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Marine Micropaleontology, 7 (1982) 363--368

363

Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam -- Printed in The Netherlands

Short Communication

DIATOM BIOSTRATIGRAPHY
EASTERN JAVA (INDONESIA)

OF

LATE

MIOCENE

AND

PLIOCENE

SEDIMENTS

OF

LLOYD H. BURCKLE
Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, New York 10964 (U.S.A.)

(Received August 28, 1981; accepted October 29, 1981)

Abstract
Burckle, L.H., 1982. Diatom biostratigraphy of Late Miocene and Pliocene sediments of eastern Java (Indonesia).
Mar. Micropaleontol., 7 : 363--368.
A study of the marine diatoms of the Late Miocene to Pliocene Njepung section (Java) yield results that are
in substantial agreement with Saint-Marc and Suminta (1979). The lower part of the Globigerina Marls belongs
to the Late Miocene/Early Pliocene Thalassiosira convexa zone of Burckle (1972) while the middle of the formation belongs to the Middle Miocene Nitzschia jousea zone of Burckle (1972). An open ocean environment is indicated while the abundant presence of Thalassiosira nitzschioides suggests strong upwelling, at least in the lower
part of the Globigerina Marls.

Introduction
Within t h e past few years, a n u m b e r o f
p a p e r s have b e e n p u b l i s h e d on t h e m i c r o fossil b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y
o f L a t e Miocene/
latest-Pliocene sections in c e n t r a l and e a s t e r n
Java. ( N i n k o v i c h and Burckle, 1 9 7 8 ; SaintMarc and S u m i n t a , 1 9 7 9 ; V a n Gorsel and
T r o e l s t r a , 1981.) In a d d i t i o n t o i d e n t i f y i n g
b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c m a r k e r s , these p a p e r s have
addressed such p r o b l e m s as p a l e o c l i m a t e ,
paleoceanography, the timing of the emergence o f this p o r t i o n o f J a v a as well as t h e
t i m i n g o f t h e first a p p e a r a n c e o f h o m i n i d s
in J a v a ( N i n k o v i c h and Burckle, 1 9 7 8 ; Nink o v i c h et al., 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e sections studied b y
Saint-Marc and S u m i n t a {1979) and Van
Gorsel and T r o e l s t r a ( 1 9 8 1 ) are l o c a t e d a
s h o r t d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e B o d j o n e g o r o Well
No. 1 (Bolli, 1 9 6 6 ) and serve to c o m p l e m e n t
its f o r a m i n i f e r a l b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y .

T h r o u g h t h e c o u r t e s y o f Saint-Marc, I
o b t a i n e d s a m p l e s ( s o m e 70 in all) f r o m t h e
N j e p u n g section (Saint-Marc and S u m i n t a ,
1 9 7 9 ) in eastern J a v a for d i a t o m analysis.
T h e N j e p u n g section, m o r e t h a n 6 5 0 m
t h i c k , is l o c a t e d 50 k m s o u t h w e s t o f Bodjon e g o r o and consists o f t h e L a t e M i o c e n e
K e r e k l i m e s t o n e overlain b y t h e L a t e Mioc e n e - - P l i o c e n e G l o b i g e r i n a Marls f o r m a t i o n
and t h e Pleistocene N j e p u n g l i m e s t o n e . T h e
results o b t a i n e d b y these t w o a u t h o r s are
s u m m a r i z e d in Fig. 1. A hiatus was identified at t h e c o n t a c t b e t w e e n the K e r e k
F o r m a t i o n and t h e G l o b i g e r i n a Marls w i t h i n
t h e G l o b o r o t a l i a acostaensis Z o n e . T h r e e
additional
foraminiferal zones
gave t h e
a u t h o r s sufficient d a t a to tie t h e i r section
t o t h e B o d j o n e g o r o Well o f Bolli (1966).
T h e regional g e o l o g y o f t h e N j e p u n g area
has b e e n s u m m a r i z e d b y Saint-Marc and
S u m i n t a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e region is within an

