Review for FINAL EXAMFinal Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 11 
Chapter 11Chapter 
Population Population 
the complete collection of the complete collection of 
elements (scores, people, elements (scores, people, 
measurements, etc.) toto bebe studied measurements, etc.) studied 
Sample Sample 
subcollection aa sub collection of elements of elements drawn from aa population drawn from population Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 22 
The Nature of DataThe Nature of Data 
DefinitionsDefinitions 
Quantitative data Quantitative data 
numbers representing counts or numbers representing counts or 
measurements measurements 
Qualitative (attribute) data Qualitative (attribute) data 
nonnumeric data that can bebe separated nonnumeric data that can separated 
into different categories (categorical into different categories (categorical 
data) data) Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 33 
DefinitionsDefinitions 
Discrete  Countable Discrete Countable 
Continuous  Measurements with nono Continuous Measurements with 
gaps gaps Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 44 
Levels of MeasurementLevels ofMeasurement 
Nominal  names only Nominal names only 
Ordinal  names with some order Ordinal names with some order 
Interval  differences but nono ‘‘zero Interval differences but zero’’ 
Ratio  differences and aa ‘‘zero Ratio differences and zero’’ Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 55 
Methods of SamplingMethods of Sampling 
Random Random 
Systematic Systematic 
Convenience Convenience 
Stratified Stratified 
Cluster Cluster Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 66 
Final Review. Triola
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Determine the Definition Values
Determine the Definition Values
for this Frequency Table
for this Frequency Table
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Frequency TablesFrequency Tables 

Regular Freq. Table 
Relative Freq. Table 
Cumulative Freq. Table 

Frequency 
Axial 
Relative 
Axial 
Cumulative 

Axial Load 
Load 
Frequency 
Load 
Frequency 

200 
 209 

0.051 

9 

210 
 219 

0.017 

12 

220 
 229 

0.029 

17 

230 
 239 

0.023 

21 

240 
 249 

0.023 

25 

250 
 259 

0.080 

39 

260 
 269 

0.183 

71 

270 
 279 

0.297 

123 

280 
 289 

0.217 

161 

290 
 299 

0.08 

175 

Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 
99 
Histogram
Histogram
of Axial Load Data
of Axial Load Data
Axial Load (pounds)
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Important DistributionsImportant Distributions 

Normal 

Uniform Skewed Right Skewed Left 
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2727 2828 3838 2323 1515 1111 
3939 
3939 
5757 4444 4646 4646 4545 4141 
5858 
6565 
Final Review. Triola
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1.
1.
Put calculator into statistical mode
Put calculator into statistical mode
2.
2.
Clear previous data
Clear previous data
3.
3.
Enter data (and frequency)
Enter data (and frequency)
4.
4.
Select key(s) that calculate xx
Select key(s) that calculate
Final Review. Triola
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Mean for aa Frequency Table
Mean for
Frequency Table
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aa measure of variation of the scores
measure of variation of the scores
about the mean
about the mean
(average deviation from the mean)
(average deviation from the mean)
Final Review. Triola
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standard deviation squared
standard deviation squared
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Same Means ((xx == 44))
Same Means
Different Standard Deviations
Different Standard Deviations
Estimation of Standard Deviation
Estimation of Standard Deviation
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Rough Estimates of
Rough Estimates of
Usual Sample Values
Usual Sample Values
(mean)  22 (standard deviation) (standard deviation) minimum »» xx  2(s) minimum ‘‘usual value »» (mean) usual’’ value minimum minimum 2(s) 
(mean) ++ 22 (standard deviation) (standard deviation) maximum »» xx ++ 2(s) maximum ‘‘usual value »» (mean) usual’’ value maximum maximum 2(s) 
Final Review. Triola
Final Review.
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Final Review. Triola
Final Review.
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Round toto 22 decimal places
Round
decimal places
Final Review. Triola
Final Review.
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Interpreting ZZ ScoresInterpretingScores 
Unusual
Ordinary
Unusual
Values
Values
Values
 3  2  1 0 1 2 3 
Z 
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Final Review. Triola
Final Review.
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11 
== PP 2525 

