may be manipulated to provide local
offsets for C emission. The nursery function of mangroves is not ubiquitous but
varies with spatio-temporal accessibility. Connectivity and complementarity of
mangroves and adjacent habitats enhance their nursery function through trophic
relay and ontogenetic migrations. The effectiveness of mangroves for coastal
protection depends on factors at landscape/geomorphic to community scales and
local/species scales. Shifts in species due to climate change, forest degradation and
loss of habitat connectivity may reduce the protective capacity of mangroves. Early
views of mangroves as land builders (especially lateral expansion) were questionable. Evidence now indicates that mangroves, once established, directly influence
vertical land development by enhancing sedimentation and/or by direct organic
contributions to soil volume (peat formation) in some settings.
Main conclusions Knowledge of thresholds, spatio-temporal scaling and variability due to geographic, biogeographic and socio-economic settings will improve
the management of mangrove ecosystem services. Many drivers respond to global
trends in climate change and local changes such as urbanization. While mangroves
have traditionally been managed for subsistence, future governance models must
involve partnerships between local custodians of mangroves and offsite beneficiaries of the services.

*Correspondence: Shing Yip Lee, Australian


Rivers Institute and School of Environment,
Griffith University Gold Coast, Southport, Qld
4222, Australia. E-mail: joe.lee@griffith.edu.au

726

Keywords
Carbon dynamics, ecosystem services, land building, management, mangroves,
nursery function, shoreline protection.

DOI: 10.1111/geb.12155
2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/geb

Reassessment of mangrove ecosystem services


INTRODUCTION
Mangrove research has increased exponentially in the last 50
years. The total number of publications on mangroves indexed
by the Web of Science exceeded 8000 in 2010, and since 2006 has
consistently surpassed those on salt marshes, with a widening
gap. Early mangrove research focused on basic issues such as
floristics and faunistics but these are increasingly replaced by
ecological assessment of function and evaluation of the capacity
of mangroves for ecosystem services such as fisheries, shoreline
protection, carbon export/sequestration and bioremediation of
wastes. Parallel to this shift in research focus is the progressive
widening of the spatial scale of research, from earlier dominance
of localized, small-scale (e.g. forest or tree level) matters to
regional and global perspectives (e.g. Feller et al., 2010; Spalding
et al., 2010; Donato et al., 2011; Giri et al., 2011; Alongi, 2012;
Record et al., 2013).
Over the past five decades, discussion of mangrove ecosystems and management has focused on: (1) the dynamics of
carbon fixation, storage and mineralization; (2) their nursery
function; (3) shoreline protection, and (4) their land-building
capacity. Mangrove management world-wide has been guided
by the scientific paradigms in these areas. In this analysis, we
critically evaluate these claims on the roles of mangroves
through an appraisal of recent data, and highlight issues and
implications pertinent to their management at the global scale.
MANGROVE CARBON DYNAMICS HAS THE
TIDE TURNED?
Origin
Marine macrophytes generally produce more organic matter
than required for maintenance, with high potential for export
or storage (Duarte & Cebrian, 1996). The Caribbean model of
mangrove C dynamics, portraying mangroves as net exporters of
C (outwelling), has dominated mangrove ecology and management for the past four decades. Lee (1995) concluded that while
most mangroves seem to be net exporters, the spatial extent and
amount of mangrove C exported are far less than hypothesized
in early salt marsh work. However, the complex ground structure of mangrove forests may dampen water current, and
promote the trapping of sediment and allochthonous organic
matter (Furukawa et al., 1997), thus potentially resulting in
inwelling (Bouillon et al., 2002). Direct measurements of mangrove C budget and mangrovenearshore C fluxes, however,
remain scarce to date.
The different biogeographic settings of global mangroves may
have strong implications for their C dynamics. The Atlantic-east
Pacific (AEP) and Indo-west Pacific (IWP) have significantly
different mangrove (Tomlinson, 1986) and key faunal species
richnesses (Lee, 2008) that may result in differences in ecosystem performance, for example productivity and standing
biomass. Threats to mangroves also occur in different forms in
different geographic regions (e.g. aquaculture ponds in the IWP
versus urban development in the AEP) (FAO, 2007). The loss of

ecosystem services due to mangrove destruction/conversion is


likely to be different between biogeographic, geographic regions
and forest types.
Remarkably, the recent renewed interest in tropical mangrove
C dynamics relates to the direct opposite of the outwelling paradigm. Productive tropical, especially estuarine, mangroves in the
IWP offer excellent prospects as C sinks if they retain autochthonous C and trap allochthonous C (Donato et al., 2011). On
some Pacific islands, mangrove forests offer the largest sink in
the overall C stock (Donato et al., 2012).
Current understanding
The fate of mangrove productivity
In contrast to their relatively simple forest structure and low
diversity, tropical mangroves are ranked amongst the most productive natural ecosystems globally, notwithstanding the variable methodologies applied (Alongi, 2009). Loss of mangrove
C production to herbivory is variable (Sousa & Dangremond,
2011), but generally only amounts to c. 23% of the overall C
budget. The bulk of mangrove C is therefore processed through
the detritus food chain. The contribution of mangrove detritus
to faunal biomass is not ubiquitously significant (Bouillon et al.,
2000, 2002, 2004) and may deviate from simple availability
(Bouillon et al., 2002). Also, rapid mineralization can occur in
the water column of the tidal channel (Kristensen et al., 2008).
Most attention has focused on the fate of above-ground production, as data on below-ground productivity or biomass are too
limited to allow a reliable global assessment of this component.
The recent emphasis on the carbon storage role of mangroves
can be attributed to: (1) questions on the utilization of mangrove detritus by consumers; (2) variability in the tidal export
of mangrove organic matter (particulate and dissolved) in
response to local geomorphological and tidal conditions; and
(3) interest in the potential of global forests including mangroves as sinks for offsetting C emissions.
Utilization of mangrove particulate C, mainly in the form
of leaf litter, was hypothesized in the Caribbean model as a
gradual process involving microbial enrichment before assimilation by macroconsumers (Odum & Heald, 1975). Assimilation
of mangrove C has, however, been questioned recently because
of (1) the low nutritive content (high C/N ratio, < 1% N) and
refractory nature of mangrove litter and (2) the lack of apparent
support from tracer, particularly stable isotope, data. While
litter consumption is indisputable (e.g. Kwok & Lee, 1995), the
paradox of how detritivores such as crabs can assimilate and
survive on this low-quality C-rich food remains (Skov &
Hartnoll, 2002). The N deficit would also need to be met from
other sources, for example the sediment or predation of animal
tissue (Thongtham & Kristensen, 2005; Lee, 2008). Work on
terrestrial detritivorous and herbivorous crabs has revealed
cellulase enzymes that aid the digestion of structural C (Linton
& Greenaway, 2004, 2007); these have recently also been demonstrated in many estuarine animals, particularly detritivorous
grapsid crabs (Adachi et al., 2012).

