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Dyslexia: Advanced Intervention

Submitted by:
CARNALAN, Nadazhda Nikita E.
PSY21
BIOL124
Submitted to:
Prof. Ronaldo Lagat

Is dyslexia or learning disability a real syndrome that can be identified and remediated, or is it
simply a label for people who cannot read well for a host of sociological reasons?
Definition:
Dyslexia describes a condition first mentioned in English around the turn of the century
(Morgan, 1896) and (Hinshelwood, 1900). Since then the characteristics, causes, and nature of
the disability have been discussed by scores of investigators. However, a great deal of
disagreement persists among educators, psychologists, clinicians, and physicians, as well as the
general public (Parker, 2012). The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to present a short overview
of what is known and not known about dyslexia. Dyslexia is a chronic problem with reading. It is
a common learning difficulty, affecting a large percentage of those identified as "learning
disabled." People with a learning difference like dyslexia may have trouble with reading, writing,
spelling, math, and sometimes, music. Three times as many boys as girls have dyslexia. Dyslexia
is the most prevalent reading disability that affects two to 20 percent of the population (Spafford,
2005 ) and learning to live with it is an uphill struggle.
Managing Dyslexia:
Dyslexia has no cure, but dyslexic individuals can adjust and succeed with the right educational
support and accommodations. For instance, experts often recommend audiobooks for students
(Reiff MI, 2011), as they are recognized for their effectiveness in improving comprehension,
reducing the stress of studying, and helping children regain their confidence in the classroom.

While dyslexia is a lifelong problem, there is a range of specialist educational interventions that
can help children with their reading and writing. These interventions are generally most effective
if they're started at a young age. The type and extent of intervention necessary will depend on the
severity of your child's difficulties. A specific action plan for your child may be drawn up and
implemented by their school. Most mainstream schools should be able to offer suitable
interventions for your child, although a small number of children may benefit from attending a
specialist school.
Educational interventions for young children:
A number of educational interventions and programs are available for children with dyslexia.
These can range from regular teaching in small groups with a learning support assistant who
delivers work set by teaching staff, to one-to-one lessons with a specialist teacher.
Most interventions focus on "phonological skills", which is the ability to identify and process
word sounds (N/A, 2015). These interventions are often referred to as "phonics".
Phonics interventions can involve teaching a child to:
1. Recognize and identify sounds in spoken words for example, helping them recognize
that even short words such as "hat" are actually made up of three sounds: "h", "a" and "t"
2. Combine letters to create words, and over time, to use the words to create more complex
sentences
3. Practice reading words accurately, to help them read more quickly
4. Monitor their own understanding while they read for example, by encouraging them to
ask questions if they notice gaps in their understanding
These interventions should ideally be delivered in a highly structured way, with development in
small steps, and should involve regular practice.
It can also help if your child is taught in a "multisensory" way, where they use several senses at
the same time. An example of multisensory teaching is where a child is taught to see the letter
"a", say its name and sound, and write it in the air, all at the same time (N/A, 2015).

Technology for older children


Many older children with dyslexia feel more comfortable working with a computer than an
exercise book (N/A, 2015). This may be because a computer uses a visual environment that
better suits their method of learning and working.
Word processing programs can also be useful because they have a spellchecker and an autocorrect facility that can highlight mistakes in your child's writing. Interactive computer
applications like Learning Ladder, Make Sentences, and Sight Words will greatly help the older
children with Dyslexia. These applications helps through providing exciting reading and writing
activities.
Most web browsers and word processing software also have "text-to-speech" functions, where
the computer reads the text as it appears on the screen. Speech recognition software can also be
used to translate what a person is saying into written text. This software can be useful for
children with dyslexia because their verbal skills are often better than their writing.
There are so many educational interactive software applications that may provide your child with
a more engaging way of learning a subject, rather than simply reading from a textbook.
Adults
Much of the advice and techniques used to help children with dyslexia are also relevant for
adults. Making use of technology, such as word processors and electronic organizers, can help
with your writing and to organize daily activities.
Using a multi-sensory approach to learning can also be helpful. For example, you could use a
digital recorder to record a lecture (Noble KG, 2005), and then listen to it as you read your notes.
It can also be useful to break large tasks and activities down into smaller steps.
If you need to draw up a plan or make notes about a certain topic, it is useful to create a 'mind
map', rather than writing a list. Mind maps are diagrams that use images and keywords to create
a visual representation of a subject or plan. (Jose, 2012)

Conclusion:
Dyslexia has no correlation to intelligence. By investing in early detection, children with
dyslexia can learn strategies to help them read more effectively. But millions of children have
undiagnosed dyslexia, and millions more do not receive effective educational assistance at their
schools. The children and even the adults that experiences this disability can be saved from the
agony and embarrassment by receiving the right amount of attention and dedication from their
loved ones and mentors. Yes it cannot be cured but it can be treated. The term "cure" means that,
after certain medical processes, the patient no longer has that particular condition anymore.
Some diseases can be cured. Others, like hepatitis B, have no cure. The person will always have
the condition, but medical treatments can help to manage the disease. With the advancement of
our technology nowadays, solutions to incurable diseases and disabilities are entitled to wide
range of treatment choices. It only takes some research and understanding of the medical
situation to be able to find the right cure and/or treatment.

Bibliography:
Hinshelwood, D. J. (1900). Developmental Dyslexia. Thentieth Century Neurology: The British
Contribution.
Jose, A. E. (2012). Linguistic Experiences of Adult Dyslexic Learners.
Morgan, W. P. (1896). Congenital Word Blindness. British Medical Journal.
N/A. (2015, September 9). NHS Choices. Retrieved from NHS choices: Your health, your
choices: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Dyslexia/Pages/Treatment.aspx
Noble KG, M. B. (2005). Reading development and impairment: Behavioral, social, and
neurobiological factors . Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics,, 370-378.
Parker, F. (2012). Dyslexia: An Overview. Developmental Dyslexia, 1-3,.
Reiff MI, S. M. (2011). Learning problems. Rudolph's Pediatrics, pp. 327-331.
Spafford, C. A. (2005 ). Dyslexia and reading difficulties . Research and resource guide for
working with all struggling readers.