22 
== PP 5050 
QQ 33 == PP 7575 
Final Review. Triola
Final Review.
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Basic Rules for
Basic Rules for
Computing Probability
Computing Probability
Rule 1:
Rule
1: Relative Frequency Approximation
Relative Frequency Approximation
Conduct (or observe) anan experiment
Conduct (or observe)
experiment aa large
large
number of times, and count the number of
number of times, and count the number of
times event AA actually occurs, then
times event
actually occurs, then anan
estimate of P(A) isis
estimate of P(A)
number of times AA occurred
^{n}^{u}^{m}^{b}^{e}^{r}
of times
occurred
number of times trial was repeated
number of times trial was repeated
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Basic Rules for
Basic Rules for
Computing Probability
Computing Probability
Rule 2:
Rule
2: Classical approach
Classical approach
(requires equally likely outcomes)
(requires equally likely outcomes)
IfIf aa procedure has nn different simple events,
procedure has
different simple events,
each with anan equal chance of occurring, and
each with
equal chance of occurring, and
event AA can occur inin ss of these ways, then
event
can occur
of these ways, then
==
number of ways AA can occur
number of ways
can occur
number of different
number of different
simple events
simple events
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Rule 11 Rule 
Relative frequency approach Relative frequency approach 
Throwing aa die 100 times and getting Throwing die 100 times and getting 
1515 threes threes 
P(3) == 0.150 P(3) 0.150 
Rule 22 Rule 
Classical approach Classical approach P(3 onon aa die) P(3 die) == 1/6 1/6 == 0.167 0.167 Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 3434 
Probability LimitsProbability Limits 
vv The probability of The probability of anan impossible event isis 0. impossible event 0. 
vv The probability of The probability of anan event that isis certain event that certain 
toto occur occur isis 1. 1. 
00 ££ P(A) _{P}_{(}_{A}_{)} ££ 11 
Impossible Impossible toto occur occur Certain Certain toto occur occur vv AA probability value must probability value must bebe aa number number 
between 00 and 1. between and 1. Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 3535 
Complementary EventsComplementary Events 
The complement of event A, denoted The complement of event A, denoted 
byby A, consists of all outcomes A, consists of all outcomes inin 
which event AA does not occur. which event does not occur. 
P(A)P(A)P(A)P(A)(read ““not (read not AA””)) Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 3636 
vv give the exact fraction or decimal
give the exact fraction or decimal
or
or
vv
round the final result toto
round the final result
three significant digits
three significant digits
P(struck byby lightning last year)
P(struck
lightning last
year) »» 0.00000143
0.00000143
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Not Disjoint Events
Not Disjoint Events
Contingency Table
Contingency Table
Find the probability of randomly selecting one person from this
Find the probability of randomly selecting one person from this
group and getting someone who was robbed or was aa stranger.
group and getting someone who was robbed or was
stranger.
** ** NOT Disjoint Events
NOT Disjoint Events ****
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P(A) and P(A) P(A) and P(A) 
are are 
disjoint events disjoint events 
All simple events are either inin AA or A. All simple events are either or A. 
P(A) ++ P(A) P(A) == 11 P(A) 
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Independent Events
Independent Events
Two events AA and
Two events
and BB are independent ifif the
are independent
the
occurrence of one does not affect the
occurrence of one does not affect the
probability of the occurrence of the other.
probability of the occurrence of the other.
Dependent Events
Dependent Events
IfIf AA and
and BB are not independent, they are
are not independent, they are
said toto bebe dependent.
said
dependent.
Final Review. Triola
Final Review.
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Find the probability of drawing two cards Find the probability of drawing two cards 
from aa shuffled deck of cards such that the from shuffled deck of cards such that the first isis anan Ace and the second isis aa King. first Ace and the second King. (The (The 
cards are drawn without replacement.).) cards are drawn without replacement 
• P(Ace on first card) = 4 52 
• P(King Ace) = 4 
51 
• P(drawing Ace, then a King) = 4 • 4 = 16 
52 51 2652 
= 0.00603 
DEPENDENT EVENTSDEPENDENT EVENTSFinal Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 4545 
PP (good and good)
(good and good) ==
Final Review. Triola
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IfIf small sample isis drawn from large
small sample
drawn from large
population (if nn ££ 5%5% of N), you can
population (if
of N), you can
treat the events asas independent.
treat the events
independent.
Final Review. Triola
Final Review.
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Mean, Variance and Standard Mean, Variance and Standard 