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S. Y. Lee et al.
Stable isotope data seem to suggest a minor role for mangrove
C in sustaining coastal secondary production, as the differences
between the consumer and mangrove signatures are often c.
+5 (Lee, 2005), which is much larger than the average trophic
fractionation (+1 for 13C) used to interpret stable isotope
data. This anomaly has prompted the notion that even direct
consumers of mangrove C, such as grapsid crabs, may not
rely on mangrove C (e.g. Mazumder & Saintilan, 2010). Large
trophic discrimination values have been reported for some
detritivores (e.g. Fry & Ewel, 2003). The +1 used in previous
mixing model calculations is the average from numerous
consumerfood combinations (e.g. Layman et al., 2012), and
would be unlikely to apply to any specific feeding mode or
consumer organism. However, this link is probably weaker in
the AEP where detritivorous crab diversity and abundance are
significantly lower.
Storage or export?
Direct consumption by macroconsumers such as grapsid crabs
and gastropods may significantly reduce the detrital C stock in
tropical mangroves (Kristensen et al., 2008; Lee, 2008), but not
all tropical mangroves support dense assemblages of these consumers. The size of the detrital C stock is strongly influenced
by the magnitude of export, which is driven by the vector of
transport (tides and river flows) and geomorphology. Microtidal conditions promote C storage, whereas macrotidal regimes
facilitate C export. Concentrated rainfall events also drive the
export of organic matter from estuarine storage (e.g.Alongi &
McKinnon, 2005). With climate change and associated increases
in the frequency and severity of tropical storms, the export
pattern of mangrove C may be significantly modified, especially in macrotidal environments where storm surges may be
maximum.
Mangroves in different environmental and biogeographic
settings may produce and store C in different ways: significantly
more C may be stored underground in IWP mangroves if the
same above-ground to below-ground biomass ratio, particularly
investment in fine roots (Alongi et al., 2003), is maintained
across the biogeographic regions (Lee, 2008; Donato et al.,
2011). This ratio is also affected by factors such as global as well
as local growth conditions (Lovelock, 2008; McKee, 2011).
Despite the significantly lower diversity of leaf-eating crabs
in the AEP compared with the IWP, overall rates of leaf litter
consumption are similar (Nordhaus et al., 2006).
Data gaps and future research
The significant components and processes of mangrove C
dynamics are poorly understood. Little is known about
dissolved C, especially dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC),
in the mangrove C budget. Although occupying only 0.1% of
global land surface, mangroves can contribute up to 10% of the
terrestrially derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool in
the nearshore tropical ocean (Dittmar et al., 2001, 2006). The
nature, diagenesis and flux of this DOC are complex (Marchand
728

et al., 2004, 2006; Kristensen et al., 2008). Up to one-third of


the mangrove DOC is rapidly lost due to photodegradation
(Dittmar et al., 2006) but utilization by consumers and producers is not quantified.
How DIC may help constrain the mangrove C budget is even
less studied. Bouillon et al. (2008) suggest that the fate of c. 50%
of the mangrove C produced is uncertain, with DIC export via
either surface or porewater flow being a probable pathway, as
recently demonstrated by Maher et al. (2013). To what extent
this DIC export may sustain phytoplankton production in
tropical estuaries is still unknown.
There is no strong evidence to dismiss the role of mangroves
in sustaining coastal fisheries. Mangrove forests seem to function synergistically with adjoining habitats such as intertidal
flats to deliver this important ecosystem service (Lee, 2004;
Sheaves et al., 2012), with hydrological and trophic connectivity
being key drivers in the relationship (e.g. Meynecke et al., 2008).
Aquatic first-order consumers seem to turn over organic C
about 10 times faster than their terrestrial counterparts, thus
promoting C mineralization rather than storage (Cebrian,
2004). However, limited data on detritivore, especially meiofaunal, assemblages in mangrove forests prevent generic testing
of this hypothesis. The balance between C mineralization and
storage needs to be further clarified with local and biogeographic differences in mind.
Recent assessments of the C stock in tropical mangroves
suggest a significantly higher C density than in terrestrial forests
(Donato et al., 2011) but estimates need to be refined with
increased sample coverage encompassing different biogeographic regions, adjacent land uses (e.g. degree of urbanization),
forest history and condition and a simple increase in sampling
effort. Most C density data on mangrove soils are derived from
small numbers of short, narrow cores (diameter at the centimetre scale) extrapolated to landscape-scale estimates. Rates of
carbon accumulation are expectedly variable depending on
factors such as forest productivity, export rate and in situ consumption, all highly responsive to variations in factors such as
the hydrological regime, faunal activity and temperature. Alongi
(2012) reported an average C burial rate of 174 gC m2 year1,
but widely variable rates are evident. For example, burial rate
was only 2% of total C input at the Matang Forest, Malaysia
(Alongi et al., 2004) but > 40% at a sheltered site in Hinchinbrook Channel, north-east Australia (Alongi et al., 1999).
Higher replication of carbon density/accretion data across larger
spatial scales along with abundance of vegetation types and
important covariates (e.g. stand structure, microtidal conditions) and the incorporation of this biological detail into future
models would enhance estimates of carbon sequestration to
better inform management decisions.
Many of the worlds most populous and fast-developing
cities are located in tropical estuaries. The discharge of domestic
sewage and agricultural/aquacultural wastes provides relatively
labile C and nutrients (N, P) to rapidly urbanizing tropical
estuaries, modifying mangrove production (Lovelock et al.,
2007, 2009) and its trophic significance. These anthropogenic
sources also indirectly alter the diversity of organic detritus

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Reassessment of mangrove ecosystem services


available to consumers and decomposers, for example a dominance of algal and anthropogenic over vascular plant organic
matter (e.g. Lee (2000). Complex interactions may result from
these new mixes of detrital sources (Taylor et al., 2010; Bishop &
Kelaher, 2013). Global data at the estuary scale are insufficient,
however, to allow an assessment of such impacts.
MANGROVES AS NURSERIES
Origin
Empirical observations that mangroves and other shallow-water
habitats support densities of juvenile fishes and invertebrates
that are higher than those in nearby unvegetated areas gave rise
to the hypothesis that mangroves act as nurseries for species
utilizing different habitats as adults. Studies on crustaceans and
fish in the US Atlantic Coast and Gulf of Mexico that supported
this hypothesis led Beck et al. (2001) to define a nursery as a
habitat for a particular species that contributes a greater than
average number of individuals to the adult population on a
per-unit-area basis in comparison to other habitats used by
juveniles. To identify the habitats that are most important in
maintaining overall ecosystem function, Dahlgren et al. (2006)
redefined marine nurseries in terms of their overall contribution
to marine populations. In both definitions, a key factor is the
connectivity between mangroves and the nearby habitats where
adult populations live.
Current understanding
Mangroves as habitats for juveniles