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-% \49 GLOBI G.Marc ~ Suminta (1979) 70 NJEPUNG LIME FORAM.-@ N22 Lower G.GE G. truncatulinoides STONE Middle port of 6O < 59 GAUSS [LLq obliquiloculata .:59 margar/tae GILBER / 50 X 29 . O b l i q u e lines i n d i c a t e intervals t h a t were b a r r e n o f d i a t o m s . --15 Th. p o r t of con vex a $1LBER acostaens/s -11 EPOCH I 5 1 8.364 NJEPUNG FORMATI SECT ON ONS ZONES SAMPLE S St. . G E RI N A Mid to upper port of -42 MARLS . D i a t o m z o n a t i o n in t h e N j e p u n g section. T h e f o r a m i n i f e r a l z o n a t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d o n t h e same s a m p l e set b y Saint-Marc and S u m i n t a ( 1 9 7 9 ) .----~-~ - G. LIME STONE ) acostaensi$ Fig. 1. DIATOM This ZONES poper ~roposed tie to ~aleomac stratig " ~.

in prep. which occurs in the middle of the Gauss Normal Magnetic Epoch (Saito et al. and Berggren et al. In the equatorial Pacific. Progressive uplift from the south eventually led to emergent conditions in this region during the latest Pliocene. The Epoch and Age boundaries follow the usage of Cita (1975). Saint-Marc and Suminta (1979) followed the usage of Stainforth et al. The lower~most samples from the Kerek limestone (samples 1--7) contain abundant sponge spicules although diatoms are also present in varying degrees of preservation. while to the north is the Rembang uplift. and Schrader (1974) while the ranges of these species are taken from Burckle (1972. (1975) in placing the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary at the Globorotalia acostaensis Blow last appearance. In sample 15. (1975). Nitzschia reinholdii is reported from latest-Miozene to Pleistocene sediments. Coscinodiscus nodulifer var.365 east--west trending anticlinorium (the Kendeng Zone). cyclopus Jous6 first appears. 1). Parts of two diatom zones are recognized in this section: the Thalassiosira convexa zone occurs from samples 8 to 29. Schmidt. This Early Pliocene form is c o m m o n to higher latitudes and to marginal seas b u t has not been directly tied to the paleomagnetic stratigraphy. the earliest-Pliocene first appearance of this form is near the " c ' " event of the Gilbert Magnetic Reversed Epoch (Burckle and Opdyke. In these papers. The Kendeng Zone was submerged during the Late Miocene and Pliocene and was apparently deep enough for open ocean conditions to prevail. Identification of major index species follow that of Muchina (1963). In their study. it occurs in samples 8 to 29 and 39 to 42 as does Nitzschia marina. while the Nitzschia jouseae zone is found in samples 39 to 41. Arachnoidiscus sp. in that the Miocene/Pliocene boundary is placed just above the Epoch 5/ Gilbert Magnetic Epoch boundary and the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary is placed in the Olduvai Event of the Matuyama Reversed Magnetic Epoch. all ranges of all index species have been tied directly to the paleomagnetic reversal record. and occurs from the Late Miocene (Late Epoch 6) to the Late Pliocene (early part of the Matu- . Thalassiosira convexa var. (1978}. Nitzschia marina Grunow. Saito et al. javanicus Reinhold. (1976). 1978). In this section. Burckle (1972).. Astrolampra marylandica Ehrenberg and Hemiaulus polymorphus Grunow. (1980}. Paralleling it to the south is the east--west trending volcanic high of Java. The remaining samples were barren of this group. a Miocene to Recent form. Methods Samples were prepared using procedures described by Burckle et al. Hemidiscus cuneiformis Wallich. Van Couvering et al. A.). 1978) is used in this study. This form also occurs in the middle part of the Late Miocene but is absent from sediments of latest-Miocene age. Berggren and Van Couvering (1974). Of the 70 samples examined. I find such forms as Thalassiosira convexa var. In sample 27. Coscindodiscus nodulifer 0. samples 1 to 29 and 39 to 41 contained diatoms (Fig. This assemblage differs somewhat from the diatoms in the lower part of the Globigerina Marls (samples 8--29). Nitzschia reinholdii Kanaya et Koizumi. Burckle and Opdyke (1977) and Kazarina (1975). 1977. is present along with Actinocyclus ellipticus Grunow. This is a modification of a "standard" method described by Schrader (1974} and is not much different from that used by most diatomists. Biostratigraphy The late Cenozoic planktonic diatom zonation of Burckle (1972. or the diatoms were in too poor a state of preservation for identification. aspinosa Schrader. however. ellipticus vat. Hemidiscus cuneiformis and Lithodesmium cornigerum Brun. 1975). I record an occurrence of Cussia tatsunokuchi Koizumi. aspinosa has been tied to the paleomagnetics. In this interval.