Deviation of aa Probability Deviation of Probability 

Distribution Distribution 

Mean Mean 

µµ == SS xx •• P( P(xx)) 

Variance Variance 

ss ^{2}^{2} == SS[[xx ^{2}^{2} •• P( P(xx)) ]]  µµ ^{2}^{2} 

Standard Deviation Standard Deviation 

ss == Final Review. Triola Final Review. 
SS[[xx ^{2}^{2} •• P( P(xx)) ]]  µµ ^{2}^{2} Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson 
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Mean, Standard Deviation Mean, Standard Deviation 

and Variance of Probability and Variance of Probability 

Distribution Distribution 

x
P(x)
0 .05
1 .10
2 .25
3 .40
4 .15
5 .05
Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson 
µ
= 2.7
s
= 1.2
s
2
= 1.3
rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 5353 

Binomial ExperimentBinomial Experiment 

Definition Definition 

1. 1. The procedure must have aa fixed number of The procedure must have trials. trials. fixed number of 2. 2. The trials must bebe independent The trials must (The (The outcome of any individual trial doesn’’tt outcome of any individual trial doesn affect the probabilities inin the other trials.) affect the probabilities the other trials.) 3. 3. Each trial must have all outcomes Each trial must have all outcomes classified into two categories.. classified into two categories 

4. 4. The probabilities must remain constant for The probabilities must remain constant for each trial. each trial. Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 5454 
For nn == 1515 and For and Table AA11 Table pp == 0.10 0.10 Binomial Probability Distribution _{B}_{i}_{n}_{o}_{m}_{i}_{a}_{l} Probability Distribution 

n x 
P(x) 
x 
P(x) 

15 0 
0.206 
0 
0.206 

1 
0.343 
1 
0.343 

2 
0.267 
2 
0.267 

3 
0.129 
3 
0.129 

4 
0.043 
4 
0.043 

5 
0.010 
5 
0.010 

6 
0.002 
6 
0.002 

7 
0.0+ 

7 
0.000 

8 
0.0+ 
8 
0.000 

9 
0.0+ 
9 
0.000 

10 
0.0+ 
10 
0.000 

11 
0.0+ 
11 
0.000 

12 
0.0+ 
12 
0.000 

13 
0.0+ 
13 
0.000 

14 
0.0+ 
14 
0.000 

15 
0.0+ 
15 
0.000 

Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 
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Binomial Probability
Binomial Probability
Final Review. Triola
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For aa Binomial Distribution:
For
Binomial Distribution:
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Example: USUS Air has 20% of all domestic flights.
Air has 20% of all domestic flights.
What isis considered the ‘‘unusual
unusual’’ number of USUS Air
considered the
number of
Example:
What
Air
crashes out of seven randomly selected crashes?
crashes out of seven randomly selected crashes?
We previously found for this binomial distribution,
We previously found for this binomial distribution,
crashes µµ 1.1 0.8 1.4 3.6 (or 0) ss == 1.1 crashes 2(1.1) ==  0.8 (or 0) crashes  22 ss == 1.4 1.4  2(1.1) 1.4 ++ 2(1.1) 2(1.1) == 3.6 µµ ++ 22 ss == 1.4 µµ == 1.4 crashes 
The usual number of USUS Air crashes out of seven randomly
The usual
number of
Air crashes out of seven randomly
selected crashes should bebe between
selected crashes should
between 0.8
0.8 (or 0) and 3.6.
(or 0) and 3.6.
Four crashes would bebe unusual
Four crashes would
unusual!!
Final Review. Triola
Final Review.
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Final Review. Triola
Final Review.
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Final Review. Triola
Final Review.
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Because the total area under Because the total area under 

the density curve isis equal the density curve equal toto 1, 1, there isis aa correspondence there correspondence 

between area and probability.. between area and probability Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 6464 