two-thirds of global fish and shellfish harvests have been linked


directly to estuarine nurseries (Robertson & Blaber, 1992), and
mangrove-related species contribute 30% of fish and 100%
of prawn catches in Southeast Asia (Rnnbck, 1999). Many
studies showed a significant statistical relationship between
catches of fish or shrimp and mangrove area (see the discussion
by Lee, 2004) or length of mangrove-lined coastlines (Staples
et al., 1985). However, correlation does not mean causality,
and juvenile abundance does not necessarily translate to adult
catches (Robertson & Blaber, 1992). Furthermore, the analytical
methods used to establish links between fish/prawn catches
and mangrove/estuarine habitats suffer from: (1) temporal
and spatial variability, (2) different scales, (3) use of only a
few predictor variables, mainly area and latitude, and (4)
autocorrelation and multicollinearity (Lee, 2004; Faunce &
Serafy, 2006).
When reviewing the densities of juvenile reef fish in the IWP,
Nagelkerken (2009) found little indication for the nursery function of mangroves, although recently the same research team
conclusively showed a nursery role of mangroves for reef fishes
in the Indo-Pacific (Tanzania) (Barbier et al., 2011). Furthermore, although many Caribbean mangroves are known to
provide nursery functions for reef fish, Halpern (2004) found
that the area of mangrove stands in the Virgin Islands and their
proximity to adult reef habitats were not related to adult densities of two coral reef fish species, formerly thought to depend
on mangrove nurseries. Finally, when assessing their nursery
value for coral reef fishes at the community level, mangroves are
insignificant either in the IWP or the western Atlantic (Faunce &
Layman, 2009). In sum, the current literature clearly shows that
the nursery value of mangroves is not ubiquitous.

Beck et al. (2001) hypothesized three main causes for the high
number of juvenile fish and shrimps often found in mangroves:
(1) the high abundance of food, (2) lower predation pressure due to shallow-water microhabitats, higher turbidity and
reduced visibility compared with unvegetated nearby habitats,
and (3) their complex physical structure, for example prop and
aerial roots (Lee, 2008; Nagelkerken, 2009). These factors can act
in synergy to constitute directly and/or indirectly the nursery
role of mangroves, enhancing density, growth and survival of
juvenile fish and invertebrates. The structural complexity of
mangroves provides shade from the canopy, high turbidity and
fine sediments that reduce the rate of predatorprey encounters
(Lee, 2008). Both prop roots and pneumatophores reduced the
predation of small fishes and shrimps by larger fish (Vance et al.,
1996; Primavera, 1997). The need for protection of soft-shelled
crustaceans during ecdysis may explain the greater correlation between offshore catches and mangrove area observed for
shrimp compared with fish (Manson et al., 2005).

Using the same lens to look at different mangroves may explain


the divergent findings about their importance as nurseries. The
nursery value varies with spatial extent and temporal accessibility of mangroves, determined by factors such as shelf configuration, habitat configuration, hydrology (Faunce & Layman,
2009) and habitat connectivity (see below). Tidal regimes (both
amplitude and semi-diurnal/diurnal, mixed tides) and forest
type/area, often greatly differ between and within biogeographic
regions; for example, in the AEP landward mangrove extension
in macrotidal northern Brazil is c. 20 km, whereas forest fringes
in the microtidal Caribbean Region are narrower. In areas with
meso- and macrotidal regimes, mangrove forests are accessible
only during tidal flooding. Hence, only biogeographic comparisons of sites with similar tidal regimes are valid and the particular environmental setting of each mangrove location strongly
influences its nursery function.

Are mangroves significant nursery sites?

Mangroves as part of a spatio-temporal mosaic of nursery areas

The importance of mangrove nursery habitats for fish


and shrimp populations is nevertheless still controversial
(Nagelkerken et al., 2008). On the one hand, more than

Species using mangrove forests exposed during low tide must


as nurseries must move to other playgrounds, i.e. adjacent ecosystems. Mangroves should thus be seen as a component of a

What determines the nursery values of mangroves?

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S. Y. Lee et al.
habitat mosaic, rather than in isolation, and the presence of
alternative habitats may be critical. Even in almost permanently
inundated mangroves, habitat connectivity may be crucial in
exploiting complementary resources, for example when food
becomes limiting. For example, the abundance of juvenile fish in
Caribbean mangroves was related to overall landscape, rather
than microhabitat features, demonstrating that a true nursery
function is sustained by a spatial mosaic of nearshore habitats
(Drew & Eggleston, 2008). Hence, the connectivity and complementarity of adjoining estuarine habitats enhance their nursery
value through increased survival and productivity (Sheaves,
2005). Similar to salt marshes, mangroves can function as
important links in a chain of habitats that provide complementary resources and benefits through the process of trophic relay
(Kneib, 1997). Ontogenetic movements of juveniles may be
direct from mangroveseagrass nurseries to deeper coral reefs or
stepwise through shallower habitats in the Atlantic (Cocheret de
la Morinire et al., 2004). Both fish size frequency distribution
and natural tags, i.e. otolith stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, strongly suggest ontogenetic habitat shift from mangroves
and/or seagrasses to patch reefs and fore reefs (Mumby et al.,
2004; Barbier et al., 2011). Such shifts reduce intraspecific competition and optimize growth and survival because the fish
leaving nursery shelters are bigger and less vulnerable to predation in open waters (Manson et al., 2005).
Interestingly, most, if not all, evidence for the habitat mosaic
hypothesis comes from reef fishes. Marine shrimps, however,
are associated with a single nursery habitat, e.g. Penaeus monodon
and Penaeus merguiensis in mangroves, and Penaeus semisulcatus
and Penaeus latisulcatus in seagrass beds (Dall et al., 1990). This
probably relates to their smaller maximum sizes (generally
50100 g, and c. 300 g for P. monodon) and shorter life spans
(c. 3 years) precluding the need for multiple nurseries.
Data gaps and future research
The nursery-role hypothesis needs further testing by evaluating
the contribution of recruits from mangroves to adult populations using tracer and tagging techniques (e.g. stable isotopes, microtags), measuring not only juvenile abundance
and densities but also growth, survival and movements, over
multiple time-scales (Heck Jr et al., 2003; Faunce & Serafy,
2006; Nagelkerken, 2007). Recent advances using otolith
microchemistry provide a powerful tool to further assess the
nursery role of mangroves in nearshore fish assemblages for
micro- and mesotidal areas (Gillanders, 2002, 2005; Kimirei
et al., 2013). By following cohorts over time, Jones et al. (2010)
found evidence for mangrovereef ontogenetic connectivity in
four Caribbean reef fishes, highlighting the usefulness of this
innovative longitudinal approach.
Recent studies suggest that juvenile nekton may actively seek
out mangroves using olfactory or other cues (e.g. Huijbers et al.,
2008; Huijbers et al., 2012), similar to the megalopae of larvalexporting mangrove crab species (e.g. Diele & Simith, 2007),
and this ability could be impaired by ocean acidification
(Munday et al., 2009). Moreover, future studies should focus on
730