(1982). 1977). 1974) in placing the boundary in the lower part of the Gilbert Reversed Epoch at approximately 4. nitzschioides var. Further evidence for this point is the occurrence of the diatom C. aspinosa first appears in the upper part of Magnetic Epoch 6 and disappears in the lower part of the Matuyama Reversed Epoch. both of which first appear in or near the Gauss argues for an Early Pliocene age .9 to 5. 1975} while Saint-Marc and Suminta (1979) place it in the Early Pleistocene. (1975) record the last appearance of G. I note the first appearance of Coscinodiscus nodulifer var. margaritae Bolli and Bermudez is rejected as a suitable marker for the boundary because: (a) it occurs below the boundary in some regions. Saint-Marc and Suminta (1979) identified the Miocene/Pliocene boundary by the first appearance of Globorotalia margaritae and the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary by the last appearance of Globoquadrina acostaensis (Stainforth et al. I note the occurrence of Nitzschia jouseae Burckle in samples 39 to 41. parva.). this species first appears in the lower part of the Gilbert Reversal Epoch. 1975). 1977. there is ample evidence in the literature to suggest that it ranges from latest Miocene to earliest Pliocene (Koizumi. convexa var. (1975). In sample 15. 1975). 1972). This form occurs in samples 8 to 29 and 39 to 41. convexa. but is Late Pliocene after the usage of Saito et al.. This level is also marked by the last appearance of the diatom species Thalassiosira miocenica Schrader (Burckle and Opdyke. Finally. and (b) the first appearance cannot be reliably and consistently detected.. particularly the Mediterranean (Baena Perez et al. This species ranges in the Pliocene from the " c " event of the Gilbert to the upper part of the Gauss Normal Epoch. Burckle and Opdyke. Although this species has never been directly tied to the paleomagnetic reversal record. Therefore. This latter species first appears in the split " c " magnetic event of the Gilbert and disappears in the upper normal event of the Gauss (Burckle.. cyclopus. The diatoms in samples 8 to 29 belong to the Thalassiosira convexa zone of Burckle (1972). There are several reasons to suggest that the occurrence of this species in the Njepung section is in the lower part of its range.366 yama Reversed Epoch). Burckle. acostaensis in the middle of the Gauss Normal Epoch. from that reported by Ninkovich and Burckle (1979) and Ninkovich et al. but occur most abundantly in upwelling areas along eastern boundary currents (Cook-Poferl et al. 1 have followed current usage (Berggren and Van Couvering. The co-occurrence of these two species and the absence of Rhizosolenia praebergoni Muchina and Thalassiosira convexa var. According to Burckle {1972) the nominate taxon Th.1 and coincident with the first appearance of Globorotalia turnida Brady. miocenica. The age of the transition from marine to non-marine sediment in this part of Java is not substantially different. aspinosa and Nitzschia ]ouseae. 1978) although this species is not recorded in this section. Discussion In their discussion of the Njepung section. According to Burckle (in prep.. 1977). although these authors place it in the Late Pliocene (after the usage of Saito et al. Samples 39 to 41 contain Th. but above the last appearance of Th. Saito et al. tumida suggests that this part of the section is near the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. therefore. The most abundant species found in most samples is Thalassionema nitzschioides Grunow and Th. Saito et al. In their discussions Cita (1975). G. (1975) which is followed by Saint-Marc and Suminta (1979). These two forms are quite cosmopolitan. The close association with the first appearance of G. This is the Pliocene/ Pleistocene boundary after the usage of Stainforth et al. (1975) and Berggren and Van Couvering (1974) placed this boundary at or just above the upper normal event of Magnetic Epoch 5. tatsunokuchi. convexa var. 1972.