DefinitionDefinition 

Standard Normal Distribution Standard Normal Distribution 

aa normal probability distribution that has normal probability distribution that has aa 

mean of 00 and mean of and aa standard deviation of standard deviation of 11,, and the and the total area under itsits density curve isis equal total area under density curve equal toto 1. 1. 1 2 3 3 2 1 0 Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 6565 

NEGATIVE ZZ Scores NEGATIVE Scores Table AA22 Table Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 6666 
Table AA22
Table
Standard Normal Distribution
Standard Normal Distribution
Final Review. Triola
Final Review.
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Table AA22
Table
Standard Normal Distribution
Standard Normal Distribution
scores: cumulative from left
cumulative from left
Positive zzscores:
Positive
Final Review. Triola
Final Review.
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Table AA22
Table
Standard Normal Distribution
Standard Normal Distribution
Final Review. Triola
Final Review.
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Table AA22
Table
Standard Normal Distribution
Standard Normal Distribution
z
Final Review. Triola
Final Review.
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Example:
Example:
IfIf thermometers have anan average (mean)
thermometers have
average (mean)
reading of 00 degrees and aa standard deviation of
reading of
degrees and
standard deviation of 11 degree
degree
for freezing water and ifif one thermometer isis randomly
for freezing water and
one thermometer
randomly
selected, find the probability that itit reads freezing water
selected, find the probability that
reads freezing water isis
94.29% of the thermometers will read freezing water less than 1.5858
94.29% of the thermometers will read freezing water less than 1.
degrees.
degrees.
Final Review. Triola
Final Review.
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Example: Example: thermometer isis randomly selected. AA thermometer randomly selected. Find the probability that itit reads (at the freezing point of Find the probability that reads (at the freezing point of water) between ––2.00 water) between 2.00 and 1.50 degrees. and 1.50 degrees. 
PP
0.9332
0.9332
((zz << 1.50) PP ((––2.00 PP ((zz << ––2.00) 2.00) == 0.0228 0.0228 1.50) == 0.9332 0.9332 2.00 << zz << 1.50) 1.50) == 0.0228 == 0.9104 –– 0.0228 0.9104 
The probability that the chosen thermometer has aa The probability that the chosen thermometer has 
reading between –– 2.00 and 1.50 degrees isis 0.9104. reading between 2.00 and 1.50 degrees 0.9104. Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 7474 
Final Review. Triola
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Converting toto Standard
Converting
Standard
Normal Distribution
Normal Distribution
Figure 661212
Figure
Final Review. Triola
Final Review.
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6.2 6.2
–– 6.3
6.3
Final Review. Triola
Final Review.
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Procedure for Finding Values Procedure for Finding Values 
Using Table AA22 and Formula 6622 Using Table and Formula 
Sketch normal distribution curve, enter the given probability or 
percentage inin the appropriate region of the graph, and identify the percentage the appropriate region of the graph, and identify the xx 
value(s) being sought. value(s) being sought. 
Use Table find the score corresponding the cumulative left area bounded byby xx.. area bounded Refer toto the BODY of Table AA22 toto find the closest Refer the BODY of Table find the closest area, then identify area, then identify the corresponding zz score. the corresponding score.
Using Formula 662, Using Formula enter the values for and the score found 
step 2, then solve for xx.. step 2, then solve for 
xx == µµ ++ ((zz •• ss)) (another form of Formula (another form of Formula 662) 2) (If zz isis located (If located toto the left of the mean, the left of the mean, bebe sure that itit isis aa negati sure that negativeve number.) number.)
Refer the sketch of the curve toto verify that the solution mak verify that the solution makeses sense sense inin the context of the graph and the context of the problem. the context of the graph and the context of the problem. Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 8282 
Find PP _{9}_{8}_{9}_{8} for Hip Find for Hip 
Breadths of Men Breadths of Men 
++ ((zz ?? ss))
== 14.4 (2.05 ·· 1.0) 1.0) 
16.45 

Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 8383 
Table AA2: Table 2: Positive Positive ZZ scores scores Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 8484 
Find PP _{9}_{8}_{9}_{8} for Hip Find for Hip 
Breadths of Men Breadths of Men 
The hip breadth of 16.5 in. separates The hip breadth of 16.5 in. separates 
the lowest 98% from the highest 2%2% the lowest 98% from the highest 
16.5
16.5

Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 8585 
6655 
The Central LimitThe Central Limit 
TheoremTheoremFinal Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 8686 
Central Limit Theorem Central Limit Theorem 
Conclusions: Conclusions: 
1. 1. The distribution of sample means xx will, The distribution of sample means will, asas the sample size increases, approach aa the sample size increases, approach 
normal distribution. normal distribution. 
2. 2. The mean of the sample means will bebe the The mean of the sample means will the population mean µµ.. population mean 3. 3. The standard deviation of the sample means The standard deviation of the sample means will approach s/ will approach s/
nn
..
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Practical Rules Commonly Used:
Practical Rules Commonly Used:
1. 1. For samples of size nn larger than 30, the distribution of
For samples of size
larger than 30, the distribution of
the sample means can bebe approximated reasonably well
the sample means can
approximated reasonably well
byby aa normal distribution. The approximation gets better
normal distribution.
The approximation gets better
the sample size nn becomes larger.
asas the sample size
becomes larger.
2. 2. IfIf the original population
the original population isis itself normally distributed,
itself normally distributed,
then the sample means will bebe normally distributed for
then the sample means will
normally distributed for
any sample size nn (not just the values of
any sample size
(not just the values of nn larger than 30).
larger than 30).
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the mean of the sample means
the mean of the sample means
the standard deviation of sample means
the standard deviation of sample means
(often called standard error of the mean)
(often called standard error of the mean)
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Example: Given Example: Given the population of men has normally the population of men has normally distributed weights with aa mean of 172 lb. and distributed weights with mean of 172 lb. and aa standard standard deviation of 2929 lb, deviation of lb, 
b.) ifif 1212 different men are randomly selected, find the b.) different men are randomly selected, find the 
probability that their mean weight isis greater than 167 lb. probability that their mean weight greater than 167 lb. 
The probability that the The probability that the
..
mean weight of 1212 mean weight of randomly selected men isis randomly selected men greater than 167 lb. isis greater than 167 lb. 0.7257 0.7257 
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Chapter 77 Chapter 
Estimates andEstimates and 
Sample SizesSample SizesFinal Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 9292 
DefinitionDefinition 
Confidence Interval Confidence Interval 
(or Interval Estimate) (or Interval Estimate) 
aa range (or anan interval) of values range (or interval) of values used used toto estimate the true value of the population estimate the true value of the population 
parameter parameter 
Lower ## << population parameter << Upper Lower population parameter Upper ## 
As anan example As example 0.476 0.476 << pp << 0.544 0.544 Final Review. Triola Final Review. Triola,, Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Essentials of Statistics, Third Edition. Copyright 2008. Pea Pearson rson Education, Inc. Education, Inc. 9393 
Confidence Interval for Confidence Interval for 
Population Proportion Population Proportion ˆˆ 
p  E<p<p + E 
where 
E =^{z} a / 2
p q
ˆ ˆ
n

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Notation for ProportionsNotation for Proportions 
_{p} _{=}population proportion 
ˆp =x _{n} sample proportion 