species with clearly separated adult and juvenile habitats, considering all potential nursery habitats. Such a seascape-scale
approach will capture the influences of habitat connectivity
(Meynecke et al., 2007).
M A N G R O V E S F O R C O A S TA L P R O T E C T I O N
Origin
The notion of a coastal protection function for mangroves dates
back to the 1970s (Chapman, 1976). While support for this
concept is mostly circumstantial (Alongi, 2008), there is empirical and/or modelling evidence of the protective role of mangroves during moderate events such as tropical storms (Braatz
et al., 2007; Granek & Ruttenberg, 2007; Zhang et al., 2012). The
wave energy of wind-generated surface waves is significantly
attenuated by mangrove forests (Massel et al., 1999) a fully
grown mangrove forest can reduce wave energy by 20% per
100 m (Mazda et al., 1997a). Moreover, 54 papers published
between 1972 and 2005 mentioned the ability of mangroves
to act as a buffer between land and the sea (review by
Dahdouh-Guebas & Jayatissa, 2009), while recent reviews highlight the role of ecosystems in coastal defence (McIvor et al.,
2012a, b). While these studies indicate a potential protective role
for mangroves, the factors determining the degree of protection
remain to be established. The degree of protection offered by
mangrove forests can be analysed at three hierarchical levels
(Dahdouh-Guebas & Jayatissa, 2009): (1) the landscape level
mangrove forest type and geomorphological setting, including
landscape and geomorphological settings (Lugo & Snedaker,
1974; Thom, 1984; Dahdouh-Guebas & Jayatissa, 2009); (2)
the community level internal vegetation structure of the
forest, including species-specific attributes of trees such as
species composition, physiognomy silvimetric parameters or the
contribution to debris (Dahdouh-Guebas & Jayatissa, 2009;
Ohira et al., 2013); and finally (3) the species level variation in
root architecture of individual species/trees.
Attempts at modelling the resistance provided by mangroves
to storm surges have considered individual trees to be cylinders,
which is unrealistic (Iimura & Tanaka, 2012), particularly in the
case of mangroves.
Current understanding
The extent to which mangroves provide coastal protection has
been hotly debated for more than a decade, accentuated by
extreme events such as the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. A
chronology of mangrovecoastal protection research in posttsunami publications and a few major storm events is provided
as Appendix S1 in Supporting Information.
A more standardized approach to evaluating both the damage
and protection offered by mangroves would assist in the evaluation of the protective role of mangroves. The coastal protection
provided by mangroves is attributed to the following factors.
1. Energy of impact: protection against more common, lowenergy events but not necessarily adequate protection against
high-energy disturbances such as tsunamis.

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Reassessment of mangrove ecosystem services


2. Location: settlements in front of or very close to mangrove
areas are not sufficiently protected or are even damaged by
debris and flotsam as opposed to areas behind the mangroves.
3. Forest structure: the ecological status of the forest and
anthropogenic pressure could play a role; for example, degradation of the forest due to selective logging or grazing may reduce
the protective potential of the forest.
Protection is often dependent on the integrity of adjacent
ecosystems (e.g. seagrass beds) beyond the immediate vicinity
of the mangrove. This spatial integration is poorly understood
and hardly ever tested. Protection by mangroves should not be
considered only at the local scale or in the isolated context of the
mangrove forest.

Data gaps and future research


Geomorphology and ocean currents
The protective function of mangroves is analysed by considering the characteristic waves or currents and the sediment
transport/erosion pattern of water-related impacts (cyclones,
sea-level rise, tides and heavy rains generated by El Niorelated events) (Wolanski, 1992; Mazda et al., 1997b). For
instance, mangroves may protect the coast against a discrete
event such as a tsunami, but fail to withstand daily tidal erosion
when too little sediment accretion takes place, or vice versa.
The effect of floating debris (cf. Stieglitz & Ridd, 2001; Krauss
et al., 2005) on currents and waves should also be considered
for mangroves (as a barrier and a source), as for other coastal
vegetation (Bayas et al., 2011).

2. The functional ecological connectivity of littoral (mangroves, sandbanks or mudflats) to subtidal habitats (seagrasses
and/or coral reefs) is crucial for maintenance of the coastal
protection function. Degradation of the adjoining systems (e.g.
due to harbour construction) may reduce the protection offered
by mangroves.
3. Increased monetization and unsustainable valorization
of mangrove resources (e.g. direct-use values such as timber
extraction without sustainable forest management) would affect
the ecological role of the forest including its coastal protection
function.
4. Climate change will cause range shifts in species, which in
turn may enhance the protection of coasts, either through
mangrove colonization along a mangrove-free coast or through
increase in the number of mangrove species along a mangrovelined coast. Recent studies have demonstrated this by modelling
the latitudinal limits of mangroves (Quisthoudt et al., 2013;
Record et al., 2013).
5. Inappropriate planting schemes driven by scientifically
unsound principles have a significant negative impact on the
coastal protection function, with risky consequences (loss of
time, funds and public support for the plantation effort) (Lewis,
2005).
6. Deforestation or inappropriate management of mangrove
catchment areas may silt up mangrove systems and affect their
health status and regeneration, thus diminishing their protective
function and ecosystem services (Wever et al., 2012).

MANGROVES AS LAND BUILDERS:


PA R A D I G M R E V I S I T E D

Forest condition and threshold values

Origin

Mangrove extent has declined significantly in the last 50 years


(Duke et al., 2007; Spalding et al., 2010). Remnant fragmented
forests or individual trees may not provide the protection that a
contiguous belt of pristine mangroves can. Mangrove areas
degraded by human activities or natural hazards may be less
functional in coastal protection due to cryptic ecological degradation sensu Dahdouh-Guebas et al. (2005a), i.e. change in
species composition but not forest cover. However, cryptic
degradation is hard to detect by conventional remote sensing
analysis, and was an important factor affecting the protection provided by mangroves against the 2004 tsunami
(Dahdouh-Guebas et al., 2005b). Such considerations of factors
affecting the protective function will better inform restoration
projects.

One of the first societal roles of mangroves mentioned in the


literature was that of land builder (Curtiss, 1888). Although
land building is not an ecosystem service in a traditional sense,
soil formation and vertical accretion are essential for maintenance of the mangrove habitat during sea-level rise and thereby
ensure all other ecosystem services, including nursery support,
carbon sequestration and coastal protection.
The idea that mangroves accumulate sediments and promote
seaward land expansion, was enshrined in the scientific literature by John H. Davis (1940b) in a 74-page opus. He described
mangrove vegetation associations common to Florida, USA and
their successional relationships and also made some preliminary
observations about the geologic role of mangroves based on
changes in land area and soil profiles showing mangrove peat
layers below the tide range (indicating sea-level rise). These
observations were interpreted, along with the Clementsian view
of vegetation succession, as evidence of seaward progression
of the mangrove community through land building. Previous
and subsequent work by several investigators added to the
land-building concept (reviewed by Carlton, 1974), but it was
the classic work by Davis (1940b) that scientifically established
the concept of mangrove land building.

Empirical data on expected loss of function


The extrapolated loss of the protection function of mangroves on a global level is obscure. We postulate the following
hypotheses.
1. Fragmentation of a mangrove-lined coast significantly
reduces the coastal protection function of the mangrove system.

