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Part I

1. Matemtica pura=implicaciones
Las proposiciones matemticas afirman implicaciones
3. Qu significa lo que hace la matemtica? La filosofa introduca la nocin de MENTE. Ahora
podemos responder con la LGICA.
4. Siempre se supo que la matemtica operaba con la deduccin. Pero la lgica aristotelica
(silogismo) era muy limitada. Por eso Kant dice que la matemtica opera tambin con intuiciones de
espacio y de tiempo. Ahora podemos refutar esa idea de Kant: con la nueva lgica simblica de
Peano:
By the help of ten principles of deduction and ten other premisses of a general logical nature (e.g.
implication is a relation), all mathematics can be strictly and formally deduced; and all the entities
that occur in mathematics can be defined in terms of those that occur in the above twenty premisses.
5. Matemtica aplicada y matemtica pura.
La primera tiene que ver con la experiencia del mundo actual, se le da una constante a la variable y
se pone a prueba una hiptesis. La pura se reduca a la implicacin.
We assert always in mathematics that if a certain assertion p is true of any entity x, or of any set of
entities x, y, z, . . ., then some other assertion q is true of those entities; but we do not assert either p
or q separately of our entities. We assert a relation between the assertions p and q, which I shall call
formal implication.
6. Proposiciones matemticas: no slo implaciones, tambin VARIABLES
Hay variables porque hay las palabras any o some
7. VARIABLES: no se reducen a ser clases. Son elementos puramente lgicos, reemplazables por
entidades cualesquiera como constantes, sin perjuicio de resultar en un absurdo existencial.
Thus in every proposition of pure mathematics, when fully stated, the variables have an absolutely
unrestricted field: any conceivable entity may be substituted for any one of our variables without
impairing the truth of our proposition.
8. y 9. Distincin de matemtica pura y matemtica aplicada.
10. Matemtica y lgica se identifican. Pero la lgica trata de las premisas y la matemtica de las
consecuencias.
CAPTULO 2. LGICA SIMBLICA O FORMAL:
11. Estudio de los tipos de deduccin
Leibniz: descubrimiento de inferencias no silogsticas
12. Qu es la lgica simblica? Qu alcance
the formal properties of a relation may be defined as those that can be expressed in terms of logical
constants,
or again as those which, while they are preserved, permit our relation to be varied without
invalidating any inference in which the said relation is regarded in the light of a variable.
But symbolic logic, in the narrower sense which is convenient, will not investigate what inferences

are possible in respect of continuous relations (i.e. relations generating continuous series);
this investigation belongs to mathematics, but is still too special for symbolic logic.
What symbolic logic does investigate is the general rules by which inferences are made, and it
requires a classification of relations or propositions only in so far as these general rules introduce
particular notions.
The particular notions which appear in the propositions of symbolic logic, and all others definable
in terms of these notions, are the logical constants.
The number of indefinable logical constants is not great: it appears, in fact, to be eight or nine.
These notions alone form the subject-matter of the whole of mathematics: no others, except such as
are definable in terms of the original eight or nine, occur anywhere in Arithmatic, Geometry or
rational Dynamics.
For the technical study of Symbolic Logic, it is convenient to take as a single indefinable the
notion of a formal implication, i.e. of such propositions as x is a man implies x is a mortal, for all
values of xpropositions whose general type is: (x) implies (x) for all values of x, where (x),
(x), for all values of x, are propositions.
The analysis of this notion of formal implication belongs to the principles of the subject, but is not
required for its formal development.
In addition to this notion, we require as indefinables the following:
- implication between propositions not containing variables,
- the relation of a term to a class of which it is a member,
- the notion of such that,
- the notion of relation and truth.
By means of these notions, all the propositions of symbolic logic can be stated.
13. Clculo de proposiciones, clculo de clases, clculo de relaciones
No confundir, a pesar de la semejanza, el clculo de proposiciones y el de clases
14. CLCULO PROPOSICIONAL: Implicacin
15. Distinguir: Relacin de implicacin entre proposiciones y relacin de implicacin formal: que
ocurre cuando una proposicin implica otra para todos los valores de las variables
16. Definir la implicacin es imposible.
17. Para el clculo proposicional no necesitamos ms indefinibles que las dos formas de
implicacin.