J. (1) The lower part of the Globigerina Marls belong to the Thalassiosira convexa zone of Burckle (1972). nitzschioides suggests strong upwelling at least during the time of deposition of the lower part of the Globigerina Marls. Kazarina. open ocean environment.. E1 Andaluciense como unidad cronoestratigrafica adecuada para el area Mediterranea. Berggren. nodulifer var. 1977. Garcia Monzon. Schrader... their presence should be expected in the Njepung section particularly since Ninkovich and Burckle (1979) and Ninkovich et al. 1976) has pointed out the close association between a Th. Micropaleontol. Conclusions Diatom results from the Late Miocene/ Pliocene Njepung section of eastern Java are in substantial agreement with results from the Foraminifera. 1974. C. Granados. cyclopus indicate that the level near samples 13 to 15 is in the early Gilbert Magnetic Epoch. Martinez Del Olmo. Fernandez Vargas. 1972. turnida and the nearly concurrent first appearance of C. sometime during the Gilbert Reversal Magnetic Epoch. F. Nice. parva and such open ocean tropical and subtropical forms as Nitzschia marina. France. aspinosa and N.. E. Jerez Mir. This contention is supported by the joint occurrence of C. Crespo Zarno- rano.. R. G. Rev. Mansilla Izquierdo. convexa var. Hernidiscus cuneiforrnis and Coscinodiscus radiatus Ehrenberg) support the conclusion of Saint-Marc and Suminta (1979) that this section represents a largely deep water. 1975). E. Martinez Diaz... tatsunokuchi.... The Late Neogene: biostratigraphy. Constance Sancetta. nitzschioides dominated assemblage occuring at the same time as a major global cooling.A... W. Research was supported by NSF Grants OCE 78-20885 and OCE 7919092. 1974. (1982) noted the initiation of the Th. MartinezFresneda Moreno. The composition of the diatom flora {abundant Thalassionema nitzschioides and var. W. I use negative evidence because both of these species are found in the equatorial Atlantic and IndoPacific (Burckle. Gomez Nogueroles.. I. Burckle et al. Abundant Thalassionerna nitzschioides is associated with a strongly upwelling marine environment usually along an eastern boundary current. Pierre Saint-Marc of the Centre de Recherches Micropaleontologiques J.. (1982) report the presence of these two species in sections from central Java.. and De Tones Perez Hildalgo.. and thus.. PignateUi Garcia. A.A.. L. (2) The first appearance of G. Acknowledgements The samples for this study were provided by LEMIGAS through Dr. F.. I. and Van Couvering. L. Moreno De Castro. I am very grateful to him for this and for permission from LEMIGAS to publish these results. for which I am grateful.. Correlations are made as follows. J. Espejo Zamorano. 9 (2): 259--288. Espejo Molina. E.. and author's unpublished notes) an assemblage dominated by Thalassionerna nitzschioides in surface sediments was found to be associated with the Peru--Chile current.. L. Quintero Amador. This is Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory Number 3252. nitzschioides dominated assemblage and coastal upwelling in the E1 Cuervo section of southern Spain. A. jouseae in samples 39 to 41 indicate that this level is equivalent to the middle to upper part of the Gilbert. Perconig.A. 1975. (3) The joint occurrence of Th. E. (4) An open ocean environment is indicated while the abundant presence of Th. Martin Garcia. References Baena Perez. Peter Thompson and Sandra Bromble read the manuscript and made many helpful suggestions.. Cabanas Lozano.. Coscinodiscus nodulifer. T.. Schrader (in Berggren et al. Finally. geochronology and paleoclimatology of the last 15 million years . Esp. They provide additional ties to the paleomagnetic reversal records. H. Cuvillier. J.367 for this sample. Leyva Caballero. In previous studies (Cook-Poferl et al.

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