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S. Y. Lee et al.
The role of mangroves as geomorphic agents was later challenged by geologists, who argued that mangroves were not land
builders but rather colonized land (e.g. intertidal mudflats) or
retained land where it already existed and expanded only where
sedimentation was high (Egler, 1952; Thom, 1967; Scholl, 1968;
Bird, 1971). As summarized by Carlton (1974), two opposing
viewpoints emerged from this literature: (1) mangroves act as a
geomorphic agent by accreting inorganic sediments and/or
organic detritus and by autogenic peat production and (2) mangroves are not geomorphic agents and can only modify the rate
of land accretion.
In support of the second viewpoint, Egler (1952) argued that
mangroves were soil retainers rather than soil builders. However,
he did not present any new data to refute the land-building
property of mangroves. In fact, a careful reading of this and
other reports shows that few of Daviss critics offered contradictory data as extensively detailed or impressive as those presented
in his classic works (Davis, 1940a, b). Some critics even acknowledged that under certain conditions, mangroves did contribute
to vertical accretion by in situ peat formation and/or by affecting
inorganic sedimentation rates (e.g. Scholl, 1964; Thom, 1967;
Bird, 1986). Despite such examples, however, most critics argued
that land building by mangroves was not a general phenomenon. Over time, the concept of mangroves as opportunistic
colonizers with little to no land-building capacity became
entrenched in reviews and textbooks. For example, in the text
Wetlands (Mitsch & Gosselink, 2007), we find: It is no longer
accepted dogma that mangroves are land-builders . . . .
Current understanding
Arguments against mangroves as land builders focused, in part,
on the requirement for an existing platform to support the
lateral movement of mangroves. Mangroves cannot colonize or
spread seaward unless surface elevations support seedling establishment and subsequent plant growth. If water depths are too
great, seedlings cannot gain a foothold and/or cannot survive
excessive flooding once embryonic reserves are depleted (Krauss
et al., 2008). The land platform must first build vertically, either
by inorganic or organic deposition, to support mangrove expansion in the horizontal plane. The question is whether such a
platform is ever built through the direct influence of mangroves.
Along muddy coasts, vertical accretion and lateral progradation are driven mainly by physical processes, and mangroves may passively follow the developing landform (e.g.
Woodroffe et al., 1985; Lovelock et al., 2010). By comparison,
there is little evidence for a direct role of mangroves in lateral
land expansion, as envisioned by early workers. A number
of studies have described mangrove retreat or expansion in
response to sea-level rise or fall (e.g. Ellison, 1993; Parkinson
et al., 1994; Saintilan & Rogers, 2013) and in relation to salt
marsh vegetation (Krauss et al., 2011), but lateral movements
were assumed to be driven by external drivers that altered physical or chemical conditions influencing plant growth. A few
studies have documented lateral expansion of mangroves onto
adjacent mudflats or sandy shoals but did not demonstrate
732

experimentally any accretionary influences by mangroves


associated with this colonization (e.g. Panapitukkul et al., 1998;
Balke et al., 2011).
Many researchers currently accept the role of mangroves as
land stabilizers (e.g. Kathiresan, 2003; Alongi, 2008). Mangroves
and their root systems promote sedimentation (Krauss et al.,
2003) by slowing water velocities (Mazda et al., 1997b) and by
trapping and preventing sediment resuspension (Scoffin, 1970).
Even early workers who criticized the notion of mangroves
as land builders agreed with this interpretation (Egler, 1952;
Thom, 1967; Bird, 1986). The view of mangroves only as land
stabilizers, however, neglects their role in promoting inorganic
sedimentation as well as in autogenic soil development and
resultant vertical land building.
Although empirical data are lacking in support of an active
role by mangroves in lateral expansion, there is ample evidence
for a direct contribution of mangroves to accretion in the vertical plane through peat formation. The occurrence of peat
strata in sediment cores has been described for many locations
in Florida and the Caribbean region (e.g. Davis, 1940a; Scholl,
1964; Parkinson et al., 1994; McKee & Faulkner, 2000; McKee
et al., 2007). The presence of peat in the stratigraphic record is
evidence of an autogenic process that has contributed to vertical
accretion at some time in the past. One of the most impressive
examples of mangrove peat accumulation and its role in vertical
land development was reported for offshore islands in Belize
where sequences of mangrove peat up to 10-m thick accrued
over 70008000 years (Macintyre et al., 2004). Moreover, recent
studies experimentally demonstrated the above- and belowground contribution of mangrove tissues (particularly roots) to
autogenic accretion and elevation gain in Belize and Florida
(McKee, 2011). The key role of mangroves in soil formation
and elevation change was further evidenced in a peat-forming
mangrove system in Honduras. When mangrove stands on the
island of Guanaja were killed by Hurricane Mitch, peat collapse
occurred, leading to a loss in soil elevation (Cahoon et al., 2003).
The work conducted in Belize and other locations with limited
sediment supplies thus showed that in some settings mangroves
can contribute directly to vertical land building by adding
organic matter to soil volume and at rates comparable to global
sea-level rise (McKee et al., 2007).
We conclude that the early view of mangroves as land builders, especially in reference to lateral expansion, was not based
on solid evidence and is not generally applicable to all settings.
However, multiple lines of evidence indicate that mangroves can
be important agents in vertical accretion by enhancing sedimentation and/or by direct organic contributions (Fig. 1). A key
point is that the increase in soil volume is driven by mangroves
(accelerated sedimentation, sediment trapping, organic matter
input) and results in expansion of the land mass in at least one
dimension. This viewpoint contrasts with the prevailing paradigm of mangroves as stabilizers or retainers of land and instead
considers mangroves to be integral and active contributors to
land formation, mitigating sea-level rise. The relative contribution of mangroves to land formation probably varies with
geomorphic and sedimentary settings, but little progress will be

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Reassessment of mangrove ecosystem services

Figure 1 Conceptual model illustrating


how physical and biological processes
interact to control vertical and lateral
land development. Physical processes
include changes in sedimentation, sea
level, air and sea temperatures and
atmospheric [CO2], which by
accelerating inorganic sedimentation,
trapping and retaining deposited
sediment and/or by directly adding
organic matter to soil volume (peat
formation). The interaction between
biological and physical processes creates
a sensitive feedback relationship allowing
adjustment of the landform (in both
the vertical and horizontal planes) to
changes in sea level may directly or
indirectly affect mangrove growth.
Mangroves, in turn, contribute to
land building.

made without further investigation into such variation as well as


the nature of the underlying biophysical processes.
Data gaps and future research
Work showing the contribution of mangroves to accretion,
either by peat formation or by accelerating inorganic sedimentation, indicates that biotic processes are key to vertical land
development and the accommodation of rising sea level in some
locations (Cahoon et al., 2003; Krauss et al., 2003; McKee et al.,
2007; McKee, 2011). Such studies, however, are limited in scope
and geographic extent and need to be repeated in a range of
geomorphic settings to assess the broader role of mangroves
in land development. Models to predict future mangrove
expansion/retreat also need to include external drivers associated with climate change (e.g. temperature, rainfall, atmospheric
[CO2]). Our understanding of how such drivers interact with
internal ecological processes (e.g. plant competition, aboveand below-ground productiondecomposition) in mangrove
systems (Fig. 1) is rudimentary and mostly based on work conducted in terrestrial habitats (see review by McKee et al., 2012).
Although several studies have emphasized the relative contribution of surface and subsurface processes to maintenance of
mangrove soil elevations in relation to relative sea-level rise
(McKee et al., 2007; Krauss et al., 2010; Lovelock et al., 2011;
McKee, 2011) such work is limited because it does not span the
range of settings in which mangroves occur. Further research is
needed to address these gaps in our understanding of how mangroves contribute to sedimentation and soil development, how
biological processes interact with physical processes to accommodate sea-level rise and how processes operating at different
spatial and temporal scales lead to landscape-level changes in
mangrove extent.

SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSION


Decades of empirical research have clarified many of the ecological processes underlying the capacity of tropical mangroves
to deliver essential ecosystem services such as fish production
and shoreline protection (Table 1). However, the nexus between
mangrove science and management is still weak. With increasing
expectations from the general public as well as governments
for tangible ecosystem services as the basis for conserving and
managing mangroves, answers to questions such as how much
removal of mangroves may result in detrimental impacts on
coastal fisheries, or location-specific assessments of the capacity
of mangroves for C sequestration remain elusive. A few issues
contribute to this inadequacy.
While significant progress has been achieved in identifying
drivers, characterizing processes and ascertaining the direction
of relationships, management-relevant and quantitative knowledge of thresholds, spatio-temporal scaling and variability is still
largely missing. For example, data on the C sequestration potential are highly patchy and often derived from a small number
of cores at centimetre scales of sampling but extrapolated to
cover large (> km) spatial scales. Similarly, data on how juvenile nekton locate mangrove nursery habitats, assessment
of the interconnectivity of habitats and food web analysis of
mangrove-dominated estuaries need to be linked with secondary production patterns at a landscape scale. Although most
ecological and biogeochemical processes are expected to vary
with habitat area, the relationships are unlikely to be linear
(Barbier et al., 2008). Thresholds or tipping points therefore
exist for most habitatfunction or diversityfunction relationships. Further, the ecological and physical processes underpinning essential ecosystem services (e.g. shoreline protection,
sediment accretion) may vary spatially and temporally (Barbier

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S. Y. Lee et al.
Table 1 Biogeographic, physical geographic and socio-economic/anthropogenic factors influencing the delivery of ecosystem services by
mangroves.
Service

Biogeographic

Physical geographic

Socio-economic/anthropogenic

C export/
storage

Difference in floral and faunal


species richness may result in
different forest productivity/
biomass/C dynamics

Tidal regime combined with local


geomorphology determines
the balance of organic matter
export/storage
Local climate regime, e.g. amount
and distribution of rainfall,
influences riverine export of
mangrove C
Significant occurrence of microtidal
regimes (e.g. the Caribbean)
reduces C movement

Nursery
function

Connectivity between nursery and


adult habitats is higher in regions
with microtidal regimes (e.g. the
Caribbean)
High local tree species diversity in
IWP might improve the
attractiveness of forest to larvae
through habitat structural or
trophic effects
Dominance by different species
with different above-ground
architecture may influence the
coastal protection function

Well-connected estuarine habitat


arrays promote nursery function
Local tidal regime determines access
to mangroves by larvae

Local management practice, e.g. biomass harvesting or


pollution, influences forest productivity/biomass/
C dynamics
Anthropogenic forest degradation reduces forest
performance
Conversion to aquaculture ponds or agriculture
reduces C storage capacity and increases C emission
Urbanization introduces additional/alternative C
sources to estuarine food chains
Valuation of C capital associated with mangroves will
drive management practices, e.g. reforestation,
REDD+ approaches
Removal of mangroves reduces nursery area;
conversion to aquaculture ponds put further
pressure onto remaining mangroves for natural
larval stock

Dominance by different species with


different aerial root architecture
may influence sediment-trapping
capacity
Species differences in below-ground
root production-decomposition
rates may influence peat
formation rates (e.g. in the
Caribbean region)

Supply and delivery of inorganic


sediment depends strongly on
local geomorphology and
rainfall/tidal/wind/storm regimes
Geographic variation in nutrient,
salinity and flooding regimes may
influence biological processes
controlling organic contributions
to vertical land building (e.g. in
the Caribbean region)

Coastal
protection

Land
building

Value of mangroves accentuated in


areas prone to tsunami/cyclone
attack

et al., 2011). Loss of the same ecosystem service may therefore be


mediated by disturbance to different ecological processes or
components (e.g. removal of forest versus degradation).
Some of the drivers influencing the delivery of key ecosystem
services by tropical mangroves differ between the two broad
biogeographic regions: diversity and abundance of keystone
fauna (e.g. low brachyuran crab diversity in the AEP; Lee, 2008)
and anthropogenic threats (aquaculture ponds in IWP versus oil
pollution and urbanization in AEP) (Ellison & Farnsworth,
1996; FAO, 2007; Spalding et al., 2010). The effect of the fundamental difference in mangrove species richness (and the key
fauna they support) between the AEP and IWP has never been
734

Coastal squeeze limits width of mangrove belt and


thus capacity for protection
Degradation of forest reduces capacity for protection
Replanting/rehabilitation increases capacity for
protection
Anthropogenic erosion increases sediment supply,
which may facilitate mangrove spread and
colonization; however, excessive sedimentation may
negatively impact existing mangroves through burial
Barriers (dams, levees, seawalls) to water movement
may decrease sediment supply and/or delivery
Removal or degradation of mangroves may reduce
vertical land development driven by biogenic
processes (peat)
Anthropogenic climate change and associated factors
(sea-level rise, elevated CO2) and coastal
eutrophication may have variable effects on
land-building capacity through changes in mangrove
growth

assessed in the light of recent concepts and data on biodiversity


ecosystem function relationship and cascading effects along
the food chain (e.g. Duffy, 2002; Hector & Bagchi, 2007; Naeem
et al., 2012). The large spatial scale characteristic of marine ecosystem processes creates practical challenges for the experimental testing of the biodiversityfunction relationship (Naeem,
2006). Diversity effects may also differ between top-down
(consumer-driven) and bottom-up (resource-driven) scenarios
in detritus-based systems (Srivastava et al., 2009; Kominoski
et al., 2010). To what extent and how mangrove and keystone
consumer diversity drive ecosystem processes, and thus services, differently in the two mangrove biogeographic regions,

Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23, 726743, 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Reassessment of mangrove ecosystem services


demands attention from global collaborative research. The
replanting efforts currently popular in Southeast Asia, often
replacing the diverse original forests with monospecific stands,
may present opportunities for evaluating this relationship.
Assessment of rehabilitated habitats thus far mainly focuses on a
return of structure rather than function, let alone services.
This review further shows that mangrove ecosystems
functioning is also subject to local physical, and increasingly
socio-economic, setting. The capacity of mangroves for sediment
trapping and accretion, for example, is strongly responsive to
local erosion and hydrologic regimes (e.g. availability of sediment, wave action), the species composition and the condition of
the forest (e.g. degree of degradation). While this variability
cautions against simple generalization of mangrove ecosystem
services, it also encourages the application of knowledge of the
response of mangroves to environmental drivers in maximizing
services.

Managing mangroves for key ecosystem services


The uncertainty associated with the future of complex ecological systems (e.g. mangrove forests) is a key challenge to
incorporating the value of ecosystem services into informed
environmental decision-making. The coupling of ecosystem
service valuations with simulations of possible future management scenarios offers a promising tool to guide complex
decision-making related to ecosystem management (Daily et al.,
2009), but requires reliable and compatible data encompassing a
wide range of physical, biological and socio-economic scenarios.
There is a strong need for a global network of consistently collected data for scaling up to ecosystem-level analyses at greater
geographic coverage. This network could be similar to existing
large-scale forest plot measurements (e.g. the United States
Forest Inventory and Analysis programme, the Smithsonian
Institute Global Earth Observatory (SIGEO)). While technol-

ogies such as remote sensing reduce the effort required for


studying spatially extensive processes (e.g. nutrient export
from mangrove-lined estuaries into the nearshore environment;
Naeem et al., 2012), the network needs to incorporate the range
of variation in mangrove species and assemblage distribution in
local hydrologic as well as broader biogeographic settings. This
could present a challenge to global mangrove analysis and management, as the greatest mangrove resources are predominantly
in developing countries where mangrove destruction is most
rapid (FAO, 2007).

Challenges and opportunities


Mangroves, urbanization, agriculture (e.g. rice farming) and
coastal aquaculture often compete for the same space in tropical
estuaries (the majority of the worlds megacities are located on
the coast; Martinez et al., 2007), making science-based management of tropical mangroves a challenging but strategic opportunity in securing ecosystem services such as C sequestration.
Replacing mangroves with intensive aquaculture ponds results
not only in removal of the C sequestration capacity of mangroves
but also significantly increases C emission to levels beyond
most agricultural practices following forest clearance (Sidik &
Lovelock, 2013). Both abiotic (e.g. hydroperiod, tidal strength,
salinity) and biotic (e.g. in situ consumption, bioturbation)
drivers influence the balance between C storage and mineralization. As many of the drivers for storage or mineralization can
be manipulated (Table 2), mangrove resources in tropical estuaries can theoretically be managed for C storage to partly offset
anthropogenic C emissions in urbanizing estuaries.
Only 6.9% of global mangrove area is covered by the existing
protected areas network (Giri et al., 2011) due to financial and
other limitations, hence prioritizing valuable areas becomes
important. A mosaic of connected habitats contributes to
nursery value (Sheaves, 2005) and a broad diversity of habitats is

Table 2 Drivers of mangrove C dynamics that may be manipulated for maximizing the C sequestration potential of mangroves.
Drivers

Promotes

Main abiotic/biotic agent

Intervention method

Reference

Tidal amplitude

Mineralization/storage

Hydroperiod

Mineralization/storage

Tidal regime, geomorphology,


access by nekton
Tidal connectivity,
geomorphology

Dyking, sluice gates, drainage


network
Dyking, sluice gates, drainage
network

Aeration

Mineralization, outgassing

Nutrient level

Fauna/
microbes

Productivity, above- to
below-ground biomass,
decomposition rate
Consumption, bioturbation,
mineralization

Bioturbators, tidal and wave


regimes
Mangrove plants

Crabs, meiofauna, bacteria and


fungi

Artificial burrows and


exclusion of bioturbators
Fertilization, diversion of
effluents from urban and
aquaculture wastes
Limit hydrological
connectivity; nutrient level

Lee (1990), Dittmar and


Lara (2001)
Ellison and Farnsworth
(1997), Davis et al. (2005),
Krauss et al. (2006)
Stieglitz et al. (2000),
Kristensen (2008)
Tam and Wong (1995),
Lovelock (2008)

Vegetation

Mineralization/storage

Mangrove plants, seagrasses

Afforestation

Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23, 726743, 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Kristensen (2008), Lee


(2008), Andreetta et al.
(2014)
Bosire et al. (2005), Huxham
et al. (2010), Kumara et al.
(2010)

735

S. Y. Lee et al.
essential for completing fish life cycles (Meynecke et al., 2007).
Conservation efforts should protect connected mangrove
seagrasscoral reef corridors rather than identify representative
areas of each habitat in isolation (Mumby et al., 2004) as well
as mangrove catchment areas. Whether the single- or mosaichabitat approach is adopted, and despite the paucity of direct
evidence to support fisheriesmangrove dependence, the studies
so far infer a linkage and highlight the need to reverse mangrove
loss (Nagelkerken et al., 2008).
Irrespective of the debate in science, the impact of the coastal
protection paradigm on policy has been substantial. In the
recent World Conservation Congress (September 2012), the
head of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature
stated that mangroves are better than human-made structures in
protecting coastlines threatened by climate change. Moreover,
there have also been large-scale projects funded by international
agencies to support mangrove plantations based on this paradigm (Feagin et al., 2010), but success is often hampered by a
lack of reference to substrate and hydrological requirements
for mangrove establishment (Lewis, 2005). Even as early as the
1970s, the Philippines and other typhoon-prone countries
started to embed mangrove greenbelts in various laws premised
on their coastal protection function, although enforcement has
been wanting (Primavera, 2000, 2005). With proper implementation, such environmental laws provide an excellent demonstration of damage prevention and mitigation, for example the
Trinity Inlet Management Plan (which covers 3600 ha of mangroves) during the destructive Cyclone Larry that hit Australia in
2006 (Williams et al., 2007).
The concept of mangroves as key biotic agents involved in
geomorphic processes is important to conservation and restoration efforts. Seeing mangroves as passive players in coastal
dynamics, and especially with respect to counterbalancing sealevel rise, may weaken arguments for their protection. More
importantly, the assumption that mangroves are not inherently
involved in land development may lead to faulty management
plans and decisions that threaten habitat stability. A better
understanding of geographic variation in the contribution of
mangroves to soil accretion and elevation dynamics is essential
to enhancing the resilience of mangrove coastlines. In addition,
information about differences among sedimentary settings will
allow plans that are better tailored to a particular situation. The
ecosystem service of land building can only be maximized if the
processes (physical and/or biological) relevant for a particular
setting are protected or restored. For example, peat-forming
mangroves may be more responsive to changes affecting the
accumulation of organic matter. Mangroves in other sedimentary settings may be more affected by changes in sediment
supplies or barriers to sediment delivery. Recognition of such
differences will be critical in properly managing mangroves and
the ecosystem services they provide.
Implications for local communities
Traditional approaches to managing goods and services derived
from mangrove productivity have focused on subsistence to
736

local communities, for example artisanal fishing and harvesting


of mangrove products. Unsustainable intensive aquaculture
driven by commercial investment often results in long-term
depletion of the capacity of mangrove productivity to maintain
these services to local communities. The C sequestration capacity of global forests to ameliorate anthropogenic emissions
has prompted international efforts such as REDD+, with major
implications for how tropical forests are governed and managed:
a shift from local subsistence to a pay for ecosystem services
model. Tropical mangroves offer significant potential for
REDD+ implementation due to their high C sequestration rate
and the high C stock (up to 10 times those of terrestrial forests;
Donato et al., 2011) but are currently not receiving corresponding attention. Future governance and management models
of tropical mangrove productivity must integrate local and
global ecosystem services such that ecological as well as socioeconomic benefits are returned to local communities for
objectives such as poverty alleviation.
Although the fisheries maintenance value of mangroves is
only US$708987 ha1 compared with $896610,821 ha1 for
coastal protection (Barbier et al., 2011), it is critical to the survival of sustenance fishers who are often landless and
marginalized, with no other means of livelihood. Yet the
continuing decline of mangroves compromises their nursery,
coastal protection and other ecological services. The major
threats to mangroves, currently estimated at 1415 million
ha world-wide (Spalding et al., 2010; Giri et al., 2011), are
overharvesting for fuelwood and construction, and conversion
to resorts, housing projects, agriculture and aquaculture (Ellison
& Farnsworth, 1996). In particular, shrimp pond culture
accounted for 38% of global decline of more than a third
of mangroves in the 1980s and 1990s (Valiela et al., 2001).
However, some aquaculture systems manage to integrate mangroves and aquaculture (Primavera, 2000), among which the
mixed mangroveshrimp ponds in Vietnam operated by small
farmers have evolved and expanded in area (Bush et al., 2010).
With the high export value of shrimp 15% of the US$125
billion global trade in fisheries products in 2011 (FAO, 2012)
and a growing international market for organic products, the
Vietnamese government plans to convert all shrimp farms on
the southern Ca Mau Peninsula to an integrated landscape of
organic coasts by 2015 (Ha et al., 2012). Research on the connectivity of juvenile habitats is needed to determine how much
pond area can be integrated in mangroves, and in what patterns,
without compromising the nursery functions of the latter. For
example, conserving an ample seaward mangrove belt of fringing forests (Primavera, 2005; Primavera & Esteban, 2008) gives
greater nursery functionality because of the edge effect by which
the mangrovewater interface provides access to juvenile shrimp
and fish (Vance et al., 2002).). Developing brackish water ponds
in the landward zone provides a winwin solution of food
production from aquaculture compatible with the nursery and
coastal services of mangroves (Primavera et al., 2007).
Apart from integration, restoration and protection are the
other management options for mangrove conservation. In the
case of rehabilitation, science-based protocols, monitoring and

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evaluation of whether and how replanted mangroves function
as nurseries for shrimps and fish need to be in place (Walton
et al., 2006; Crona & Rnnbck, 2007; Primavera et al., 2012a).
To ensure success, such initiatives should be community based
(Primavera et al., 2012b) and incorporate mechanisms by which
the community, as de facto mangrove managers, are granted
tenurial rights (Primavera & Esteban, 2008; Wever et al., 2012).
In other governance contexts, for example in Kenya, legally
based co-management structures for resources like the beach
management units may be the way forward to reconcile and
mutually strengthen local livelihood and mangrove conservation. Likewise, ecoparks managed by local cooperatives may
serve to protect remaining pristine mangroves while providing
a livelihood.
The future of mangrove ecosystem services
Continual rapid urbanization of the coastal zone will compromise the capacity of tropical mangroves to offer ecosystem
services through direct habitat reduction and degradation
due to pollution and other disturbances. The former not only
reduces the amount of all services derived from mangroves, but
also increases the vulnerability of coastal communities to
extreme physical events. Indirect impacts such as eutrophication
decrease the survivorship of mangroves already stressed by
salinity and aridity through reduction of the root to shoot ratio
(Lovelock et al., 2009). This response illustrates the complex
nature of management decisions about ecosystems subject to
multiple natural and anthropogenic threats, as attempts to
maximize one service (e.g. nutrient removal) may compromise
another (e.g. C sequestration). Further, these threats will help
drive vicious circles of accelerated mangrove destruction and
diminishing ecosystem services, potentially culminating in the
disappearance of a unique global habitat (Duke et al., 2007).
Global climate change plays a vital role in moderating
the capacity of mangroves for ecosystem services. Mangroves
respond and adjust to sea-level rise through root production,
which may be influenced by nutrient availability (McKee et al.,
2007). While mangroves generally are able to keep pace with the
anticipated increased inundation (Alongi, 2008), sea-level rise
may significantly reduce world mangrove area due to coastal
squeeze, which also seems to affect mangrove stand structure
and potentially function (Heatherington & Bishop, 2012). Intrusion of mangroves into salt marshes occurs where these habitats
coexist; the latter will likely disappear because of continual
coastal infrastructure development.
Finally, future management of tropical mangroves must recognize the changing socio-economic drivers of coastal resource
management. To date, tropical mangroves have largely been
managed for goods and services targeting local subsistence but
their roles in C sequestration, sustenance of coastal fish production, coastal protection and sediment dynamics have regional if
not global environmental and socio-economic significance. Just
as the adverse impact of global climate change is predicted to
be strongest in less polluting tropical developing economies
(Wittman & Caron, 2009), a similar imbalance exists between

the burden on those managing environmental assets (e.g. mangroves that reduce C emission, thus providing a solution) and
those generating the problem (e.g. C emission from rapid industrialization). Successful and sustainable management of tropical
mangroves as a global resource must involve political and socioeconomic partnerships between countries with and without
mangroves, underpinned by sound science cognizant of thresholds, scales and variability.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This review was conceived at the Workshop of the MMM3 conference held at the Small Fisheries Federation of Lanka (SFFL) in
July 2012, Sri Lanka. Any use of trade, product or firm names is
for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement
by the US Government. K.D. received funding from the MASTS
pooling initiative (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland, funded by the Scottish Funding Council
grant reference HR0901 and contributing institutions). F.D.G.,
N.K. and N.M. received funding from the Flemish Interuniversity Cooperation University Development Cooperation
(VLIR-UOS) and the Belgian National Science Foundation
(FNRS, FWO). F.D.G. and N.K. were supported by Meeting on
Mangrove ecology, functioning and Management MMM3.
F.D.G., N.C. and S.C. were supported by the FP7-PEOPLE,
IRSES Project CREC (N 247514).
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Additional references may be found at the end of Appendix S1
in the online version of this article.
S U P P O RT I N G I N F O R M AT I O N
Additional supporting information may be found in the online
version of this article at the publishers web-site.
Appendix S1 Chronology of key research publications on
the protection function of mangroves after the Indian Ocean
tsunami in 2004 and other notable ocean surges.

BIOSKETCH
S.Y.L. led the overall conception and manuscript
writing, and the C dynamics section; J.H.P., F.D., and
K.M. and I.M. led writing of the nursery, coastal
protection and sedimentation sections, respectively;
all other authors contributed to ideas presented and
writing of the manuscript.
Editor: Carlos M. Duarte

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